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So what we're going to talk about today is really why?
intermittent fasting and low carbohydrate diets work Whereas the Calorie counters
It just doesn't seem to work right and the problem with the calorie
theory is [that] it's just like raw and
Because we don't really understand obesity
That's why we can't cure it right, so I'm sure many of you have seen this show. It's called the biggest loser and it's on
North America, it's in Australia
It's everywhere right and what people do is [they're] contestants that compete to lose weight, and they get put on a diet
It's a calorie reduce diet and they do a lot of exercise, and you've seen Jillian Michaels screaming at everybody, right?
So it's a lot of exercise, and they don't show it on the show, but there's actually a fairly severe caloric restriction as well
It's not a low carbohydrate diet
It's more of a kind of everything in moderation
sort of an approach, so the problem of course is that this show has been running for a long time and
Certain of the Contestants have come out and said well
[you] know this really doesn't work now the reason more haven't come out is because they're essentially under a legal gag order, right?
they're actually not allowed to say any of this stuff, but certain contestants have actually come out and
So this contestant Suzanne said well they never do a reunion show why they've all gain that weight again
It's not it's not
Unique to the biggest loser [a] lot of diets and we've all done these Calorie reduce diets
it does the same for everything it does fine for about six months, but then after that it just
Keeps coming back your weight plateaus then it starts to come back and everybody knows this right because everybody's done this diet
The question is why?
Right and that's what we really have to understand and that's what I mean by we have to solve the two compartment problem
And I'll explain that in a second so the biggest loser diet despite the fact that we all know it doesn't work is
actually ranked very highly so Usa news for example just this past year put the biggest loser diet at
Number three for weight loss and number 11 overall so really a very good diet and why not it's a eat less move more
Sort of approach, right cut your calories in increase your calories out and hey presto. You're going to lose weight
So that's why it does so well because all the doctors recommended and so on
The thing is that there have been some studies that have been done [on] these contestants, and it's very interesting to [look]
Scientifically at what actually happens to these people as they do this sort of eat
Less news more approach now the biggest loser of course is that approach on
Steroids [rates] or eating a lot less, and you're moving a lot more, and that's why you get these dramatic weight losses
So one season they actually took these contestants made them signed consents
And then actually did metabolic studies on them and what's interesting is that at first it looks amazing, [right]?
[and] [we've] all seen [that] show right the before on the after it looks amazing and
the studies really bear that out, so if you look at the before [and] after if you look at the
composition of weight loss so at week [six] and week 30 at the end of the
Show is week 30 you can see that. They've lost a lot of weight right. This is 60 kilograms right and this is
Fat mass so most of it is fat right everybody says [aw], you're going to lose muscle. You lose muscle another losing mostly fat
There's a little bit of muscle loss, but it's mostly fat
and this is their body fat percentage you can see it's follows a pretty steady trend downwards and
the average went from
329 pounds to 202 pounds so an amazing result right body fat [went] from 49% to
28% so at the end of the show you get these great results
You have the end of the show everybody wins and they pretend like everything's fine, but we know that it isn't
And why not? What's the problem? It sounds like it should work, right?
You keep doing what you're doing, and you'll keep losing weight
But you don't and the reason and we've known this for [at] least a hundred years is
that your metabolism starts to slow down, and this is what happened to the metabolism of all these contestants, and you can see in the
Solid bar that's their baseline rate of metabolism
Before they start at this and the open circles is that afterwards you can see that in virtually every case
These people are cutting the amount of calories they expend by a lot
okay, so you can look at some of these dramatic examples, so this fellow for example [list] starts out by
Earning Thirty five hundred calories a day and he's dropped all the way to about seventeen hundred [calories] a day, right
And it's not just him. It's everybody
if you take the entire group of people
the average
Decrease in metabolism is over seven hundred calories a day
right, so [if] you start by burning Thirty five hundred
Which is a lot, so you start at two thousand you're going to drop down to like
Twelve Thirteen hundred by the end of the show so you wonder why you're not losing weight?
