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Now you remember from last week that we're in the
moment of phasing out of the 1960s,
moving into the 1970s, but of course,
human actions, inactions, chronology,
is not simply as neat as dates on a,
on a calendar as a timeline.  A lot of the
social confusion, violence, and cultural excitement
actually, of this era, of the late sixties,
is right there in the 1970s.  And this lecture's
actually trying to canvass some of the political
turmoil and its, its marriage to popular culture
in the early 1970s.  By way of context though,
let me start in the spring of 1970.  On April 30th--and
actually, let me focus--it's,
frankly, just focus on two weeks in 1970.  On April
30th, President Nixon announces the invasion of
Cambodia, escalation of the war in Southeast Asia in
general, and the need for one hundred and fifty
thousand more troops to find a lasting peace.
In response, the campus at Kent State in Ohio,
the ROTC building is set on fire.  The Ohio governor
dispatches National Guard to make sure that the campus
remains peaceful.  On to May 4th,
this attempt to keep the peace on Kent State
evaporates, when twenty-eight Guardsmen open
fire on Kent State students, killing four and wounding
nine.  Immediately--immediately
being a day--five hundred colleges are shut down
across the country, or they're disrupted from
protests.  Our country, according to college
protestors, our country is now attacking us.  It makes
tremendous headlines.  On May 14th,
ten days--[student sneezes] bless you--ten days after
Kent State, at Jackson State University,
a historically black university,
during a student protest, state and highway patrolmen
open fire with automatic weapons into dormitories. 
Allegations are that someone was sniping at them.  No
evidence was ever found to that,
to that end.  They opened fire without any warning,
killed two students and wounded nine.  The scale of
national attention is not commensurate with what
happens at Kent State.  So for,
in the African American community,
there is a sense that the police state,
in this case, state and highway patrolmen,
could kill our college students without anybody
worrying too much, but at Kent State,
also inexcusable, that if you kill the students,
it becomes a national catastrophe.  Meanwhile,
in New Haven, just about two blocks from here--well,
actually, all throughout New Haven--the Black Panther
Party and the FBI are at a standoff.  Black Panther
Party and fellow travelers had come to New Haven,
essentially to protest the murder trial of Bobby Seale,
who's accused of authorizing the murder of Alex Rackley,
member of the Black Panther Party,
people believed to have been an informant to the FBI. 
Fifteen thousand people descend upon the Green,
Panthers, Panther supporters,
sort of anarchist hippies, called the Yippies,
by--led by Abbie Hoffman, fellow travel--travelers of
all sorts.  And there was a real fear that the city is
going to be collapsed into a race riot.  The university,
under the leadership of Kingman Brewster,
the president at the time, does something that people
never expected, and actually opened its doors to the
Black Panthers.  It created a mechanism,
it felt--Brewster felt, that would relieve some of the
pent-up anxiety and tension over what's happening around
the country and then locally.  Classes are
canceled; there's student strikes.  I think two or
three pipe bombs go off at Ingalls Rink.  It's a level
of chaos that you, that you are not familiar with. 
Kingman Brewster declares that he actually doubts--and
I'm paraphrasing here--whether a black person
can get a fair trial anywhere in America. 
Immediately, the alums start phoning in,
calling for his resignation, for his outlandish
statement.  It's a national event,
student unrest; it's a local story as well.  In this
spirit of what's going on in the country on the college
campuses, and the nation, the call for federal
troops--excuse me, for more military troops,
the invasion of Cambodia, you have an astonishing,
almost sort of a call and response by a lot of
cultural artists.  Most famous in this regard--well,
most famous to me at least, in this regard--is Marvin
Gaye.  Marvin Gaye, who had made a career at Motown by
piecing together and performing love songs,
branches out a year later in May of 1971 with something
really quite different.  So he's known for,
for this: [Marvin Gaye, Tammi Terrell,
"Ain't No Mountain High Enough" excerpt plays.]
Listen, baby Ain't no mountain high Ain't no valley low
Aint no river wide enough,
baby If you need me, call me No matter where you are
No matter how far Don't worry,
baby I mean, really catchy love songs,
really quite--you know, they're actually important
in the history of the evolution of rock music and
the Motown sound.  But by--when we get into 1970,
Gaye is wrestling with, well,
partly exhaustion from churning out these
saccharine-laden songs, but also he's wrestling with
what's going on in the country,
and he wants to aspire to do something quite different. 
