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  • "Hayashi sensei ga odoroku, hatsumimigaku!"


  • This is Hayashi Osamu, a cram school teacher who became famous for a commercial in which

    こちらが林修 塾の先生で、有名になったきっかけがCMの

  • he says "ja itsu yaru kaima desho!"


  • That's easy for him to say because Hayashi Sensei here is blood type O and as we know


  • from the 2013 anime "ketsuekigatakun" orBlood type kun,” blood type O people have great

    なぜかというと2013のアニメ:「血液型くん」(BLOOD TYPEくん)によるとO型の人は

  • focus and can stay up all night studying.


  • You see, in Japan, blood types are sort of like zodiac signs.


  • Many people believe that blood type affects personality and can determine things like


  • the compatibility of a marriage partner.


  • And, this idea has been widespread since at least the 1970's when journalist Nomi Masahiko

    このアイデアが人気になったのは1970代 きっかけはジャーナリストの能見正比古の本

  • made it popular.

    このアイデアが人気になったのは1970代 きっかけはジャーナリストの能見正比古の本

  • Blood type is more likely to be brought up by women when on the topic of romance, but


  • it's not uncommon for blood type to appear in the media and many other places.


  • This is famous singer Nishino Kana's 2015 song about blood type A people.- “Datte


  • watashi A gata da shi, yappari are kore to shinpai…”


  • One Japanese television show aired an experiment to see how kids would react when a “substitute

    テレビで 園児が担任先生に花瓶がとても大切だと言われ

  • teacherdropped a vase that the kids were told was very important.


  • They saw that blood type A kids right away told on the substitute teacher, type B kept


  • the secret, type O also told on the sub, and AB promised to keep it secret but then ratted

    B型が割ったのを内緒にし、 O型が担任先生に知らし、 AB型が内緒にすると言ったが、

  • the sub out anyway.


  • In 1990 the Asahi newspaper reported that Mitsubishi Electronics created a small team


  • composed entirely of blood type AB people, thanks to theirexcellent creativity and

    メンバーはAB型の人だけ AB型は「アイデア、企画力に優れている」からという

  • planning skills".

    メンバーはAB型の人だけ AB型は「アイデア、企画力に優れている」からという

  • In 2011, ex-Minister Ryu Matsumoto, famously conducted himself in an unprofessional way


  • that led to his resignation.


  • He blamed the rude behavior and abrasive remarks he made towards two governors on the fact


  • that he was blood type B. "B-gata de tanrakuteki na tokoro ga atte" That same year, an issue


  • of Asahi Newspaper talked about how some new graduates were worried that they were being


  • discriminated against during hiring processes for being blood type B.


  • It's not particularly common, but people can sometimes be asked what their blood type


  • is during a job interview, and on some companies' job application sheet, there's even a field


  • to fill in your blood type.


  • One twitter user wrote in 2015 that one of his work superiors said thatblood type


  • O people are usually irresponsible so I don't want to hire them.”


  • Now let me be clear that I'm not trying to present this as a big societalproblem

    もちろんこの動画で血液型(によっての差別など)は 社会問題になっていると言いたいのではなく、

  • - the point of these examples is simply to illustrate how widespread the concept is in


  • Japan.


  • According to data from 2016, somewhere around 40% of Japanese people believe that blood


  • type contributes to your personality, but what was most surprising to me was that: According

    性格に繋がると信じている が、自分がびっくりしたのは

  • to a 2017 survey from an online community exclusive to doctors called medpeer, 38% of


  • doctors thought that blood type affects personality.


  • Let's first take a quick look at the history of this.


  • In 1901, Austrian Physician Karl Landsteiner discovered blood types and we now can type


  • blood based the antigens on the blood cell.


  • Simply put you are A, B, AB or O depending on if you have A antigens, B antigens, both

    つまり、血液型がA,B,ABを決めるのは Aの抗原、Bの抗原、AとBの抗原、

  • antigens or neither of the antigens.

    どれが付く または両方も付かないとO型になる

  • By the way, ABO is just one of many blood grouping systems, but it's what we'll


  • focus on for this video.


  • In 1910, German scientists Ludwig Hirszfeld and Emil von Dungern demonstrated that blood

    1910年にドイツの科学者 ルドウィック・ヒルズフェルドとE・フォン・デュんゲルンが

  • type is an inherited trait, which was recognized as a huge milestone for human genetics.