It's because your metabolism has slowed down so much that if you're burning thirteen hundred and you are eating
[1,500] remember that's still a lot less than you used to eat
You're going to gain the [weight] back
That's exactly what we all know happens
you feel cold [you] feel tired if you're hungry, [you] feel like shit and
The weight is going back up
Right and that's the problem right we all know that's the problem. It's the decrease in metabolism
So you can try to make up for it with more exercise, right?
And that's what they pretend that you can do so you can see that baseline. There's a certain amount
Which is resting metabolic rate certain amount of exercise?
During the show they burn a hell of a lot of calories as exercise you see that the gram tops your total energy expenditure
Is better but when you stop exercising for like you know five hours a day?
Then your exercise goes down, but look at what's happened to your basal metabolism
This is your resting metabolic rate. It's already gone down by week six okay, so don't kid yourself
This is happening all the time
But by week [thirty], it's gone down even or and that's the whole problem you get this
Metabolic Slowdown and because you're not burning as much energy. You don't have that you know liveliness
You don't feel very good
And you can see this
In this graph you can see this is the biggest loser contestants, and you see that the basal metabolic rate just keeps on going down
But there's a similar
Extreme measure that doesn't seem to have this problem and the question is why?
So you can look at bariatric surgery so bariatric surgery is stomach stapling surgery, right?
So you cut your stomach into the size of a walnut you
Really just can't eat and you can't eat for months and months and months and guess what the weight goes down, right?
That's not a surprise
the surprise is that it works to keep weight off in the long term yeah, there are a lot of problems with this okay, so
Let's be clear. I'm not recommending it for anybody, right?
but if you look at the resting metabolic rate
with a similarly sort of extreme measure it goes back up the
[question] is why so this is another?
Study of the long-term effects of bariatrics and you can see that a baseline and a follow-up. This is several [years] [later]
The resting metabolic rate and the total energy expenditure how much energy you're burning has really not gone down
Right as opposed to the eat less move more where it keeps going down keeps going down until you fail, right?
That of course is the saddest part of all right the saddest part of the entire thing is that we know about this
metabolic slowdown this was shown in
1915 so we've known about it for a hundred years
what I think is sad, is that we give people this really horrific advice to eat less and move more and
Then when they fail, we blame them for it
Right and that's basically. You're blaming the victim because here's this poor fellow or poor lady
Who's victimized?
Because they're suffering from obesity from type 2 diabetes you give them really bad advice
Which you know is going to fail because we've all done it it fails every single time and then when the weight goes back
You say yeah, you should have listened to me better. You should have had more willpower
you shouldn't have eaten that bagel or whatever it is you tell people right and that's really the saddest [part] of all is that we
Try to pretend that the advice that we give is really good and the failure lies with all of you
Right, but doesn't doesn't make any sense right? How can like?
forty fifty percent of the population
Be so morally bankrupt that they let this happen to them is it not more
Logical that the advice that we gave was just really crappy that seems to me much more sensible
So we're going to explain why this
sort of discrepancy exists
So in order to do that you have to understand what happens when you eat, okay?
[so] what happens when you eat? Is that insulin goes up? So most foods almost all foods have a
mixture of macronutrients [fat]
Carbohydrates and protein so your insulin goes up to a varying degree and insulin
Basically is the hormone that [tells] your body to store fat
So it stops your body from burning fat you start to store some of the sugar and store some of the fat
Okay, and this is normal. This is a normal situation
Carbohydrates get turned into glycogen which are chains of glucose so chains of glucose in the liver?
Is basically a storage form of sugar okay? And when you have too much of that then your liver produces?
Lipids which is called
De Novo lipogenesis, and it basically stores fat okay, so when you don't eat when you're fasting
So fasting is merely the absence of eating your insulin levels fall
And that's a signal to start pulling some of that energy out
Right so you're going to start by pulling some energy out from the glycogen
Which is your stored [sugar]?
And you're going to pour some pull some energy out [of] the stored fat so you can think of it the glycogen
Like a refrigerator right you're storing food energy
And the reason it's like [a] refrigerator
Is that it's easy to access so [you] can get put food in easily you can take food out easily, right?
