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  • of the video.

    1806年 クリスマスの1週間前

  • One week before Christmas, 1806, French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in the Polish city

    ナポレオンは プロイセン領ポーランドの ワルシャワに入った

  • of Warsaw, then part of Prussia.


  • A year had passed since his great victory over the Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz,

    そしてイエナでプロイセン軍を破った 2ヶ月後のことであった

  • and two months since he’d hammered the Prussians at Jena.


  • But Russia still had powerful forces in the field, the most important of which was the


  • Russian First Army, commanded by General Bennigsen.

    これを撃破してロシアとプロイセンとの講和に 持ち込まなければ欧州の覇者にはなれない

  • Napoleon would not be master of Europe until it was defeated, and Russia and Prussia forced

    しかし冬の中、プトゥスクでロシア軍を陥れる ナポレオンの計画はポーランドの泥で頓挫した

  • to make peace.


  • But that winter, Napoleon’s first attempt to trap Bennigsen near Pułtusk got bogged


  • down in thick Polish mud.

    ナポレオンはワルシャワでポーランド貴族の娘 マリア・ヴァレフスカと出会う

  • The Russians withdrew to Białystok. The French army, half-starved and frozen, was ordered

    18世紀後半 大国ポーランド・リトアニア共和国は ロシア、オーストリア、プロイセンに吸収された

  • into winter quarters.


  • while in Warsaw, Napoleon began a famous affair with a young Polish noblewoman, Marie

    1795年 三度目の分割でポーランドは地図上から消えた

  • Walewska.

    ポーランドの愛国者達は ナポレオンへの協力が 祖国復興につながると考えた

  • In the late 18th century, the once mighty Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had been swallowed

    マリア・ヴァレフスカがナポレオンの 愛人となったのはその一環であった

  • up by its neighboursRussia, Austria, and Prussia - in a series of annexations known

    しかし一般のフランス将兵は ポーランドに魅力を感じなかった

  • aspartitions’… until in 1795, a third and final partition wiped Poland off the map.

    貧しい 寒い 故郷が遠い

  • Now Polish patriots looked to Napoleon as their saviourpraying that his victories

    脱走兵が急増し 自殺も百件近く発生した

  • against their occupiers would lead to the rebirth of a Polish state.

    第Ⅵ軍団ネイ元帥は 良好な冬営地確保のため 斥候をハイルスベルク方面に送った

  • Marie Walewska became Napoleon’s mistress in order to further this cause.


  • Ordinary French soldiers, however, had little love for Polandit was impoverished, freezing,


  • and they missed home.


  • Desertion rates soared. There were even a hundred cases of suicide.

    ネイとベルナドットに撤退命令を出して ベニグセンを西におびき寄せる

  • Marshal Ney, commanding Sixth Corps, sent patrols towards Heilsberg, looking for better


  • quarters.

    しかし ベルナドット宛の命令文を運んでいた 使者がロシア軍に捕らえられた

  • What they found were Russian and Prussian soldiers on the movethey’d stumbled

    罠の存在を知ったベニグセンは 追撃するフランス軍と戦いつつ撤退を始めた

  • into a surprise winter attack by Bennigsen.

    しかし ケーニヒスベルクを明け渡すつもりはなかった

  • Napoleon quickly laid a trap for the Russian army, ordering Ney and Bernadotte to retreat,


  • and lure Bennigsen west, while he led the rest of the army north, to fall on his flank

    何たる殺戮! そして徒労であることか! (アイラウでのネイ)

  • and rear.

    アイラウの戦いは2日以上続き ナポレオン戦争の中でも最大級の激戦となった

  • But the Russians captured a French courier carrying the emperor’s orders to Marshal

    酷寒の中 双方とも退くことはなかった

  • Bernadotte.

    オージュロー元帥の第Ⅶ軍団は吹雪で視界を失い ロシア砲兵の射撃に粉砕された

  • Bennigsen, now warned of the trap, ordered a retreat, fighting a series of rearguard


  • skirmishes against the pursuing French.

    フランス軍は勇敢なミュラ元帥による 1万騎の騎兵突撃で辛くも窮地を脱した

  • But he refused to give up the city ofnigsberg without a fight, and turned to give battle,


  • at Eylau.