And he earns, secures himself a new contract with
Motown and he's given creative license,
which is astonishing.  This is the big sort of rupture
in Motown.  He's given creative license,
and he turns--and he generates a concept album. 
The album's called What's Going On?  It's dealing with
Vietnam, it's dealing with economic despair,
with incredible inflation going on in the country. 
It's dealing with ecological despair,
and this is a few years before Earth Day would
actually take effect, when people are wondering what
we're doing to this particular planet.  In fact,
I've often, when I've given this lecture--and I wanted,
I hadn't given a, a cultural politics lecture for years,
and I finally realized it was time to do so.  And I
listened to What's Going On?
Just to see if I wanted to play a clip,
and I realized, I could actually just put the CD on,
leave the room, have you guys understand the
nineteen, early 1970s by the time the album was over. 
But, well, I have to get up and say something.  So you
have a moment of escalating war in Vietnam,
fear of, of destruction of the planet,
ecologically speaking, environmentally speaking,
hyperinflation in the United States,
poverty, urban decay.  And Marvin Gaye starts writing
these pieces, or produces these songs.  They merge one
into another in What's Going On?
and, in fact, if you do want to learn about the 1970s,
just go out and--I used to say buy the album at the
record store, then you could buy the CD,
and now it's just, you know, go to iTunes,
I suppose.  Although you should patronize Cutler's,
the local record store.  [Students laugh]  One of his
signature songs from the album,
"What's Happening, Brother?"  It's the story of
a returning vet, comes back from Vietnam,
trying to figure out what is happening on the street,
really trying to get back into the mundane routine
of life.
I'll play a clip of it.
Hey baby, what you know good I'm just getting back,
but you knew I would War is hell,
when will it end, When will people start getting
together again, Are things really getting better,
like the newspaper said Whatelse is new my friend,
besides what I read, Can't find no work,
can't find no job my friend, Money is tighter than
it's ever been Say man, I just don't understand
What's going on across this land Ah what's happening brother,
Oh yeah, what's happening, what's happening my man?
If you have the lyrics sheet in front of you,
it's self-evident.  For those of you who don't,
the guy's just come back from war.  He's wondering,
if he's reading the newspaper,
if what he's reading is true,
and he's talking about civil rights here,
of things actually getting better.  Can't find a job
though, money is tight.  "I don't understand what's
going on around here."  And then just wondering,
you know, are they still doing stuff they used to do,
going to the dances?  Do you think anybody has a chance
to succeed, in this case, a ball club?  "I want to know
what's going on, what's happening."  Someone who's
lost and trying to find his way.  Very soon,
you get an answer in the same album,
in the song "Inner City Blues."  Harkening back to
Gil Scott-Heron, "Whitey on the Moon."
Dah, dah, dah, dah, dah, dah, dah
Rockets, moon shots Spend it on the have nots.
Money, we make it;
'Fore we see it you take it.
Oh, make me wanna holler The way they do my life.
Make me wanna holler, The way they do my life.This ain't
living, This ain't living No,no baby,
this ain't living No,no, no. Inflation,
no chance, To increase finance. Bills pile up sky high.
Send that boy off to die. Make me wanna holler.
The way they do my life Make me wanna holler
The way they do my life.
Sending people to the moon?  Spend it on people who don't
have anything, please, instead.  People taking all
of our money.  This is exactly Gil Scott-Heron's
lament from the same era.  He closes the song,
throwing up both my hands in a lament.  Now if you think
I'm stretching this just a little bit,
I mean, this is just one album,
after all, let me share with you a personal story.  It's
happening in 1971, '72, and '73.  I was too young to
remember it, actually, but in 1990--let me think,
when would this have been--1997 or so,
I was living in Los Angeles.  My father and
mother had come to visit me and my wife,
and we're driving.  We go out to--he'd lived in L.A.
for a while when--during this era--we drive out to
visit some old friends of his in Los Angeles,
have a great night.  Come back,
we're driving back and I happen just to put on this
album.  I listen to it all the time.  He and my mother
riding in the back seat and after a while,
I realize what--something doesn't sound quite right. 
