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  • You probably know Bill Gates as the founder of Microsoft, 你們知道比爾蓋茨是微軟創辦人

  • the hard-driving tech executive 擁有驚人魄力的科技公司高層人員

  • whose software fueled the personal computer revolution. 他開發的軟件激起個人電腦革命

  • You might also know him as the longtime richest man in the world 你們亦知道,這名多年世界首富

  • who left Microsoft five years ago 五年前離開微軟

  • so he could work fulltime, giving his money away. 讓自己可以全職派錢

  • We had the chance to witness Bill Gates 2.0- 我們有機會目睹比爾蓋茨2.0行動

  • the man you don't know. 他不為人知的一面

  • He is driven, as much as anyone we have ever met, 他可與我們見過的人媲美

  • to make the world a better place. 渴望改變世界

  • Gates told us why he thinks inventions 蓋茨向我們講解,他為何認為...

  • are the key to success, 科技是成功關鍵

  • and just what he intends to accomplish with his time, intellect 以及打算怎樣運用他的時間、知識

  • and sixty-seven-billion-dollar fortune, 和670億美元財富

  • starting with his plans to knock out some of the worlds deadliest diseases. 第一步是消滅世上最可怕的疾病

  • You're going to spend the next twenty years of your life trying to eradicate disease. 你打算用20年時間消滅疾病

  • - Yes? - Yep. 對嗎? 對

  • That's your mission? 這是你的使命?

  • That'll be the-- the majority of my time. 會佔用我大部分時間

  • Starting with polio? 從小兒麻痺症開始?

  • Get it done by 2018. 2018年之前要達到目標

  • Tuberculosis? 肺結核

  • Take probably six or seven years. 大約需要六、七年

  • Malaria? 瘧疾

  • Malaria's the one that the tools are being invented now- 對付瘧疾的工具已研發出來

  • fifteen and perhaps even twenty years- 大約需要15至20年才能完全消失

  • but start to really shrink that map. 但已開始見成效

  • These are the people Gates wants to help. 這些就是蓋茨要幫的人

  • They are what he calls the bottom two billion- 稱之為最貧窮的20億人

  • a third of the world's population that struggles on less than two dollars a day. 全球人口1/3,每天只有2美元可用

  • They are poor, hungry, lack electricity and clean water. 又窮又餓,缺電缺乾淨食水

  • Gates' most urgent goal: 蓋茨最迫使的目標

  • help the millions of children under five who die every year, 是每年救數百萬名5歲以下兒童

  • one every twenty seconds from preventable diseases. 預防疾病,否則每20秒有一個死去

  • No one alive that I know of has said 我所認識的活人當中,沒有一個說

  • my goal is to eradicate a disease and then another disease and then another disease. 我的目標是要將疾病一個一個消滅

  • This is somebody that dreams high. 這必出自一個抱負遠大的人

  • Yeah, because I'm-- I'm excited about that. And-- and it's-- it's doable. 對,我為此而興奮,而且事有可為

  • Today, Gates spends most of his time here, 現時,蓋茨大部分時間在這裡度過

  • at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle. 位於西雅圖的蓋茨夫婦基金

  • He runs it with his father, Bill Senior and his wife, Melinda, 與父親比爾、妻子美琳達一同打理

  • whom he credits with being a driving force behind the foundation. 他形容他們是基金背後的驅動力

  • There are over eleven hundred employees to help them decide 超過1100名員工協助他們決定

  • which programs to fund, 斥資扶助哪些計畫

  • but Gates still visits sites around the world 但蓋茨仍會到世界各地去

  • to see what's working and what's not. 視察計畫成效

  • I welcome Bill Gates to our school. 歡迎蓋茨來到我們的學校

  • The government of Ghana and all school-aged children 加納政府及所有學齡兒童

  • are grateful for your support. 感謝你的支持

  • Very well done. Great to be here. 很好,很高興來到這兒

  • The grants here go towards school nutrition-- 資金用來提供學童膳食

  • This is spinach. 這是菠菜

  • --Improving agriculture-- 改善農業

  • We don't have enough water in the river. 河流不夠水

  • --And, most important to Gates, life-saving vaccines. 和蓋茨最重視的研發救命疫苗

  • Okay. 好

  • Well, whenever you see a mother bringing a sick child into a facility, 每當你看到有媽媽帶病童來診所

  • it's easy to relate to, what if that was my child? 你一定會想若是我孩子我會怎樣

  • You realize, how crazy it is that with the world being rich enough 世界很荒謬,現時人們這麼富裕

  • to afford all sorts of frivolous things, 肆意揮霍

  • that those basic things still aren't-- aren't being provided. 但最基本的需要竟然不能滿足

  • But providing vaccines throughout the developing world 但提供疫苗給發展中國家

  • is no simple task. 殊非易事

  • So Gates has set up his foundation to run like Microsoft. 於是蓋茨用微軟的方式打理基金會

  • He insists on strict accounting 堅持帳目一定要清晰

  • and, when a problem arises, he pulls in the best people to find solutions. 一旦遇上難題,就找有能之士解決

  • We saw a good example of that when it comes to vaccines. 研發疫苗就是最佳例子

  • To be effective, they need to be kept cold. 疫苗一定要保持冷凍才有效

  • So this is using electricity? 這個用電操作?