    アイラウにおいて 皇帝ナポレオンは初めて 戦場での決定的勝利を逃した

  • The

    両軍は自軍の損害を隠蔽したが 双方ともに戦力の三分の一を失った

  • Battle of Eylau, fought over two days, was one of the most brutal of the Napoleonic Wars,

    アイラウの惨事の後 両軍は休養と再編成に入った

  • fought in freezing conditions, with neither side backing down.

    一方 新設されたルフェーブル第Ⅹ軍団は ダンツィヒでカルクロイト将軍のプロイセン軍13,000を包囲した

  • Marshal Augereau’s Seventh Corps, advancing into the face of a snowstorm, lost its way,


  • and was cut to pieces by Russian cannon fire.

    8週間後 救援の望みが無くなり プロイセン軍は5月27日に降伏した

  • Five French eagles were lost.

    フランス軍の北側海上からロシア軍が 上陸してくる恐れは無くなった

  • Napoleon’s army was only saved by a devastating, massed cavalry charge by 10,000 horsemen,

    今やフランス皇帝が擁する兵力は190,000 対する露普連合軍は115,000である

  • led by the fearless Marshal Murat, and remembered as one of the great cavalry charges in history.


  • At Eylau, for the first time as Emperor, Napoleon failed to win a clear victory on the battlefield.

    6月5日 ネイの第Ⅵ軍団が奇襲を受ける

  • He and the Russians covered up the true scale of their losses, but both sides are estimated


  • to have lost a third of their armies in the carnage.

    奇襲効果を失ったベニグセンは撤退し ナポレオンは追跡に出た

  • After the horrors of Eylau, both armies sought time to rest and recover.

    4日後 ハイルスベルクの戦いでフランス軍は ロシアの防御陣地に対して1万の損害を出した

  • Meanwhile, the newly-formed French Tenth Corps under Marshal Lefebvre besieged Danzig, held


  • by 13,000 Prussians under General Kalkreuth.

    ナポレオンは ベニグセンが北のケーニヒスベルクに 向かっていると考えていた

  • The city came under heavy French bombardment, and infantry assault. After 8 weeks, with

    しかし実際は北東に向かっており アレ川の東岸に沿って進んでいた

  • no prospect of reinforcement, the Prussian garrison surrendered on 27th May.

    そしてフランス軍主力が北に向かう中 東のロシア軍に近いのはランヌ予備軍団のみだった

  • Napoleon’s northern, sea flank was now secure against any possible Russian landing.


  • The French emperor now commanded an army 190,000 strong, against just 115,000 Russian and Prussian

    その馬に飛び乗って我々はロシア全軍と 戦闘中だと皇帝に伝えてこい!(ランヌ)

  • troops.

    6月13日午後遅く ロシア騎兵斥候が フリートラントに フランス軍1個軍団ありとの報をベニグセンに送る

  • But it was Bennigsen who moved first, launching a surprise attack against Ney’s Sixth Corps

    ベニグセンは アレ川を渡って 1個軍団を撃破する時間は充分あると判断した

  • on 5th June.


  • Ney conducted a brilliant fighting withdrawal, and escaped.


  • Bennigsen, having lost the element of surprise, and with Napoleon advancing, retreated once

    ランヌ元帥は16,000の兵力で 46,000のロシア軍と戦う事になった

  • more.

    ランヌはナポレオンに急ぎ使者を出し ロシア軍主力と戦闘中との報告を送った

  • Four days later at Heilsberg, the French lost 10,000 men in a botched assault against Russian


  • defences.

    散兵による攻撃で弱点を隠蔽しながら 徐々に後退していった

  • But the Russians continued their retreat the next day.

    夜が更けても ランヌはロシア軍を食い止めていた

  • Napoleon thought Bennigsen would head north tonigsberg, but instead he retreated northeast,

    その夜 ロシア工兵はフリートラントに 浮橋を3本設置し 軍の渡河を迅速化した

  • keeping to the east bank of the Alle River.

    しかし ベニグセンは大きなリスクを負った

  • So when Napoleon’s army marched north, it was Marshal LannesReserve Corps, on his

    もし一大会戦に発展すれば ロシア軍は背水の陣で戦う羽目になる

  • right flank, that next encountered the Russian armynear the small town of Friedland.

    さらに 全軍は用水路で左右に分断されていた

  • In the late afternoon of the 13th June, Russian cavalry scouts informed General Bennigsen


  • that they’d found a single French corps at Friedland.


  • Bennigsen decided he had time to cross the Alle River and smash this isolated corps,


  • before the rest of the French army could arrive to save it, and he ordered his army to begin

    今回のような失態を犯す敵とは 二度とお目にかかれんだろうな(ナポレオン)

  • crossing the river.

