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  • So you're, like, talking to your friends or coworkers, and you notice this strange pattern.


  • This happened, like, five minutes ago.

    それがあったのは、なんていうか、5 分くらい前。

  • We've been friends for, like, like, 11 years.


  • And then I was like, "Hello?"


  • And I was like, "Please, can I have my ticket?"


  • I'm always weird about, like, well, like, they wanted to watch it together, and I was like, well, I don't wanna sit there with them.


  • Like it or hate it, you can actually hear the word "like" everywhere, from celebrities.


  • But, like, if they ask about your lips, like, own up to it.


  • To movies.


  • But people came that, like, did not RSVP.


  • So I was, like, totally bugging.


  • And, yes, our own mouths.


  • I saylikeall the time.


  • And most of the time...


  • No, I do not notice that I'm sayinglike”.

    いえ、自分が "like" って言ってるなんて、気づきませんね。

  • Unless it's, like...oh, now I do!


  • So, where exactly did this annoying trend begin?


  • And more importantly, why?


  • Believe it or not, the way we use like can be traced back as far as the late 19th century.

    驚いたことに、私たちの "like" という言葉の用法は、19 世紀後半にまで遡ることができます。

  • Right here on the pages from the 1886 Scottish novelKidnappedby Robert Louis Stevenson.

    こちら、1886 年のスコットランドの小説、『誘拐されて』においても、使われています。

  • But it wasn't until the 1950s that a certain group brought the word to spotlight: The Beat Generation.

    しかし、この単語を目立たせるようになった集団が表れたのは、1950 年代になってからのことでした―それが、ビート・ジェネレーションです。

  • The young, rebellious Beat Generation soon picked up the interjection as a sign of cool, and it was used so frequently that it turned into a trope for any beatnik characters in pop culture.


  • Like, how should I know, Jazz?


  • Like, he never tells me nothing.


  • What's that on your chin?


  • Can't you tell, man?


  • It's, like, a beard.


  • Like, next time, signal!


  • Sorry!


  • The Beats played an important role in introducing the new use of like to a larger audience, especially the younger generations.

    ビート・ジェネレーションは、"like" の新しい使い方をより多くの視聴者、特に若年層に示すことにおいて、重要な役割を果たしました。

  • And 20 years later, when the word rose to prominence once again, it wasn't from the rebellious Beat writers in bars, but from the young girls in the malls of San Fernando Valley.

    20 年後、この "like" が再び注目されるようになった時、その発信源は、バーでたむろする反抗的なビート・ライターではなく、サンフェルナンド・バレーのショッピングモールにいるような若い女の子たちだったのです。

  • And they had a name for themselves.


  • They're high school girls with a lingo, style of dress, and philosophy all their own.


  • They are: Valley Girl!


  • The Valley Girl was a socioeconomic stereotype referring to the young, upper-class white girls living in the San Fernando Valley.


  • These girls were known for spending days at the mall and dressing head to toe in pink, but what stood out the most was the way they spoke.


  • And think of the muscles straining and the jaw being, like, pulled out.


  • Make it seem as if it's rolling off your tongue.


  • Let's try: Barf out, I am sure!


  • It even had its own name: Valley speak.


  • It was what linguists call a sociolect, a set of dialect, slang, and words used by a specific class of people.


  • It includes words and phrases like tubular, totally, grody, gag me with a spoon, some of which are still used today.

    "tubular", "totally", "grody", "gag me with a spoon" といった表現が含まれ、現在でも使われているものもあります。

  • And, of course, the word like.

    それからもちろん、”like" もです。

  • But it was still just a regional phenomenon, until a single record changed all of that.


  • Valley girl


  • She's a Valley girl


  • In 1982, musician Frank Zappa and his daughter Moon Zappa released their single "Valley Girl," a novelty song written to mock and satirize the Valley Girl culture.

    1982 年、ミュージシャンのフランク・ザッパと彼の娘、ムーン・ザッパが、『バレー・ガール』というシングルをリリースしました。これは、バレー・ガール文化をからかい、風刺する、ノヴェルティ・ソングでした。

  • To their surprise, the song was a massive hit, peaking at No. 32 on the Billboard chart, and was even nominated for a Grammy.

    驚いたことに、この歌は大ヒットしたのです。ビルボード・チャートで最高 32 位を記録し、グラミー賞にもノミネートされました。

  • The song that was meant to be a parody had ironically turned Valley Girls and Valley speak into a national phenomenon.