  • But that's tough in hard to reach areas 但在冷藏庫短缺和經常壞的地方

  • where refrigerators are rare and unreliable. 這幾乎是天方夜譚

  • So back in Seattle, Gates turned to scientists at a company 於是蓋茨找西雅圖一公司的科學家

  • called Intellectual Ventures, 公司名叫高智發明

  • where he is both an investor and an inventor. 他是公司投資者及發明家

  • They created a super thermos using the same technology 他們研發出一個超能保溫庫

  • that protects spacecraft from extreme heat. 所運用的是太空船防高溫科技

  • Using only a single batch of ice, 只用一袋冰

  • it can keep vaccines cold for fifty days. 疫苗就能冷藏50天

  • - So here is the thermos? - That's right. 這個就是保溫庫 對

  • This holds vaccines for over two hundred children. 它能收藏疫苗供200多名兒童使用

  • And it doesn't require any battery, any energy. 無需用電池和能源

  • Its walls have been designed to be such a good thermos 庫壁經過特別設計

  • that even in very, very hot days, 即使天氣非常、非常炎熱

  • inside it will stay cold enough to make the vaccines work. 裡面依然冰冷,以保疫苗效用

  • And when you want to take them out, you just go in here, 若要取出來,只消伸手進去

  • - and there-- - There they are. 然後... 取出來

  • - --there's a whole tray of the vaccines. - Yeah. 取出一批疫苗 對

  • You take them out. 取出來

  • It records everything you've done with it, the temperature. 它具記憶功能,能夠恆溫

  • So it's a replacement for all those refrigerators that have been so unreliable. 可以取代容易壞的冷藏庫

  • - I mean, just look at this thing. - Yeah. 看這東西 對

  • When we take it out in the field, people go, oh, that's amazing. 我們帶出去室外,人人嘖嘖稱奇

  • - Yeah. - You can't do that. 是 這是不可能的

  • No matter how perfect the vaccine, 疫苗再好

  • if you can't get it to the people who need it, it ain't doing no good. 若不能帶給人群,便沒有用

  • That's right. 對

  • And now, you know, we need to get it to every child in the world. 現在需要將它帶給所有兒童

  • Gates is betting technology will solve other age old problems like sanitation. 蓋茨相信科技能解決衛生等老問題

  • Two and a half billion people around the world do not have adequate toilets. 全球25億人沒有足夠的廁所

  • That means streams and rivers get clogged with debris and human waste- 因此河川溪流裡滿是廢物便溺

  • becoming breeding grounds for disease. 成為疾病溫床

  • The toilet is one of those things that's like a vaccine, where it- 廁所就如疫苗一樣

  • it really would change the-- the situation. 能夠改善民生

  • So Gates launched a global competition: 於是蓋茨舉辦全球設計比賽

  • design a toilet that works without plumbing. 要求參加者設計無須抽水的馬桶

  • We had over twenty entrant. We gave four top prizes. 超過20人參賽,設4個獎

  • Some of them used burning. Some of them used a laser approach. 有人提議燃燒法,有人提議用激光

  • There-- there were quite a few novel ideas of how you reinvent the toilet. 都是具創意的革新廁所設計

  • And so this was one of the prototype designs 這是其中一個原型

  • of what a good-looking new toilet would look like. 新式別緻的廁所將會是這樣子

  • It actually processes everything down in here, and then recycles water. 底部處理廢物,水可以循環再用

  • Over the next four or five years, we think we can have a toilet 四、五年後的廁所

  • that's every bit as good as the flush toilet. 功能可以媲美抽水馬桶

  • You can learn a lot about what motivates Bill Gates 拜訪過蓋茨的私人辦公室

  • by visiting his private office. 你會找到推動他的力量何來

  • He showed us why he draws inspiration 他向我們講解為何會從意大利天才

  • from the Italian genius Leonardo da Vinci. 達文西那裡得到啟發

  • In 1994, Gates bought da Vinci's five-hundred-year-old notebook. 蓋茨94年買了達文西500年前筆記

  • He had an understanding of science that was more advanced than anybody of the time. 他的科學知識超越當時所有人

  • The notebook we have here is one where he's thinking about water. 這是他思考水的問題

  • And he's looking at how it flows when it hits barriers, 研究水遇到障礙物時怎樣流動

  • and it goes around, comes back together. 水繞過去,再流回來

  • He's actually trying to understand turbulence. 他想理解漩渦的概念

  • You know, how should you build a dam, how, you know, does it erode away? 怎樣興建水壩,水怎樣侵蝕

  • It cost thirty million dollars at auction- 筆記本用3000萬美元投得

  • making it the most valuable manuscript in the world. 是世上最有價值手稿

  • For Gates, it is priceless. 它在蓋茨心目中是無價的

  • It's an inspiration that one person off on their own, 他能激勵我,他孤軍作戰

  • with no positive feedback, nobody ever told him-- 得不到正面回應,沒有人對他說...