    6月14日早朝 ロシア軍40,000がアレ川西岸に渡った

  • Marshal Lannes, commanding 16,000 men and facing 46,000 Russians, sent an urgent message

    ベニグセンはフランス軍左翼が陣取る ハインリッスドルフ村への攻撃を命じた

  • to Napoleon that he was under attack from the main Russian army.


  • Then he fought a skilful delaying action, hiding the weakness of his force behind a

    1時間以上に渡って突撃が繰り返された結果 フランス騎兵が勝利を収めた

  • large screen of skirmishers, while gradually yielding ground to the enemy.


  • Lannes was still holding off the Russians as darkness fell.

    ソルトラック森ではウディノ将軍の擲弾兵師団が バグラチオンのロシア軍左翼に対して善戦する

  • That night, Russian engineers built three pontoon bridges at Friedland, to speed the

    しかしロシア軍が数で勝り 徐々に後退していった

  • movement of troops over the river.

    暑さの増した正午近く ナポレオンが戦場に着いた

  • But Bennigsen was taking a huge risk.

    そして負傷したベルナドットに代わり ヴィクトール将軍が指揮する第Ⅰ軍団―

  • If this turned into a major battle, his army would have to fight with its back to the river,

    ネイ第Ⅵ軍団 ベシエール元帥の皇帝近衛隊も到着した

  • and the steep banks of the Mill Stream dividing its left wing from its right.


  • Bennigsen had also badly underestimated the speed at which Napoleon’s Grande Armée

    オーストリア軍を破ったマレンゴの戦いから ちょうど七周年の記念日であり 縁起が良い

  • would react.

    戦闘が小康状態に入り 状況を分析したナポレオンは ロシア軍の不利な配置を見抜いた

  • The first French reinforcements arrived that night.


  • The Emperor himself wasn’t far behind.

    この日一日 ベニグセンは体調不良に悩まされていた

  • By dawn on the 14th June, about 40,000 Russians had crossed to the west bank of the Alle River.

    そしてナポレオン全軍と対峙していることに気づくと 撤退命令を出した

  • Bennigsen ordered an attack on the village of Heinrichsdorf, to turn the French left

    命令を伝える 前進せよ 左右を顧みず この分厚い大群を突き抜けろ 犠牲は問わない (ナポレオンからネイへの命令)

  • flank.

    しかしロシア軍の撤退がまだ始まらない午後5:30 砲兵の三斉射を合図にフランス軍の攻撃が始まった

  • But French cavalry reinforcements led by General Grouchy intercepted the Russians

    右翼のネイ第Ⅵ軍団がソルトラック森から バグラチオンの歩兵を蹴散らした

  • In more than an hour of charge, and counter-charge, the French horsemen finally drove the Russians

    しかし森から出たネイ軍団は 川の対岸からの砲撃に晒される

  • back.

    フランス軍の前進が鈍ると バグラチオンは 部隊を再集結させて騎兵による逆襲に転じた

  • Marshal Mortier’s Eighth Corps now arrived to reinforce the French centre.


  • In Sortlack Wood, General Oudinot’s elite Grenadier Division fought stubbornly against


  • Prince Bagration’s Left Wingbut was outnumbered by the Russians, and gradually

    第Ⅰ軍団砲兵指揮官セナルモンが砲30門を前進させて 至近距離からロシア軍に散弾を浴びせた

  • pushed back.


  • Around noon, on a sweltering day, Napoleon himself arrived.


  • He was soon followed by First Corps, commanded by General Victorstanding in for the

    午後7時 フランス軍がフリートラントに近づき ロシア軍近衛隊が決死の反撃を試みた

  • wounded Marshal Bernadotte, as well as Ney’s Sixth Corps, and the Imperial Guard, under

    しかし兵数 火力ともに劣っていた

  • Marshal Bessières.

    榴弾によってフリートラントに火災が発生すると フランス軍中央と左翼が攻勢に加わった

  • The date, 14th June, held special significance for Napoleon: it was the seventh anniversary

    唯一の退路が危機に陥ったロシア軍は パニックになり川に殺到した

  • of his great victory over the Austrians at Marengo – a good omen, he declared.