    血液型は遺伝形質であることを証明し、 これが遺伝学の中の大きな発展

  • Around this time, it was found that Japan had twice as many blood blood type B people as did Europeans.

    この頃、日本人はヨーロッパの人より血液型Bの人が 2倍多いことが明らかになった

  • Emil von Dungern made the baseless and unclassy comment that blood type B people, and therefore


  • Asians with their higher percentage of blood type B people are inferior.


  • Other researchers including Ludwig Hirszfeld had also made negative comments about blood


  • type B people.


  • This inflammatory commentary is what caused professor Furukawa Takeji to begin investigating


  • how blood type affects personality.


  • He wanted to prove that there is nothing wrong with the character of blood type B people.


  • He started his work by analyzing 11 of his relatives.


  • He found that blood type A people were shoukyokuteki which translates toinactive,” orpassive.”


  • The blood type B and O people were sekkyokuteki which meanspositive,” orassertive.”


  • This encouraged Furukawa to go on and look at colleagues and students as well, investigating 319 more people.


  • His results were presented in a 1926 paper titledResearch on Temperament due to blood

    結果は1926年の研究書で発表され、タイトルは 「血液型による気質の研究」

  • typehe came up with these traits for each blood type:


  • Then, In 1931 Furukawa published a sensational article in the famous economics magazine jitsugyounonihon


  • titled: "Astonishing new discovery---you can understand career and marriage compatibility


  • through blood type" But, by 1933 the Japanese Society of Legal Medicine said that there


  • was no relationship between blood type and personality, criticizing Furukawa's statistical


  • methods and dismissing his findings .

    統計学的にあまりにも雑なため、 古川学説はほぼ否定された

  • Public interest in the topic remained for a while, but eventually fizzled out.


  • Then, about 40 years later, interest in blood type boomed again thanks to journalist Nomi


  • Masahiko's bookBlood Type Anthropology,” with the subtext: “Become happy by analyzing

    「血液型人間学― あなたを幸せにする性分析」

  • your personality.”

    「血液型人間学― あなたを幸せにする性分析」

  • In the book he pointed out that a majority of the post war Japanese prime ministers were


  • blood type O and that many successful baseball players from Japan and Korea were blood type


  • O or type B.


  • In Nomi Masahiko's 1978 bookNew Blood Type Anthropology,” he discusses some data


  • from that same year - 1978, from the AIU insurance company.


  • After looking at 1374 people involved in car accidents across 3 months, they found that

    3ヶ月に加害者となった交通事故経験者1374人を 調査し

  • those with blood type O were significantly more likely to be involved in an accident


  • and blood type A people were less likely to be in an accident.


  • Blood type O people made up 5% more than expect of the accidents, and blood type A people

    加害者のO型率は日本人平均のO型率より+5%多く、 加害者のA型率は日本人平均のA型率よ -4%少なかった

  • made up 4% less than expected.

    加害者のO型率は日本人平均のO型率より+5%多く、 加害者のA型率は日本人平均のA型率よ -4%少なかった

  • Initially, this data might seem pretty convincing.


  • But several years later, in 1995, the story was flipped.


  • Type O's were exonerated and now type A's were the bad guys.


  • 3234 accidents in Ibaraki across two months showed that type A people were much more likely


  • to have a car accident and type O people were much less likely to have one.


  • Despite this inconsistency with the 1978 data, conclusions were even made about which blood

    1978年のデータと一貫性がなかったのに、 どれの血液型のほうが事故起こす可能性が高いのか、

  • type is more likely to have what type of accident, as is illustrated in this easy to understand

    それぞれの血液型がどんなような事故を起こしやすい などを説明するインフォグラフィックが出版された

  • comic.

    それぞれの血液型がどんなような事故を起こしやすい などを説明するインフォグラフィックが出版された

  • Just this year, 2018, Takeda Tomohiro published a book titled: “It's really amazing!

    2018年(今年)に、武田 知弘が本を出版し、タイトルが:「本当はすごい!

  • Blood types.


  • The new truth can be seen from statistics.”


  • In the chapter titledThe mystery of No type A sluggershe points out that all


  • of the top ten Japanese home run batters and top ten batters with the most hits are either

    日本プロ野球の歴代ホームランバッター10位 と安打歴代10位は

  • type B or O.


  • This might sound like impressive data, "Kore chotto hottokenai data desu ne."

    これも説得力のあるデータかもしれない 「これちょっとほっとけないデータですね」

  • But then again, this is looking at only 20 people.