And then I realize, what I'm hearing in the back seat is
weeping, I mean, flat out weeping.  I turn down the
music, ask what's going on, and my father just says,
"I can't--you know, I just can't talk,
can't talk about it."  Get back to the house.  I've
never seen this guy cry in my entire life.  I don't
know what, what has actually happened.  I sit down with
him and my mother says, "Wendell,
just tell him what's going--what happened
there."  And my father essentially had a
flashback.  He was a Vietnam vet himself,
fought--flew in the Air Force.  And he's saying that
album just brought everything back.  I mean,
"You just don't, you just don't understand,
he tells me, "what it was like."  People going off and
trying to--risking their lives for their country,
and being treated the way they were treated upon their
return.  And Marvin Gaye really understood the sense
of confusion that many people,
not just the vets, but certainly in his case,
the vets come back trying to figure out what is going on
in this country, what do they actually fight for? 
Feeling a sense of moral confusion as well.  My
father even talked about the,
you know, the economy and the ecological landscape,
all in that same moment.  He goes,
"That album really captured it all.  Marvin Gaye
understood what was going on."  Now this album,
What's Going On?, fluctuates between the international
critique and also things happening in U.S.
cities, again, this economic despair,
I keep coming back to it.  It's really one of the
defining elements of the time.  You also have,
during this moment, this rise of,
in, in line with the Black Panther Party,
certainly, this rise of a celebration of black
masculinity, black virility, and also black cultural
celebration.  Quite a different one than the
Harlem Renaissance, certainly,
but a black cultural celebration all the same. 
Take these elements together,
sort of this culturally rich moment,
the notion of abiding economic troubles,
and also determination that we,
in this case the black man--and I use that phrase
quite intentionally--are going to turn the system
over.  We're going to be something different.
You end up with an incredibly popular movie and
character.  The character's name is John Shaft,
and the movie isShaft.  I'll play for you some lyrics,
show you a clip, and then explain a bit of what is
actually happening in this piece.
Who's the black private dick That's a sex machine to all
the chicks?
Shaft!
You're damn right!
Who is the man that would risk his neck
For his brother man?
Shaft! Can you dig it?
Who's the cat that won't cop out
When there's danger all about?
Shaft!
Right on!
They say this cat Shaft is a bad mother--
Shut your mouth!
But I'm talking about Shaft.
Then we can dig it!
He's a complicated man But no one understands him but
his woman - John Shaft!
Every year when I play this, I forget to do a vocal
boost, because the lyrics--Isaac Hayes's voice
is so deep, that you lose out on the lyrics.
"Who's the private--who's the black private dick
That's a sex machine to all the chicks?  (You're
supposed to say "Shaft!") [Students laugh.] You're
damn right!
Who is the man that would risk his neck.
For his brother man?
" "Shaft!"
Thank you.  [Students laugh] "Can you dig it?
Who's the cat that won't cop out.
When there's danger all about?"
"Shaft!"
"Right On!
You see, this cat is--this Shaft is a bad mother."
"Shut your mouth!"
"But I'm talking about Shaft."
All right, you get it.  Anyway,
I mean it is, it is humorous,
especially when looking like this,
and being what I am, and singing this song. 
[Students laugh]  But, but the song was incredibly
important.  Isaac Hayes breaks out as well,
out of the Motown sort of trap,
and comes out with this album that electrifies
people.  He's talking about a kind of individual they
had not seen before, they had not been around before. 
And then the movie comes out.  I mean this was the
soundtrack to the movie. So you're walking through New
York, Time Square, which used to be a complete
cesspool.
I'll fix it. Come on, get out of the way.
Want a timepiece, brother?
Now I played the extended clip here.  There's a couple
of moments that are rather important.  One is just the
street scene that Shaft is walking through.  New York
City, Time Square, is not the place you've come to
know with its, with its sort of carnival atmosphere.  It
was a place of, you know, triple-X movie theaters,
prostitutes, drug use and such.  And John Shaft comes
up, emerges in this landscape,
and walks through it, a man on a mission.  Thirty-four
seconds into this clip, into the start of the movie,
you may have seen it or not.  I don't know if the
lights were down enough yet for you,
but he crosses the street and someone comes up about
to hit him.  He stops the car and gives them the
finger.  You know, in the grand scheme of things,
especially with what we see today in our movies,
in our YouTube clips, this is,
this doesn't even register.  This was a mind-blowing
moment in American cinema, when this movie comes out. 
A black man, walking through a place like he owns it,
giving the finger to a white guy in a car,
and he continues walking.  He's walking through,
his long, leather black coat.  Certainly reminiscent
of the Panthers, but he looks a little bit
different.  And it turns out,
when this guy tries to sell him a hot timepiece,
that he's a cop.  So the question is,
who's the man?
Shaft!
