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  • What does "going viral" on the internet really mean,

  • and why does it happen so quickly?

  • Why is a financial institution too big to fail?

  • How does a virus in Africa end up

  • in the United States in a matter of hours?

  • Why are Facebook and Google such powerful companies

  • at creating global connections?

  • Well, in a word:

  • networks.

  • But what are networks?

  • Everyone knows about their social network,

  • but there are all different kinds of networks

  • you probably haven't thought about.

  • Networks are collections of links

  • which combine by specific rules and behaviors if they are alive.

  • We say that networks are alive

  • because they are in constant change.

  • Over time, the connections within a network

  • migrate and concentrate in new places,

  • forming evolving structures.

  • How the evolution and concentration

  • of constantly changing connections occurs

  • is the subject of a whole discipline called

  • network theory.

  • We can think of networks as neighborhoods.

  • Neighborhoods are defined by maps.

  • A Google map demonstrates the relationship

  • between locations in exactly the same fashion

  • a network connects hubs and nodes,

  • using streets as links to connect neighborhoods.

  • The reason a network can expand and evolve so quickly

  • is based upon a mathematical concept called

  • power functions.

  • A power function is a mathematical amplification mechanism,

  • which over specific and very small ranges,

  • accelerates changes logarithmically.

  • That is, a very small change in one parameter

  • produces a huge change in another

  • over a very specific range of values.

  • An example of how network structure emerges

  • is the algorithm used by Google.

  • As the number of links around a search term, say "friends", increases,

  • connections begin to form among millions

  • of different searches using the term "friend".

  • What Google has cleverly accomplished

  • is a real-time mathematical model

  • for how to predict the emergence of growing connections

  • among billions of search terms.

  • The algorithm Google derived collects

  • the number of references to any search object.

  • As references to a search object increase,

  • the number of links also increases, creating a node.

  • As the node increases in size,

  • it eventually becomes a hub,

  • which links to many nodes.

  • Networks will continue to emerge

  • as new ways of connecting and creating neighborhoods are defined.

  • Perhaps you can begin to see why networks are so powerful.

  • As Google continues to collect the billions of daily searches,

  • new clusters of links will rapidly emerge,

  • forming additional and growing networks.

  • Despite the logarithmic expansion of your network,

  • the laws of six degrees of separation still apply.

  • Therefore, if you explore a close friend or acquaintances

  • in you Facebook network,

  • everyone on average will be separated

  • by six individuals or less

  • and a map of your social network will create neighborhoods

  • linked by common connections among friends.

What does "going viral" on the internet really mean,


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B1 中級

TED-ED】ネットワーク論 - マーク・サメット (【TED-Ed】Network theory - Marc Samet)

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    wikiHuang に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日