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we've all seen how the products we use can change our behaviors and in particular, these personal technologies like our iPhones.
Email, twitter, Snapchat whats app All these products that change our daily behavior, they keep us checking again and again and again.
How do these products do it?
These products are masters of habit, these behaviors that we d'oh with little or no conscious thought.
Turns out that about 40% of what you do day in and day out, whether you like it or not, is done purely out of habit.
I'd like to share with you a design pattern that companies use to build habit forming products.
It's a technique that I've learned in my years in the advertising in gaming space, and it's what I teach at the design school at Stanford University.
It's called the Hook.
The Hook is an experience designed to connect the user's problem to the company's product with enough frequency to form a habit.
Now these hooks start with a trigger.
A trigger tells us what to do next.
It could be some piece of information like Play this or click here.
Now we see these external triggers all the time right there in our environment, in our day to day life.
But what we don't consider enough, and what turns out to be absolutely critical to forming these long term habits is creating an association with what's called an internal trigger.
Internal triggers are things that tell us what to do next, but where the information for what to do is stored as a memory inside the user's head.
So what we do when we're in a particular place, a certain situation, partaking in a particular routine or experience certain emotions dictates what we do next.
Now the most frequent internal triggers are not just any emotion.
They are, in fact, negative emotions.
So what we do when we're feeling lonesome or bored or lost or dissatisfied or lonely?
What we do when we experience these negative emotions prompts us to action dictates what we do next with little or no conscious thought.
In fact, a recent study found that people suffering from depression check email more.
I think I just saw 123 people put away their fur.
Well, what does this mean?
Why is this happening?
Well, it turns out that people suffering from depression experience what psychologists call negative Vaillant states, they feel down more frequently than the rest of the population.
And what are they doing to boost their mood To get out of that negative Vaillant state, They're going online.
They're checking their devices more often than the rest of the population.
But of course, we all do this to some degree, don't we?
Where do we go when we're feeling lonely?
What APPA website do we check?
Facebook, of course.
What about when we're unsure about something before we scan our brain to see if we know the answer?
Were Googling it?
And what about when we're feeling bored?
Well, that's when people go on to YouTube or Reddit.
Check stock prices, sports scores, the front page news.
Lots of these solutions for this painful internal trigger of boredom.
So after the internal trigger cues us to action, next comes the action phase, defined as the simplest behavior done in anticipation of a reward.
It's something as simple as a scroll on Pinterest or a quick search on Google, or what could be easier than pushing the play button on YouTube.
Turns out there's actually a formula to help us predict the likelihood of these behaviors comes to us from a researcher at Stanford by the name of B.
J.
Fogg, who tells us that for any behavior be we require three things.
Sufficient motivation, sufficient ability and a trigger must be present so we can plot these three elements on this graph motivation on the why access ability on the X.
So if something is very easy to do it on the far right, if something is difficult to do it on the far left, and when we cross that red threshold and the trigger is present, the behavior occurs every single time online offline, your behavior, your spouse or kids behavior, your customer or users.
Behavior always requires thes three basic elements of motivation, ability and triggers.
And what we see happening today is that companies building habit forming technologies are pushing that ability curve as far to the right as possible because what they know is that the easier behavior is to do, the more likely we are to do it.
And next comes the reward.
Now, when we talk about rewards, we have to talk about the brain and in particular an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens.
Now what's so interesting about the nucleus accumbens is that it becomes most active in anticipation of a reward.
But when we actually get the thing we want the thing that's finally gonna make us happy and make us feel good, that's when the nucleus accumbens becomes less active.
So the way the brain gets us to act is by stimulating this itch that we seek to scratch.
And it turns out that there is a way to supercharge that itch.
Does anybody want to know how to manufacture desire?
I'm doing it to you right now because the unknown is fascinating.
So when I took that long pause and I asked you a question and I didn't say anything, some of you forget thought, What's gonna happen next?
And I forget my lines.
What's gonna happen?
And it turns out that that bit of the unknown the bit of mystery causes us to increase focus and engage.
And so in all sorts of products that you find most habit forming, most engaging.
Think about the products that capture your attention and won't let go.
You will find one or more of these three types of variable rewards rewards of the tribe.
Rewards of the hunt and rewards of the self rewards of the tribe are things that feel good that have this element of variability and come from other people.
Good example.
I can think of online as social media.
So when I open up the Facebook app, I'm not quite sure what photos I might see or what the comments might say or how many likes.