Yeah, thank you!  [Students laugh]  Well played,
yes.  That Shaft is the man.  He's virile,
he's masculine.  As the lyrics say,
"he's a complicated man."  And so you have a new kind
of visual representation of blackness.  [Student
sneezes] Bless you.  Now Shaft is one of the,
the finer productions of a, of a cultural moment in
cinema called Black--blaxploitation. 
Pardon me, I have to multitask a little bit
here.  Blaxploitation begins in 1971,
begins, you know, all in this moment.  It begins with
the movie, really an art piece by a man named Melvin,
Melvin Van Peebles.  The movie's called Sweet
Sweetback's Badasssss Song.
The movie is--I find it very difficult to watch,
just from the kind of messages it's giving,
and also because of its cinematic qualities,
and because it's in some way--well,
I don't care for the movie.
But anyway, it's incredibly important.  It starts with
the unnamed narrator, or protagonist,
I suppose, seen being raised by prostitutes,
he becomes a hustler.  He becomes witness to a moment
of po--police brutality.  He kills a bad cop and because
he committed one of the ultimate offenses,
he has to go on the run.  And the movie is essentially
him--it's a flight movie.
He's going through all these different scenes,
trying to keep one step in front of the man.  And the
man, as it turns out in this case,
is powerfully corrupt.  There's a lot of power;
but that power has corrupted him.  And you see Melvin Van
Peebles, he's the lead in his own movie,
you know, going through I mean any kind of slice of
life you can imagine, representing the 1970s: drug
use, sex scenes, pimping, prostitution,
crime, always trying to stay one step in front of the
man. And the movie becomes an inspiration for the
formula that becomes blaxploitation.
It's a movie that dismisses assimilation,
that declares the system's corrupt.  It is a reflection
of Black Power militancy, no matter what it's a counter
to white hegemony.  This is how you could characterize
most of the blaxploitation films.  There are wrinkles;
we'll get to that in a moment.  But I want to play
for you one of the last few clips of the movie.  What
you're seeing here, it's a, it's a strange close up,
the camera looking down in a shallow creek,
panning up to see a, to see a,
a gutted, a gutted police dog that had come to hunt
down the narrator.  You see it from a slightly
comfortable distance.
And again, it's a, it's a movie that's about flight.
It's actually hard to watch because of the dissonance
and the rough film quality.
Well, the movie's shot on a five hundred thousand dollar
budget, shot in the course of two weeks,
has an all-black crew.  So it's giving a message about
sort of a non-assimilationist black
pride and it's actually doing it as well.  And the
movie--oh and I think it aspires for an X rating,
which had a different connotation early seventies
than it does now, because that way they could get
outside of the union system, and then have an all-black
crew.  Shot for five hundred grand,
grosses two million--ten million dollars,
excuse me, ten million dollars,
a tremendous return on investment.  And this is
what really launches this five-year period of the
genre.  They are often low budget,
Shaft being really a different creature in this
regard, it's a high budget film.  Most of them are low
budget.  They make a ton of money.  The production
values aren't that wonderful.  They're mostly
action films.  They're very simplistic in its
construction: black is good, white is black--bad.  They
are hyper-masculine, and they're misogynist. So when
people think about blaxploitation,
is it about black identity, about a certain kind of
blackness?  Is it about cultural production?  Or was
it a co-opted capitalist venture?  AfterSweet
Sweetback's Badasssss Song, most of the blaxploitation
film--films become studio productions.  No matter what
you decide blaxploitation is,
it's important to think about the images that it
presents.  They all weren't about revolutionaries or
tough upstanding men.  They're about different
kinds of people.  I'll play a clip from the movie Super
Fly as a way to access this particular part of the
narrative.
I'm your mama, I'm your daddy,
I'm that nigga in the alley.
I'm your doctor when you need want some coke,
have some weed.You know me, I'm your friend.
Your main boy, thick and thin.
I'm your pusherman, I'm your pusherman.
Ain't I clean, bad machine super cool,
super mean.
Feeling good for the man.
Super Fly here I stand.
Secret stash, heavy bread, baddest bitches in the bed.
I'm your pusherman.
I'm your pusherman.
So this is a song celebrating a pusher. "I'm
your mama, I'm your daddy, I'm that nigga in the alley.
I'm your doctor when you need want some coke,
have some weed.
You know me, I'm your friend.
Your main boy, thick and thin."
So who is the pusherman?
I'll play the opening montage from Super Fly.
The main character is getting out of his car.
That is the main, lead character.
You with me or not?