It's just food energy and the fat is more like your freezer
Okay, so you can store more of it, but it's in your [basement]
You know it's hard to get to it's hard to get out
It's hard to put in so you generally prefer to use your refrigerator
and it's the same idea you have two storage forms of energy one easy to use and one not so easy to use the
refrigerator though has a limited capacity
[so] if you put if you have too much stuff you have no choice
But to put it in your freezer
Now the reason that the calories don't work is that they operate on what I call a one compartment model
Okay, so that means they pretend that all your calories goes in to your body
And it's all the same all your calories are the same
they're stored in one giant compartment like this sink and
When it comes to taking out energy it all comes out of the same thing
right therefore if you follow this sort of very simplistic
Incorrect model what you see is that if you simply reduce the calories going in?
You'll reduce your weight and if you increase the calories out you'll increase the rate
but the entire premise of this sort of calories in calories out model is
completely fictitious
because we know that's not what happens in the body the body doesn't have some giant vat of
Calories right you can store sugar you can store fat. It's not some giant vat of calories
That's held somewhere in your liver, right?
But that's what they all pretend it is so if you have the entire wrong idea of why this should work?
Then it's not going to work
What instead is?
A better model is a two compartment model that is there are two places in the body where you can store food?
You've got your fridge
And you've got your freezer your calories goes in into your fridge calories goes
From the fridge because that's the easiest place it goes, but there's a third thing that you have to consider
And that is how much food goes back and forth between the freezer and the fridge because that's what we're really interested in
the fat, but that's the one that's much harder to get to
Right and the question is what's controlling this?
because that's really the key and
It turns out that the main player is insulin we know this because insulin
inhibits lipolysis
Right what that means is it stops you from getting the fat coming out? That's a job
That's a normal job. So if you have a lot of insulin
right so normally if you eat a huge meal your insulin is high it's going to tell the body to move all the
Storage in this way if your insulin is very high then you can't get the food back out this way
And that's the problem
So if you have a lot of insulin resistance for example which keeps your insulin levels very high it's like that
Freezer is kind of locked away in the [basement] behind the lock you know steel bar. You can't get at it
so what happens now when you start reducing your calories if
you start reducing your calories in and
You can't get at your storage
What your body is simply going to do is reduce the calories out?
That's what it does right because it's not going to keep losing weight until you die
That's just ridiculous right, so if you look at the women's health initiative
Which was a huge fifty thousand person study. They reduce calories by
[350] Odd
per day for like seven years and they estimated that
People would lose 30 pounds women would lose 30 [pounds] per year
Right so in seven years. They should have lost 210 pounds right of course that didn't happen
[how] much did they lose not even a single pound it was ridiculous because?
What happened of course is that their body is if you're not affecting me in insulin you can't get at that fat?
You're just going to reduce [your] calorie though, and notice here of course that we're not breaking any laws of thermodynamics
Calories in calories out yeah, you're accounting for all the calories
[but] what's important is the compartmentalization of energy right?
That's what we're talking [about] not the total energy, but where it goes
Right because that's what we want to know if you eat, and you just burn [it] off
Who cares that'd be great?
But if you eat and all of it goes into fat well now you care a lot, right?
But it's not that calories [are] imbalance if you eat an extra 500 calories your body burns it all off as fat
Bob burns it all off as heat. Yeah who cares you don't have any extra body fat, but if you get 500 extra calories
Boom the insulin is telling it all to shunt into here. Well, that's a problem and
That's really the problem of the two compartment syndrome
So if you look at what happens during fasting?
What happens because everybody worries about this right? Oh, what [about] protein you're burning your muscle, right?
So this is a study by Kevin Hall
from the nih
And he basically looked what happens during fasting and this is what happens, right?
So for the first couple of days of fasting what you see is that carbohydrate oxidation goes off?
It goes way up right in other words. You're burning sugar you can see that fat doesn't actually move for a couple of days
You're not burning a hell of a lot of fat
Right and then as you run out [of] the glycogen remember that the glycogen is
You're easily accessed energy, but limited in terms of how much you can store once it all burns out
then look
Fat oxidation goes off now. You're burning fat for energy
That's perfect that's exactly [what] we want to do, but what happened to protein are you burning muscle?
Hell, no, it goes up slightly, okay at the very beginning then drops
So protein is not a storage form of energy
Why would your body burn it for energy, right?