Did I get high degree of social variability?
Next comes the rewards of the hunt.
Now, when I talk about rewards of the hunt, people often think about slot machines.
I think about gambling where, of course, the variability comes from what you might win when you play these games of chance.
But it turns out we find the exact same psychology online.
Consider the feed.
Have you wondered why so many products today online Have this feed mechanism?
Take a look at Twitter's timeline.
For example, If I open up Twitter, maybe the first tweets not that interesting.
Maybe the second tweets Not that anything, but maybe the third or fourth is interesting.
And what do I have to dio to Seymour of that interesting content while I have to do is to keep scrolling and scrolling.
And that's scrolling.
Used the exact same psychology as pulling on a slot machine, variable rewards of the hunt and finally, variable rewards of the self variable rewards of the self Are things that feel good that have this element of variability but don't come from other people and aren't about thes information or material rewards.
Thes air things that are intrinsically pleasurable, the search from mastery, consistency, competency and control.
So when we're playing games online, for example, Candy, crush, angry birds, any of these games I'm not playing with other people.
I'm not necessarily even winning anything in terms of material rewards.
But there's something fun and engaging about getting to the next level, the next accomplishment.
And I know I know.
Some people say to me, Look, I don't play these games.
I'm not much of a gamer.
This This doesn't really apply to me, but if you're anything like me, I bet you're playing this game every day.
Checking those unready messages, finishing the two DUIs on your to do list or the thing that always gets me is opening up that one app so I can clear it away on my home screen are all examples of variable rewards of the self, the search for mastery, consistency, competency and control.
Finally, the last step of the hook is the investment phase.
The investment face is where the user does something to increase the likelihood of their next pass through the hook.
One way that investments increase the likelihood of the next past is by storing value.
Now storing value is a really big deal, because when it comes to the physical products that we use in our day to day lives, think about these chairs, your clothing.
Everything in the physical world loses value with wear and tear.
They depreciate, but habit forming products should do the opposite.
They should appreciate in value, and they do this because of this principle of stored value.
So the more content I put into my Google drive, the more date I give thio mint dot com or any number of other service is the more followers I accrue, the more my reputation improves on sites like up work or eBay or Airbnb, the better the product becomes to me and how likely might believe one of these products.
Air service is after I've stored all this value in the platform, the product suddenly becomes kind of sticky.
It's hard to leave.
Which brings me to this cold, hard conclusion.
Then, when it comes to many of the products and service is that we use, there is no rule that says the best product wins.
In fact, it's the product that conform the mind monopoly, the one that can create the habit that captures the market because it's through successive cycles through these hooks trigger action reward investment, that customer preferences are shaped, that our tastes are formed and that these habits take hold.
So now that we know how these products hook us, what do we do with this information?
Well, too many of us, these products seem frivolous.
And maybe these companies tactics seem manipulative.
I think we're all going to have to figure out which of these products serve us and which hurt us.
But when I look at these products and service is, I asked myself, What can we learn?
Because the real problem here is not that a few companies have mastered habit forming product design.
The real problem is that too many products and service is out there are not engaging enough.
I think about the products that you're forced to use every day at work or it's school.
Consider the state of the art products that we have to use to interact with Our government service is, or even with the companies that we depend upon these products and service is they don't suck us in.
Not in the way that Facebook or iPhone might know these products is plain old suck.
So I think that we could do much, much better because what makes these products so engaging also makes them better.
There is an entire world of products out there that failed to engage us because the product makers don't understand the psychology of good product design.
But there are some products out there leading the way.
I've had the pleasure of working with and investing in many companies that are using hooks for good, and I'm particularly excited about these companies that can use hooks to help people in need.
Ah, veteran suffering from PTSD or ah, parent of a child with a disability or someone suffering from depression can use an app like this one to connect with a counselor any time and for free.
The hook is simple.
The trigger is feeling down.
The action is simply opening the app.
The variable reward of the tribe is connecting with a counselor and the investment.
And here's where it gets really interesting is learning to become a counselor.
Listener yourself, this one app and there are many others like it.
Service is, ah 130,000 sessions per week in 100 and 80 countries in 140 languages by forming this habit of not only connecting people but helping them get better themselves by helping others, you see, I think we can use habit forming technology to help people live happier, healthier, more connected, more productive lives.
Truly, we can use habits for good, Thank you very much.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

What makes some technology so habit-forming? | Nir Eyal | TED Institute

林宜悉 2020 年 3 月 20 日 に公開
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