    フリートラントの家々も橋も炎上し 街はロシア軍を閉じ込める罠と化した

  • The battle then entered a lull, as Napoleon assessed the situation, saw Bennigsen’s

    川を渡ろうとして多くが溺死 戦死または捕虜となった

  • dangerous position, and issued orders for an attack to take advantage of it.

    北方では一部の部隊が浅瀬を渡るか 岸に沿うかして脱出に成功した

  • Bennigsen, meanwhile, who was tormented by ill health throughout the day, saw that he


  • now faced the full might of Napoleon’s army, and issued orders for a retreat.

    フリートラントの戦いはナポレオンの生涯中 代表的な決定的勝利の一つである

  • But before Bennigsen’s retreat could get underway, at 5.30pm, three salvos from the

    1万の損害を受けたが ロシア軍にはその二倍の被害を与えた

  • French guns signalled the start of Napoleon’s attack.

    ロシア軍の被害は戦死 負傷 捕虜2万 全体の40%に及んだ

  • It was led by Ney’s Sixth Corps on the right wing, who first cleared Bagration’s infantry

    戦いの翌日 プロイセン軍がケーニヒスベルクを放棄し スールトの第Ⅳ軍団が占領した

  • from Sortlack Wood.

    ロシア軍は散り散りになって ネマン川を渡りロシアに撤退した

  • But as Ney’s troops left the cover of the trees, they came under heavy fire from Russian

    皇帝アレクサンドルは家臣から ナポレオンと講和を結ぶしかないと懇願された

  • cannon across the river.

    皇帝は同意し 休戦が成立した

  • As the French attack faltered, Prince Bagration rallied his men, and launched a cavalry counter

    ティルジットが最も幸福な時だったと思う 勝利し 法を作り 皇帝や王が私の機嫌をとってきた (セントヘレナのナポレオン)

  • attack.

    アレクサンドルとナポレオンは ティルジットのネマン川の筏の上で初めて会った

  • Ney’s corps retreated.


  • But now General Victor’s First Corps came up on his left. Its artillery commander, General


  • narmont, advanced with 30 guns, and blasted the Russians at point blank range with case

    二人の皇帝が数日に渡って 宴会 パレード 演奏会を楽しんだ

  • shot.


  • Hundreds of Russians were mown down within minutes.

    奇妙な友情が発展した一方 ロシアの元同盟者 プロイセン王フリードリヒ三世は無視された

  • Under this onslaught, Bagration’s men began to waver, and then retreat.

    そして2週間後に成立したティルジット条約で 最も損をしたのはプロイセンであった

  • Around 7pm the Russian Imperial Guard launched a desperate counterattack to try to halt the


  • French advance on Friedland.

    ナポレオンの22歳の弟ジェロームが王となる 新国家ヴェストファーレン王国―

  • But they were outnumbered, and outgunned.

    さらにザクセン王が君主のワルシャワ公国が成立し ポーランド復活のための布石とされた

  • As exploding shells began to start fires in Friedlandthe French centre and left wing

    ポーランド人がグランダルメに採用されるようになり ポーランド槍騎兵は皇帝近衛隊にまで組み入れられた

  • joined the attack.

    ロシアはイオニア諸島を譲渡するだけで済み 皇帝ナポレオンを欧州の覇者と認めて同盟を結んだ

  • With its only escape route under threat, the entire Russian army began a panicked retreat

    アレクサンドルはイギリスに対する経済封鎖― 大陸封鎖令への参加も認めた

  • towards the river.

    フランス影響下の全ての港で 英国船の入港と貿易を禁止する命令である

  • But Friedland’s houses and bridges were now ablaze. The town became a deadly trap

    この封鎖令は1806年冬にベルリン勅令として すでに発表されていた

  • for the Russians.

    ナポレオンは イギリスを欧州の貿易から締め出し 政治経済を混乱させて講和に持ち込むつもりでいた

  • Many were drowned trying to cross the river, others killed, or captured.


  • North of Friedland, some units were able to escape across a ford, or along the river bank.


  • But there was no disguising the Russiansterrible defeat.

    封鎖の実行自体が困難なうえに 密輸が横行しただけではない

  • The Battle of Friedland was one of the most decisive victories of Napoleon’s career.

    封鎖自体によってフランスも イギリスと同等の被害を受けたのである

  • At the cost of 10,000 casualties, he had inflicted twice as many losses on the Russiansabout


  • 20,000 men killed, wounded, or taken prisoner – 40% of Bennigsen’s army.