You hear this argument all the time you're going [to] burn muscle
Right so it's ridiculous right because you're telling me that the way
We're designed is to store energy as fat, but when the chips are down, we'll burn muscle, right?
Okay, like I don't think so right. It's like if you have a wood-burning
Stove [you] store firewood right because you're going to burn it
But when the chips are [down] you don't you chop up [your] sofa and throw it into the fire right? It's crazy
The other thing that's ridiculous is that if you have repeated fast famine cycles like Cavemen might have had for instance
So you store fat burn burn muscle right so at the end of a few of these cycles?
You're like one giant ball of [100%] fat right it's like that's what happens to the bears right? It's like come on
Don't be ridiculous. You don't burn muscle
Protein yes, you do need a certain amount of protein [to] maintain your lean protein right, but it's not
Increased that's my point. It's not that it's not zero. There is some right, but it's not
increased in response to fasting
So the reason that I talk about fasting and low carbohydrate diets is that?
What it does very effectively [and] probably more effectively than any other intervention is it empties out that fridge?
right and remember what you want to do is get rid [of] all that insulin -
Right because now if you don't have insulin telling your body to shunt all that energy into fat
Now you can start to move your calories out this way
Right if you have a lot of insulin, so we do this for example
If if we give people exhaustion as insulin they can't lose weight
Right even if they fast it's very hard because they can't access that fat. They just keep reducing their calorie expenditure
But the whole point is [that] fasting provides the easiest way you get rid of all [that] glycogen?
You got your insulin down so you can actually access your body fat and there and the whole thing is that why can't you?
you know I asked my son one time a
Few Years ago, you know, how do you lose weight these goes? Here's six or seven at the time, and he goes just don't eat
So easy right it's like, huh?
How can you be so right about this?
point that has escaped like
99% of the world's doctors and dietitians
Right if you don't need you're going to lose weight and here's the thing to understand. There's nothing wrong with it
That's the way we're built
Right that's the way lions are built its we tigers are built that's what bears are built. That's the way we're built
We're built to withstand
These repeated episodes where there's no food right because back in the Caveman days. There's no
McDonald's, there's no refrigerator. There's nothing there there are times you're going to have nothing. That's why you have fat
Right, that's the whole point
So one of the most ironic things is that this is what you hear all the time?
Fasting is going to put you into starvation mode, right?
This is actually very ironic
Starvation mode refers to the idea that your metabolism
Slows to such an extent that you're going to regain weight okay, so I've heard that before somewhere, right?
That's exactly what happens when you try to reduce your calories
right if you don't do anything about your insulin and just reduce your calories your
Metabolism goes down you're going into starvation mode, but what happens during fasting does it happen?
well, here's a study of four consecutive days of fasting right, so
This is in normal people right and what you see is [that] at the top the weight goes down right? So that's great
That's exactly what we expect to see but what happens to your [ree]. This is this middle line here
That's the resting energy expenditure
Right that's your basal metabolism
It doesn't go down
It goes up
Right you're burning more [energy] than you did
Now you might think why is that so well? It makes a lot of sense because
suppose again, you're a Caveman [and]
[there's] nothing to eat. It's winter
There's nothing to eat right so if your body starts shutting down
Then you're even less likely to find something to eat because you're tired you can't go out there and hunt a woolly mammoth you're tired
Right you need to sleep. So that's gonna you're all going to die like that
Right your body is just not that stupid right your body says wow you have nothing to [eat]
So I'm going to give you energy
I'm going to increase the amount of energy you're burning and I'm going to provide it from your fat stores
Because you need to go out and eat and fill up this refrigerator again, right?
So that's exactly what you do otherwise. We wouldn't be here right. It'd be like cockroaches and insects running the world
So what happens to your vo2 right? That's how much oxygen you can metabolize right does it slow down
No it goes up
Right again you have more capacity to do exercise more energy, and why is that so?
