字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Professor Paul Bloom: I'd like to welcome people to this course, Introduction to Psychology. My name is Dr. Paul Bloom. I'm professor of this course. And what this is going to be is a comprehensive introduction to the study of the human mind. So, we are going to cover a very, very wide range of topics including brains, children, language, sex, memory, madness, disgust, racism and love, and many others. We're going to talk about things like the proper explanation for differences between men and women; the question of whether animals can learn language; the puzzle of what grosses us out; the problem of why some of us eat too much and what we could do to stop; the question of why people go crazy in groups; research into whether you could trust your childhood memories; research into why some of us get depressed and others don't. The style of this is there'll be two lectures a week, as well as course readings. Now, to do well in the course, you have to attend both the lectures and do the readings. There will be some overlap. In some cases, the lectures will be quite linked to the readings. But there will be some parts of the readings that will not find their way into the lectures, and some lectures--some entire lectures that will not connect at all to the readings. So, to pursue this course properly you have to do both. What this means is that if you miss a class you need to get notes, and so you should get them from a friend or from the person sitting next to you. The slides are going to be made available online. So, one of the things you don't have to do is you don't have to write this down. You take notes any way you choose, but if you don't get anything on there it'll be available online. I'm going to post it in a format which will be black and white and easy to print out so you don't have to worry about this. But again, attending to the slides is not a substitute for attending class. There's a textbook, Peter Gray's Psychology, 5th edition, and there's also a collection of short readings, The Norton Reader edited by Gary Marcus. It's an excellent textbook; it's an excellent collection, and you should get them both. They're available at Labyrinth bookstore on York Street or you get them online. I should note that last time I taught the course I used the Marcus Reader, and when Professor Marvin Chun taught his course last semester he used Peter Gray's 5^(th) edition textbook. So, there may be a lot of used copies floating around. You should feel free to try to get one of those. The evaluation goes like this. There is a Midterm and there is a Final. The Final will not be held in the exam period, because I like to take long vacations. It will be held the last day of class. The exams will be multiple choice and short answer, fill in the blank, that sort of thing. Prior to the exams I will post previous exams online, so you have a feeling for how these exams work and so on. There will also be review sessions. Starting at the beginning of the third week of class – that is not next week but the week after – on each Monday I'm going to put up a brief question or set of questions, which you have to answer and your answers need to be sent to your teaching fellow. And you'll be given a teaching fellow, assigned one, by Friday. This is not meant to be difficult. It's not meant to be more than five, ten minutes of work, but the point of the question--15,20 minutes of work, but the point of the question is to motivate people to keep up with the material and do the readings. These questions will be marked pass, fail. I expect most everybody could pass all of the questions but it's just to keep you on track and keep you going. There is a book review, a short book review, to be written towards near the end of the class. I'll give details about that later on in the semester. And there's also an experimental participation requirement, and next week I'll hand out a piece of paper describing the requirement. The point of the requirement is to give you all experience actually seeing what psychological research is about as well as to give us hundreds of subjects to do our experiments on. The issue sometimes comes up as to how to do well in the course. Here's how to do well. Attend all the classes. Keep up with the readings. Ideally, keep up with the readings before you come to class. And one thing I would strongly suggest is to form some sort of study groups, either formally or informally. Have people you could talk to when the--prior to the exams or--she's patting somebody next to her. I hope you know him. And in fact, what I'm going to do, not this class because it's shopping period. I don't know who's coming next class, or what but I'll set up a few minutes prior, at the beginning of the class, for people just to introduce themselves to the person next to them so they have some sort of resource in the class. Now, this is a large class, and if you don't do anything about it, it can be very anonymous. And some of you may choose to pursue it that way and that's totally fine. But what I would suggest you do is establish some contact with us, either with me or with any of the teaching fellows, and I'll introduce the teaching fellows sometime next week. You could talk to us at the beginning or at the end of class. Unless there are special circumstances, I always try to come at least ten minutes early, and I am willing to stay late to talk to people. You could come by during my office hours, which are on the syllabus, and you could send me e-mail and set up an appointment. I'm very willing to talk to students about intellectual ideas, about course problems and so on. And if you see me at some point just on campus, you could introduce yourself and I'd like to meet people from this class. So, again, I want to stress you have the option of staying anonymous in this class, but you also have the option of seeking out and making some sort of contact with us. Okay. That's the formal stuff of the course. What's this course about? Unlike a lot of other courses, some people come to Intro Psychology with some unusual motivations. Maybe you're crazy and hope to become less crazy. Maybe you want to learn how to study better, improve your sex life, interpret your dreams, and win friends and influence people. Those are not necessarily bad reasons to take this course and, with the exception of the sex part, this course might actually help you out with some of these things. The study of scientific psychology has a lot of insights of real world relevance to real problems that we face in our everyday lives. And I'm going to try--and when these issues come up--I'm going to try to stress them and make you try to think about the extent to which the laboratory research I'll be talking about can affect your everyday life: how you study, how you interact with people, how you might try to persuade somebody of something else, what sort of therapy works best for you. But the general goals of this course are actually I think even more interesting than that. What I want to do is provide a state of the art introduction to the most important topic that there is: us. How the human mind works, how we think, what makes us what we are. And we'll be approaching this from a range of directions. So, traditionally, psychology is often broken up into the following--into five sub-areas: Neuroscience, which is the study of the mind by looking at the brain; developmental, which is the area which I focus mostly on, which is trying to learn about how people develop and grow and learn; cognitive, which is the one term of the five that might be unfamiliar to some of you, but it refers to a sort of computational approach to studying the mind, often viewing the mind on analogy with a computer and looking at how people do things like understand language, recognize objects, play games, and so on. There is social, which is the study of how people act in groups, how people act with other people. And there is clinical, which is maybe the aspect of psychology that people think of immediately when they hear psychology, which is the study of mental health and mental illness. And we'll be covering all of those areas. We'll also be covering a set of related areas. I am convinced that you cannot study the mind solely by looking at the discipline of psychology. The discipline of psychology spills over to issues of how the mind has evolved. Economics and game theory are now essential tools for understanding human thought and human behavior--those issues connecting to philosophy, computer science, anthropology, literature, theology, and many, many other domains. So, this course will be wide ranging in that sense.