Yeah.
Next mother fucker come in here,
we off him, right.
You got that shit?
The filmmakers didn't need a set;
they had New York City.  Used it as a perfect
backdrop.
So I played this extended clip the same way I played
Shaft.  I mean these movies are coming out at
essentially the same time, but they're telling quite a
different story.  Walking through different parts of
New York City, certainly.  Shaft walking with power and
authority, since he is the man,
and the pusherman doing something really entirely
quite different.  Still, also walking through New
York City and its economic--sights of economic
devastation.  Right before this clip,
you see the pusherman getting out of bed.  He has,
as the lyrics in the Curtis Mayfield song,
"the baddest bitches in the bed,
getting out of bed with a white woman,
which is of course important for all the racial
narratives about that kind of coupling possibility,
living in a very fancy apartment,
and he's really trying to get out.  He's made enough
money, trying to get out of the system.  Then he's got
to get these petty thieves who are trying to take some
of his, his dope. The story is then about a pusherman
trying to exit the high life.  He's going to make
one final score and retire.  But he,
as the story goes through, he discovers that the people
who are actually the drug pins,
kingpins in New York City, the ones he has to make this
final score with, are the police.  The commissioner of
the police is the biggest kingpin,
drug kingpin in the city, and the pusherman comes to
the heroic conclusion, by framing,
or setting up, the police commissioner.  So you have
here perhaps a hero, perhaps an antihero.  It's really
quite unclear, but you certainly--I mean in terms
of what's being celebrated here--but you certainly have
the lingering part of blaxploitation,
that the man, when it is the white man--not John Shaft of
course--the man, usually a person of great authority,
structurally in the system, is the cause of degradation
in the black community. Now, I've talked about the fact
that blaxploitation is celebrating manhood of a
complicated nature.  It's also doing something quite
different.  You know, people often point to Pam Grier as
a wonderful example of a blaxploitation film star. 
You know, she's always winning in the end.  One of
her first movies in this regard,
Foxy Brown, is a story about Foxy.  Her brother is set up
by drug kingpins.  This is one of the great narratives
of blaxploitation.  Her boyfriend is killed by the
man, and she's going to infiltrate the mob to exact
her revenge.  And the way she infiltrates it is
becoming a prostitute.
In fact, at the beginning of the movie,
before this stuff un, un, unwinds,
you have Pam Grier getting out of bed with the phone
ring, phone rings.  And within a few seconds,
she's bare-chested.  I mean this is what blaxploitation
and white--and, and female power is suggested by Pam
Grier, her sexuality is her power.  Anyway,
I want to play the last couple of minutes from Foxy
Brown.  It has a twist on this narrative of who's the
man, in fact, how Black Power is interwoven in this,
in interesting ways. What you're seeing here is the
drug kingpin's boyfriend being stopped.  Black
mobsters have taken over.  Posing as the police,
and now they've caught him.
What are you going to do?  What do you want?  What are
you guys going to do?  What are you crazy?
What do you--He's ready, sister.
No, you--You're crazy.  You can't do this!  You can't do
that!  No!  No, Foxy!  Oh no,
you can't.  [Screams.] And this is the drug kingpin,
as it turns out, the person behind Foxy Brown's
boyfriend's murder, her brother,
her brother being set up as well.
The alarm's been tripped.
Hold it right there, spook.
You're going to be a spook for real pretty soon.  Hands
up.
Don't pinch the fruit, faggot.
You watch your mouth or I'll--No Eddie,
later.
I want to know what she's doing here.
I'll take that thing now.
Sure, I brought it for you, Ms. Pimp.
Like I said, it's a present from your faggot boyfriend.
See what it is, Eddie.
[Man 2 opens the bag]  What is it?
I don't know, it looks like a pickle jar or something,
Bring it here.  Oh, Steve!
[screams] [Foxy pulls her gun out and shoots Man 1 and
Man 2.  Woman 1 grabs a knife.  Foxy shoots at
her.]  Why don't you kill me too?  Go on,
shoot, I don't want to live anymore.
I know.  That's the idea.  The rest of your boyfriend
is still around.  And I hope you two live a long time. 
And then maybe you get to feel what I feel.  Death is
too easy for you, bitch.  I want you to suffer.
Super bad.The party's over, Oscar,
let's go.