One you're burning fat for energy and your body's like whoo. There's a lot of this right, so there's plenty of it. Let's go
but the other thing you see is that the norepinephrine so norepinephrine and ePinephrine are called adrenaline or
Noradrenaline so your body is actually providing you with a big kick in the pants to keep your energy
expenditure High
Because that's what you need to do to survive
so insulin drops which is one of the major things that we want to see and
Your hormone, so that's a hormonal remember obesity is a hormonal disease it goes up
It's providing you the tools to burn fat. So there's no starvation mode
Actually, it's quite the opposite it goes up
You can do something [called] alternate daily fasting which is kind of one day of fasting [one-off] and [in]
These studies is [not] actually a full fast so they still allow about 500 calories on those fasting day
So it's not even a true fast, but the calories are low
That you still get the benefits and you again
If you look at the resting metabolic rate which is the first line you can see that [from] baseline to Day 22
So you know a couple [of] weeks of alternate daily fasting your resting metabolic rate really hasn't dropped
fat oxidation
Goes way up, right, so you're burning fat
You can't argue with that right you can measure these [things] you're burning fat
Why because you have no carbohydrate to burn?
Right because you're clearing out that fridge you're clearing out [all] that storage sugar and burning fat. That's great
That's exactly what we want [do]
The other thing we talked a little bit about already is that you're going to burn muscle right and again
The idea is that here you're going to burn protein to provide glucose?
right and this doesn't actually happen and this has been known again for
20-25 years
so if you look at your reah reah is this big line camp, so it's [a] breakdown product of
Protein so you can see that
You excrete a certain amount of nitrogen every day you're also taking in a certain amount of nitrogen every day, right?
This is under normal conditions. Now. You fast people like you just give them nothing to eat. Well. What happens well there's?
Virtually, no you're really out
right now there's nothing going in [to]
But what you you notice?
Is that you're not burning muscle because if you're burning muscle that urea should skyrocket or at least be as high as this
Your body is actively conserving your protein your muscle, mass, right?
And that's what happens during fasting and you [can] do
70 days of Alternate Daily fasting right
So 70 days is more than two in a bit months and what you see
Is that if you measure fat, mass and fat free mass in this study?
You can see that fat mass goes down very nicely from forty three point five to thirty eight point one
Kilos and the fat free mass your lean mass doesn't move at all so
These are sort of some of the myths that everybody tells you right servation mode burning protein and here's my favorite, right?
It doesn't work that is never going to work right? It's like okay genius
if you don't eat
Do you think you will lose weight right? Well? Yes, you will
Right so it's not exactly a very good comeback for people to say it won't work because it will definitely
Work, okay, it will definitely work. I'm not saying it's easy, okay. That's a whole other thing
Can you do it? That's a separate question
I actually think that most people can do it, but if you are able to do it yes, you will lose weight right and
here's the thing
so back in the
1960s they have done a bunch of studies on these patients and what they did was they admitted them to hospital
They did that back then and they just watched them and you can see that people lose weight
And here's the thing that always says people are goes
Oh, how about women women shouldn't fast like why not? Don't you think you'll lose weight?
Yes, you will now if you're underweight, then yeah, you shouldn't be fasting right you're going to get a man areia
you're going to get menstrual problems, but if your
Need to lose weight yes, you will lose weight, and that's exactly what they found in all these studies
So you have men they lose weight women they lose weight right and what you can see that it's fairly steady
There's no kind of drop-off right. There's no drop off that kind of dreaded weight [plateau]
Because that's the whole problem with weight regain is that we all plateau
There's so many advantages to fasting that are just not available in that it's completely different from most
Diets which tell you what to do because this is really the opposite. It's something you don't do right
So one of the biggest advantages is really that it's completely
Simple you can explain it in like two seconds and everybody understands
Intrinsically what it is right now there are variations right? There's fact fasters juice fasts. There's you know water-only fast
There's no water fasts. There's all kinds of variations
But at it's very core. It's easy to understand and that's important because if people don't understand what you're trying to do
They can't do it, right
[it's] free
Like you know as much as I would love to always eat home-cooked meals
And you know long simmered bone broth the truth is that?