    夏 王立海軍は中立国デンマークのコペンハーゲンを 予防攻撃してその力を見せつけた

  • The Prussians abandonednigsberg the next day, which was occupied by Soult’s Fourth


  • Corps, while Bennigsen’s shattered army retreated across the River Niemen, into Russia.

    王立海軍はフランスの主要港全てを封鎖して フランスと貿易する船を拿捕した

  • Tsar Alexander’s advisors implored him to make peace with Napoleon.


  • He accepted their advice, and a ceasefire was agreed.

    さらに英海軍はデンマークの島ヘリゴランドを占拠し 欧州への密輸の拠点にした

  • Alexander and Napoleon met for the first time aboard a raft in the middle of the River Niemen,

    しかし大陸封鎖令がナポレオンに与えた最大の打撃は フランス帝国を破滅に導く二つの戦争の勃発だった

  • near Tilsit, and developed an immediate rapport.


  • Tilsit proved to be one of history’s great diplomatic summits, as the two emperors feted

    イギリスの同盟国ポルトガルを大陸封鎖令に 強制的に参加させようとしたことに端を発する

  • each other for days, with banquets, parades and concerts, then discussed affairs late

    1807年11月 フランス軍と 同盟国スペイン軍はポルトガルに侵攻した

  • into the night.

    ポルトガルの王族はブラジルの植民地に逃亡しており リスボンは戦わずして占領された

  • A friendship of sorts developedwhilst Russia’s former ally, King Frederick William


  • of Prussia, was left out in the cold.


  • And it was Prussia who would lose most in the Treaties of Tilsit, signed two weeks later.


  • One third of Prussian territory was taken awayto create the new Kingdom of Westphalia,

    動画下のリンクから入れば先着500名は 2ヶ月間無料で視聴できます

  • to be ruled by Napoleon’s 22 year-old brother JérômeAnd the Duchy of Warsaw, to be


  • ruled by the King of Saxony, which Polish patriots hoped would prove a stepping stone

    Epic History TV も動画制作ソフトについて Skillshareを受講しました

  • on the road to their own state.


  • Polish troops were recruited into the Grande Armée, with Polish lancers even forming part

    After Effects Photoshop Premiereなど 一般的なソフトの活用法や

  • of Napoleon’s elite Imperial Guard.


  • Russia only had to give up the Ionian Islands, as Alexander accepted an alliance with Napoleon

    マップとアニメーションはHistroyMarcheに 制作していただきました

  • that left the French emperor master of Europe.


  • Alexander even agreed to join theContinental System’ – Napoleon’s economic blockade

    当チャンネルのサイトでパトロンになっていただくと 早期アクセスや投票権などの特典が得られます

  • of Great Britain, which banned British ships and goods from all French-controlled ports.

  • The System had been established the previous winter by Napoleon’s Berlin Decree.

  • Napoleon hoped that by cutting off British trade with Europe, he’d cause financial

  • chaos and political upheaval in Britainallowing him to make a favourable peace.

  • There was just one problem - the Continental System didn’t work.

  • Not only was it impossible to enforce, and undermined by widespread smuggling, the system

  • damaged French trade just as much as British trade.

  • The decisive weapon in this economic war would prove to be the British Royal Navy, which

  • that summer, ensured its continued naval dominance by launching a pre-emptive strike against

  • the neutral Danish fleet at Copenhagencapturing their warships before they could fall into

  • Napoleon’s hands.

  • Royal Navy squadrons blockaded all major French ports, seizing any ships trading with France,

  • while ensuring British merchants could continue to trade overseas in relative safety.

  • The navy even seized the tiny Danish island of Heligoland, as a base for smuggling British

  • goods into Europe.

  • But most disastrously for Napoleon, the Continental System would draw him into two conflicts that

  • proved ruinous for his empire

  • The first would be fought in the Iberian Peninsula, where Napoleon decided to force Britain’s

  • ally Portugal to join the Continental System.

  • In November 1807, French troops, supported by their Spanish ally, invaded the country.

  • The Portuguese royal family fled to their colony of Brazil, as the French occupied Lisbon

  • without a fight.

  • It looked as though Napoleon had won yet another easy victory. But the Peninsular War was just

  • beginning...

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B2 中上級 日本語 ナポレオン ロシア フランス 軍団 撤退 皇帝

ナポレオンがロシアを撃破フリードランド 1807 (Napoleon Defeats Russia: Friedland 1807)

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    蔡文彬 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日