  • I've been doing this for almost 20 years, and this is the most successful record that has ever occurred, and the only reason that it's successful is because it's an accident.

    もう 20 年近くやっていますが、これが一番成功したレコードなんです。成功した唯一の理由は、これが偶然だったからです。

  • The Valley girls had turned from a stereotype that symbolized Southern California's shallow materialism into a cool, idolized icon.


  • And the Californian entertainment industry only fueled its spread, this time in movies and TV shows.


  • A year after the song's release, films like Fast Times at Ridgemont High, and Valley Girl were made to quickly take advantage of the trend, which then led to other movies and shows, like Clueless, Mean Girls, and Beverly Hills, 90210, all targeting a younger demographic.

    この歌がリリースされた 1 年後、『初体験/リッジモント・ハイ』や『バレー・ガール』といった映画が、このトレンドを即座に活用すべく、公開されました。それから、他の映画や番組にも拡大していったのです。例えば『クルーレス』、『ミーン・ガールズ』、『ビバリーヒルズ高校白書』は、全て若年層をターゲットにしていました。

  • Although pop culture has contributed to the word's widespread popularity, linguists have come to believe that it might also be because of how we use the word.

    ポップカルチャーが、"like" の世界的な拡大に貢献したのもありますが、言語学者らは、私たちがこの言葉を使う方法も、その要因の 1 つだと確信しています。

  • Yeah, everyone says like.

    ええ、皆が "like" って使いますよ。

  • It's just the way people, like, talk.


  • The word originally began with just two definitions, the verb from the Old English "lician" meaning, to feel attracted towards, and the adjective from the Old English "lich," meaning similar to.

    "like" という単語の定義は、元々 2 つだけでした。古英語において、「~に魅力を感じる」という意味の動詞、"lician" と、「~に似た」という意味の形容詞、"lich" の 2 つです。

  • But over time, it's not developed one, but four more definitions, each serving an entirely different purpose.

    しかし時が経つにつれ、1 つとは言わず、全く異なる用法を持つ、さらに 4 つの定義が増えたのです。

  • Like the quotative, used to quote our own or someone else's words.

    引用の "like" は、自分や他人の言葉を引用するのに使われます。

  • She was just like, "Hey, do you have PayPal?"


  • And I was like, "I don't have PayPal, I have Venmo."


  • A filler mainly used for pause and flow.

    フィラーの "like" は、話を一時停止させたり、流れさせたりするのに使われます。

  • It was really just amazing.


  • Like, I kept thinking about it afterwards.


  • An adverb, also known as a hedge, that's used for approximation.

    副詞の "like" は、直接的な表現を避け、概算を示すのに使われます。

  • This happened, like, five minutes ago.


  • And what's known as a discourse particle, to emphasize a point.


  • She has this bananas phobia of blood.


  • Like, it's... she's completely, like, debilitated.


  • And that's not all.


  • Recent studies have suggested that the word might also have a social function, acting as a cue to seem informal and friendly, another reason why it's so prevalent among young girls.

    最近の研究によると、"like" という言葉には社会的機能もあり、インフォーマルでフレンドリーに見せるサインとして使われるようです。若い女の子たちの間で "like" が広く使われる、もう 1 つの理由ですね。

  • Over the years, the way we use like has been used as a prime example of how younger generations are destroying the English language.

    ここ何年にもわたり、私たちの "like" の使い方は、若い世代が英語を破壊しているという議論における、典型的な例として用いられてきています。

  • The internet is full of advice on how to stop saying the word, and schools have gone as far as to ban their students from saying it.

    インターネットには、"like" を言わない方法に関するアドバイスがたくさんあり、学校では、生徒が "like" と言うのを禁止する動きまで出ています。

  • But chances are, they won't work.


  • If history has proven one thing, language evolves and spreads, no matter what we want.


  • So as long as we continue to speak, how we say like is, like, not going anywhere.

    私たちが話し続ける限り、私たちの "like" の用法は、とどまり続けます。

  • Hahaha, I did think of that, 'cause I was like, I think I'm saying like a little bit too often.

    ははは、それ、思いましたよ。だって私、"like" って少し言い過ぎていると思いますから。

  • But, no, I was being framed!


So you're, like, talking to your friends or coworkers, and you notice this strange pattern.


審査済み この字幕は審査済みです

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B1 中級 日本語 like バレー ガール ジェネレーション ビート 言葉

アメリカ人が、ついつい “like” を言っちゃう理由(Why Americans Say "Like" In The Middle Of Sentences)

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    Seraya に公開 2020 年 04 月 15 日