most of us
Sometimes don't have the time and don't have the inclination
Don't have the money if you want to eat grass-Fed beef every day
It's going to cost you you want to eat organic all the time. It's going to cost you not saying that
You shouldn't but it's expensive and some people just have no money
So I have people who write me from the philippines, and they're like you know I got all this stuff
And I can't [afford] anything. It's like well
There is no cost. There's no cost at all
It's convenient right so again you can cook all you want
But it takes time right it takes time and sometimes you just don't have the time, but this one. There's no shopping
There's no preparation. There's no cooking. There's no cleanup. There's no eating
There's nothing
It's so convenient because again the key is it's not something to do
It's something to not do right
And that makes it completely different in sometimes something that you can add something that's completely
Flexible right so it's not like oh yeah, you need [to] eat six times a day, [right]
It's like sometimes you just don't want to eat a snack today sometimes you're busy, right
Well, this is going to give you more time you can put it in anywhere you can do it
Tomorrow, and you cannot do it the whole next week, and then do it again right you can do whatever you want
It's completely flexible
Do it for 12 hours you could do it for 12 days right? It doesn't matter and
really the the
Point is that you can add it to any diet because again
It's something that you can put in and fit in wherever you need to right so say you want to eat the you know
The rice diet or something like that you [get] still fast right? That's the whole point
[you] [don't] eat meat. You can still fast right? You don't eat wheat
You can still fast you have a nut [allergy] you can still fast right you don't have time. Hey
You can so fast
You don't have money you can still fast you're traveling all day. You can still fast right you know cook yeah?
you can still fast right and
probably the most important thing is that
It really has unlimited power right and it's a doctor sometimes you get into these things where?
You want to do something and it's not strong enough, right?
Well, you can just keep fasting until you get the results you [see] as I said if you don't eat you will lose weight
Right you're almost it's almost impossible to not write. Can you keep it up? That's a separate question, right?
I'm not saying it's easy
I'm not saying that I mean you do [have] to have the proper medical supervision especially if you're on medications
So on but you could fast you could fast
I have a 75 year old who did like 30 days, right?
You felt great right the world record is [382] days
You can keep going right, and this is the whole point is that this gives you?
Because it's not a diet. It's no diet. It's nothing right? It's like [Costanza] to show about [nothing] [right]?
There's a talk about nothing right?
Georgie stands [us] so smart
That's the whole point is that because it's the opposite it gives you so much flexibility
And it has the ability to really free ourselves
So the chains that bind us down right we have all these problems right the number one problem in the world today
Right you got heart attacks you got cancer. You got strokes you got diabetes you got kidney disease and it's all due to
Obesity it's all due to diabetes
but yet, we have
The ability to free ourselves from all of these modern afflictions
only with the application of
a technique
they [new]
5,000 years ago
The ancient Greeks were all about fasting not for health
They didn't have a lot of obesity back then but because it gave you energy gave you like mental focus, right?
that's why they did it and
these involuntary periods of fasting eventually got taken out, right as we
Started getting more reliable food then religion started introducing periods of fasting right?
so if you look at any major religion in the world they have periods of fasting
Their periods of feasting - that's balanced by periods of fasting right [I] remember
That they're not trying to kill all their practitioners right not like oh, you should fast you'll die. Haha
That's not it at all right?
It did it because there is something deeply
Intrinsically beneficial to the fasting right and it was always known always
It's a cleanse. It's a detox right
There's probably only one thing that the three most influential people in the history of the world agreed on right?
So the prophet [muhammad] Jesus Christ and Buddha
They all agreed on one [thing]
and that is
fasting is
Very beneficial [it's] uniquely beneficial
Not only for the Spirit, but also for your body
we need to clean ourselves out [of] this junk that accumulates, right all this extra sugar all the
Insulin all the fat we need to clean it out once in a while, right? It's a spring cleaning. That's all it is
And yet with the application of this kind of ancient time-tested technique. We can break free of all this
Right you know in the last century. We broke free of a lot of infectious diseases, right?
Tuberculosis pneumonia and all this and now all that replaced with was all these diseases
But we have the knowledge we only have to apply it, and that's the most ironic part of all we won't
But there's no reason why we won't we've always been told
By everybody that we have to do that and yet. Why do we not?
My son knew it
Any questions. We have a couple of minutes left
Thank you very much


Dr. Jason Fung - 'Therapeutic Fasting - Solving the Two-Compartment Problem'

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eddy 2020 年 1 月 16 日 に公開
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