So you have in this clip justice being exacted along
the terms that in the black--blaxploitation
vernacular made the most sense.  But still,
what kind of messages are being offered here?  And
when you were in the movie theater,
I mean the production value, the acting and such,
you know, in the, the gun being pulled out of the
afro, these are all humorous,
but in the movie theater, these are moments of
celebration.  This is a whole different kind of
cultural logic that people had not seen before,
not on a screen, and they wanted to celebrate it. 
It's an era of great struggle for the nation,
truly.  We're still not out of that moment.  And you'd
see it articulated with its great cultural products of
the age.  It's a moment of despair,
it's despair that's certainly likely what urged
Stevie Wonder to write some of the most socially
conscious lyrics of the era.  And are--and these
are, you won't be surprised, these are not the ones that
are heard on the radio when people play back,
you know, Stevie Wonder reflections. Wonder had
negotiated a new contract, just like Marvin Gaye had
done before, that broke him out of the studio system in
Motown, and re--and the result was about a six-year
cycle of albums that was nothing short of
astonishing.  I mean, one, that the albums are
released, so many are released in just a five-year
window--actually, just a four-year window when you
think about it.  Albums are Music on My Mind in 1972. 
He's only 21 years old.  Talking Bookreleased the
same year, in '72.  Innervisions is released in
'73.  Fulfillingness' First Finale in '74,
Songs in the Key of Life in '76.  This is not the Little
Stevie Wonder of--he's coming out with Motown
with--I'm forgetting the name of the song--playing
his harmonica, but a Motown sort of dance tune.  This is
not the Stevie Wonder in later years of,
you know, "Don't Drive Drunk,
thing.  This is Stevie Wonder of a different kind
of political vintage.  You can hear it here in this
song "Big Brother."
Your name is big brother, You say that you got me all
in your notebook, Writing it down every day,
Your name is I'll see you, (Your name is I'll see you,
I'll change if you vote me in as the pres,
President of your soul I live in the ghetto,
You just come to visit me 'round election time.
I live in the ghetto, Someday I will move on my
feet to the other side.
The sound quality's much better.  I had the settings
off on this, I apologize.  But in this song itself,
he's going on, You know, "I live in the ghetto,
Someday I will move on my feet to the other side,
My name is secluded, we live in a house the size of a
matchbox, Roaches live with us wall to wall" He
concludes the song with, "You've killed all our
leaders.
I don't even have to do nothing to you;
You'll cause your own country to fall."
This is a different kind of Stevie Wonder,
of course.
Now, Wonder is using lyrics that are call and response
to Jesse Jackson.
Now we've not talked about Jesse Jackson pretty much at
all in this course.  We'll be talking about it,
I think, next week.  But Jackson has made a name for
himself with a famous call and response,
"I am somebody."  "I am," and the audience says,
"Somebody."  Trying to boost up in these rallies sort of
the notion of self-esteem.  And Wonder's saying,
"No, my name is Nobody.  My name is Secluded." 
Incredible economic violence and despair.  "You have
killed all of our leaders.  I don't have to do nothing
to you to cause your own country to fall.  The nation
is going to collapse in upon itself.
" So you have, then, across in the early years of the
1970s, and this lecture's really focused on about four
years, three years, three or four years in the 1970s,
a moment of incredible cultural production,
but of a type that sends, well,
a range of messages, I suppose.  It's talking about
black virility and at a moment of rising black
feminism, which we'll be talking about on Wednesday,
sends very interesting message,
"interesting" in quotes, interesting not in a good
way, messages about the role of the black woman.  Still
wrestling with tensions over who "the man" is,
what the man looks like, what the man does.  Who's to
be blamed for the excesses?  In a sense,
profoundly co--confusing messages about the cultural
celebration of people who are putting drugs into the
community and destroying that community.  As you walk
out, I'll be playing "Village Ghetto Land" from
Wonder in 1976.  He was inviting people to come with
him down to his dead end street,
to Village Ghetto Land: See the people lock their doors,
While robbers laugh and steal,
Beggars watch and eat their meals--from garbage cans,
Broken glass is everywhere, It's a bloody scene,
Killing plays--plagues the citizens,
Unless they own police."
Not the most uplifting lecture,
I know, but this is the cultural moment of the early
1970s.  We'll overlap and we'll start talking about
black feminism in the same moment and see a series of
conflicting messages about blackness in the
early 1970s.  Class is over. 
Would you like to go with me,
Down my dead end street, Would you like to come with
me, To Village Ghetto Land,
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Lecture 20. The Politics of Gender and Culture

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黃駿祐 2013 年 12 月 9 日 に公開
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