  • Yeah, right. 對

  • --You know, what was right or wrong. 他的想法對還是錯

  • That he kept pushing himself, you know, 但他不斷鞭策自己

  • found knowledge in itself to be a beautiful thing. 他發現知識本身是美麗的

  • Gates scoffs at any comparison to the great Leonardo, 蓋茨說自己不能與達文西相比

  • but a look around his private office reveals a man 但環顧他的辦公室可以發現到

  • equally obsessed with understanding his world. 他同樣沉迷於了解周遭世界

  • - Can I look at these? - Sure. 我可以看看嗎? 可以

  • - This is the weather one, meteorology. - Yeah. 這是氣象學 對

  • My very first course that I watched was this geology course. 我首先看的是地質學

  • This is a whole series on the joy of science; 這是整全的科學課程

  • Mathematics, Philosophy and the Real World." 數學、哲學與真實世界

  • Gates' collection of DVDs contains hundreds of hours of college lectures 蓋茨收藏了數百隻大學講課DVD

  • that this famous Harvard drop-out has watched. 當年輟學哈佛的他,如今醉心求知

  • The more you learn, 你越學習

  • the more you have a framework that the knowledge fits into. 越能將知識放在一個梗概中

  • When he's on the road, 每次出門

  • Gates--who's a speed-reader- 讀書速度極高的蓋茨

  • lugs around what he calls his reading bag. 總帶著他的「閱讀包包」

  • When he finishes a book, he posts his thoughts on his website: 每讀完一本書,便在個人網站寫

  • Gates Notes. 蓋茨筆記

  • What I'll do is, I'm-- I'm reading these books. 我這樣做...我讀許多書

  • - Oh, look at that. - I'll take notes. 看 我會做筆記

  • - Oh, these are your notes already? - Right. 這是你的筆記? 對

  • Look at this. 看

  • I love to take notes on book. 我喜愛寫閱讀筆記

  • So I just haven't written it up yet. 我還沒寫上網

  • How long will it take to read all of this? 讀完這些書需要多久?

  • Oh, a long time. 許久

  • - Thank goodness for vacations. - Yeah. 還好可以放假 對

  • I read a lot. 我讀許多書

  • But Gates isn't just reading books for pleasure. 但蓋茨讀書並非為消閑

  • He is determined to use his knowledge to back groundbreaking innovations. 他決意用知識來支持曠世發明

  • Take this high-tech zapper. 就以高科技激光槍為例

  • It is a laser designed to shoot down malaria-infected mosquitoes in mid-flight. 用來殺飛行中瘧疾蚊的激光槍

  • And Gates showed us one of his boldest, and he says, most important ventures- 蓋茨展示他最大膽、最重要的設計

  • a new kind of nuclear reactor. 新式核反應堆

  • It would burn depleted uranium, making it cleaner, safer 它燃燒貧化鈾,比現時的反應堆

  • and cheaper than today's reactors. 乾淨、安全和便宜

  • And your fuel will last for sixty years. 燃料可以有效60年

  • So during that entire time, you don't need to open it up, refuel it. 期間不需要打開補充燃料

  • You don't need to buy more fuel. 不需要買更多燃料

  • So there's a certain simplicity that comes with this design. 這設計非常簡單

  • And when could it come on stream? 幾時可以面世?

  • Best case would be to have a prototype around 2022. 最理想是2022年左右製成原型

  • Bill Gates calls himself an impatient optimist- 蓋茨說他是缺乏耐性的樂觀主義者

  • a description his wife Melinda says 妻子美琳達說

  • was accurate even when they met over twenty years ago. 20年前相識時他已是這模樣

  • Melinda, what did you like about him? 美琳達,你當時喜歡他甚麼?

  • Just his curiosity and his optimism about life 他的好奇心和樂觀的做人態度

  • and this belief that, you know, that you can change things. 並相信能改變世界

  • I mean he believed that clearly in Microsoft. 他懷著這信念成立微軟

  • He was changing the world with software and he knew it. 它的軟件改變世界,他是知道的

  • Is the curiosity a shared curiosity, or are there different curiosities? 你們的好奇對象相不相同?

