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  • Early into the Middle Ages, kings and rulers in Europe were fast beginning to lose power.

  • Invasions from the Vikings, Muslims and the major Arabs made it difficult to keep law, order and place.

  • People needed protection. And in their need for shelter, a new system of feudalism, evolved.

  • Feudalism was a loose system of law in which powerful lords divided their land holdings among lesser lords.

  • In exchange, these lesser lords pledge their service and loyalty to the greater lord.

  • At the top of the feudalism chart stood the kings.

  • They managed and ruled over the entire empire.

  • Below the kings came the lords, wealthy landowners who held power over the vassals and peasants by offering them protection.

  • Faithful to the lords were the vassals or knights who offered the lords their warning services in return for their land.

  • Below the vassals were the peasants or serfs.

  • The serfs did all the menial jobs but they had their own piece of small land

  • in return for protection from the manor when invaders came in.

  • Manor, which included a large house with surrounding villages was thoroughly self-sufficient.

  • The serfs produced everything that the manor needed, from furniture to weapons.

  • Serfs were taxed heavily, the lord would require a certain amount of money coming in from the estate

  • so the knight would ask for some taxes to be levied.

  • Knights were known for their chivalry while on duty.

  • A knight would always help a woman and that was one of the unwritten laws of being a knight.

  • Noble women were quite independent in their day as their husband would be out defending his land.

  • Mutual obligations were a big thing of feudalism.

  • Lords and vassals had a contract known as the feudal contract.

  • The lord would give a vassal a fief of land in return for service.

  • Vassals had fiefs from different lords,

  • but a lead lord was the lord that the vassal would first serve.

  • Castles were fortified to prevent intruders from entering.

  • A moat surrounding the castle and a man which surveyed the surroundings from a keep.

  • The family that lived in the castle would also have cell elevated stored items in case of a siege.

  • The economy was boosted by the agricultural revolution with the introduction of iron ploughs as well as windmills.

  • The windmilss would keed the grain turning into flour using wind energy.

  • Previously wooden ploughs were used and they were not effective in the heavy soils of Europe.

  • However, the best thing that happen was the introduction of the three field system.

  • One field had grains, the other had legumes, one wasn't planted.

  • The legumes added a variety and gave the peasants strength.

  • The decline of feudalism came when rich nobles were allowed to pay for soldiers rather than to fight themselves.

  • The threat of the mercenaries led on to the employment of professional trained soldiers,

  • the standing armies, and ultimately, to the end of feudalism.

Early into the Middle Ages, kings and rulers in Europe were fast beginning to lose power.


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ヨーロッパの封建制 (Feudalism in Europe)

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    Bing-Je に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日