  • Well, we both have curiosity for lots of things. 我們都對許多事物好奇

  • Bill, at this stage in our life, also gets more time to read than I do, 他來到這階段,閱讀時間比我多

  • quite honestly, with three kids in the house. 坦白說,我有三個孩子要照顧

  • Yeah. 對

  • But the great thing is Bill will go read an entire book about fertilizer. 比爾妙在會讀一本關於肥田料的書

  • And I can tell you even without three kids in the house, 即使不用照顧三名子女

  • I'm not going to read a book about fertilizer. 我也不會讀關於肥田料的書

  • Yeah. 對

  • But he loves to teach. 但他熱愛教導

  • And so as long as I have time, we'll spend time talking about that. 只要有時間,我們就會傾談

  • So what is it about a book about fertilizer? I mean seriously? 講肥田料的書究竟有何吸引之處?

  • Well, fertilizers are very interesting. We wouldn't- 肥田料非常有趣

  • we couldn't feed a few peop-- billion people would have to die 如果我們沒有發明肥田料

  • if we hadn't come up with fertilizer. 十億人就會死去

  • How do you find a balance in all this- 你怎樣平衡一切

  • father, chairman of a major company, 你是父親、大公司主席

  • a foundation, and then all these other ventures? 基金及所有其他企業主席

  • How does the balance come to you? 你怎樣平衡一切?

  • I don't mow the lawn. 我不刈草

  • - You found somebody to do that? - Absolutely. 找其他人來做 對

  • He has come a long way from that teenage prodigy obsessed with 昔日沉迷於編寫電腦密碼的少年

  • writing computer code. 走了許多的路

  • Over nearly four decades we've watched Bill Gates help lead the digital revolution 近40年我們目睹蓋茨革新數碼世界

  • with what he now admits was a fanatic and relentless determination. 他說只靠一腔狂熱和無止境的決心

  • You guys never understood, you never understood the first thing about this. 你們完全搞不懂,完全搞不懂

  • I'm not using this thing. 我不會用這東西

  • In the early years, there was a demanding guy, there was a driven guy, 你早期要求極高,魄力驚人

  • there was an obsessed guy. There was, some say, an arrogant guy. 極度沉迷,有人形容你夜郎自大

  • Have you changed? 你有改變嗎?

  • I'm certainly learned. 我學懂了不少

  • When I make a mistake, you know, and my thinking is sloppy, 每當我犯錯,思維一塌糊塗

  • I like to be very hard on myself Like, that is so stupid. 我會看不起自己,罵自己笨

  • How could you not see how those pieces fit together? 怎可能看不出箇中破綻?

  • And that way that you're, you know, very disciplined yourself, 這樣,你就會相當自我克制

  • and careful about your thinking, 慎思明辨

  • you don't want it to extend out to 千萬不要...

  • when other people may not get something quite as quickly. 因為其他人沒明白得那麼快

  • It's like, you know, how come you don't-- don't get this thing? 而看不起人家

  • Has he mellowed at all? 他有沒有變柔和了?

  • I-- I hope any of us in life mature, right? We all mature. 希望我們都成熟了,我們都成熟

  • But look, I wouldn't have married Bill if there wasn't a huge heart. 但若非他心懷若谷,我就不會嫁他

  • With all of the adjectives you just used about how he drove his career, 剛才你提出他事業成功的原因

  • which was very successful for Microsoft, 微軟非常成功

  • there was an enormous heart always there. 他一直是個心懷若谷的人

  • No question Gates has softened with age. 隨年漸長,蓋茨也變得柔和了

  • Just listen to how he reflected on his often tumultuous relationship 且聽他怎樣形容向來各不相讓

  • with the late Apple CEO Steve Jobs. 已故蘋果主席喬布斯與他的關係

  • He and I-- in a sense, grew up together. 我和他一同成長

  • We were within a year of the same age. 我們同年出生

  • And, you know, we were kind of naively optimistic and built big companies. 我們都樂觀得單純,建立起大公司

  • We achieved all of it. 成就非凡

  • And most of it as rivals. 雖然大部分時間在競爭

  • But we always retained a certain respect, communication, 但我們一直惺惺相惜,保持溝通

  • including even when he was sick. 在他病重期間亦然

  • I got to go down and-- and spend time with him. 我去他家找他

  • And talked about what? 你們談些甚麼?

  • About what we'd learned, 我們學到的東西

  • about families, anything. 關於家庭等等

  • Today Gates says he gets advice on patience and generosity 蓋茨說,現時他耐性和慷慨的榜樣

  • from his friend Warren Buffett-- 是他的朋友巴菲特

  • who seven years ago entrusted the majority of his fortune 巴氏七年前將大部分財富

  • to the Gates Foundation. 交給蓋茨基金打理

  • And from his father Bill Senior, 還有他父親比爾

  • a lawyer who prodded his son into giving his money away. 他是一名律師,鼓勵兒子捐出財產