    が、14人のデータだけです。 (安打10位とホームラン数10位合わせて14人)

  • When you look at the distribution of blood types across the 786 players in the 12 teams


  • of the Japanese pro baseball league, it is hardly different from that of the national


  • blood type distribution.


  • Let's look at some science on what we're confident that blood type does have bearing

    では、血液型はどのようなことに影響があるでしょう 研究のデータを見てみよう

  • on.

    では、血液型はどのようなことに影響があるでしょう 研究のデータを見て見てみよう

  • There's a lot of research showing blood type does affect your health in several ways.


  • But


  • Blood type O's get most of the perks.


  • They are less likely to get pancreatic cancer, are less likely to get Malaria, are less likely

    O型のほうが すい臓がんのリスクが低く マラリアのリスクも低く

  • to get diabetes and are less likely to develop cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline

    糖尿病かかるリスクも低く、 心臓病と老齢による認知症のリスクの低い

  • in old age.


  • Type O's can thank lower levels of von Willebrand factor, a blood clotting agent for their protection

    O型の心臓病と認知症のリスクが低いのは 「フォン・ビルブラント因子」という 血液中の凝固因子の少なさのおかげ

  • against heart disease and cognitive decline, but this also means they are more likely to

    O型の心臓病と認知症のリスクが低いのは 「フォン・ビルブラント因子」という 血液中の凝固因子の少なさのおかげ

  • die from severe trauma.


  • You may have heard of the bookEat right for your type” - "Now did you ever think

    「自分のタイプに合ったダイエット」 という本がアメリカで1996年頃に流行った

  • your blood type has anything to do with your diet?


  • Well this doctor says that it does."


  • author Peter D'Adamo claims that your ticket to good health is eating in a way that is

    その本の作家、ピーター・ディアダモによると健康で 生きるには血液型にふさわしい食べ方をするのが大事

  • suitable for your blood type.

    その本の作家、ピーター・ディアダモによると健康で 生きるには血液型にふさわしい食べ方をするのが大事

  • He provides several lines of reasoning to back up his claims which I may discuss in

    ディアダモは血液型とダイエットの繋がりを 詳しく説明するが

  • another video, but this blood type diet of his seems to be like the diet version of the

    「血液型ダイエット」の効き目は バーナム効果にとても似ている

  • Barnum effect.

    「血液型ダイエット」の効き目は バーナム効果にとても似ている

  • The barnum effect is where someone will be given a fortune or description of their personality

    バーナム効果とは 被験者の星座・生年月日などの情報に基づいて 被験者の性格の詳しい説明書類を用意する

  • based on their star sign or blood type and the person may say it sounds very accurate-

    と被験者は言われる 書類を渡され、被験者がその説明を読み、 とても正確に当たっていると言う

  • it sounds just like them.

    と被験者は言われる 書類を渡され、被験者がその説明を読み、 とても正確に当たっていると言う

  • "I can't believe he analyzed me so accurately."


  • "It does feel actually so personal, it's actually quite hard for me to share."

    「内容がシェアしにくいほどとてもパーソナルな ところも説明されてる」

  • "It's kind of astounding.


  • I've always believed in something like it, but it also shocks me because I didn't think

    「こういうのは前から少し信じてたけど、 ここまで当たるとは思わなかった」

  • it would work so well."

    「こういうのは前から少し信じてたけど、 ここまで当たるとは思わなかった」

  • But in reality, the description was vague enough to where it could have applied to anyone.

    しかし実はその性格説明書は誰もが 当たるほど曖昧な内容だった

  • "Yea, I'm afraid you have all got the exact same reading."


  • A 2014 study found that the diets found inEat right for your type” - the blood

    2014年の研究書によるとディアダモの本にある 4つのダイエットの中

  • type A diet, AB diet and O diet provided benefits like lowered BMI, waist circumference, blood

    A型ダイエット,AB型ダイエット,O型ダイエットは BMIの低下・胴囲の縮み・

  • pressure, triglycerides and insulin, ...but it didn't matter who followed which diet.


  • You could be blood type O and still get the benefits from a blood type A diet.

    どの人がA・AB・Oのダイエットしたら効果を得れた つまりO型の人がA型のダイエットしても効果は同じ

  • However, D'Adamo claims thatStudies have shown that Type O has a stress response

    ディアダモによると「研究に証明されたのはO型の ストレス反応は戦うか逃げるか反応に基づいている」

  • that centers on fight-or-flight.”

    ディアダモによると「研究に証明されたのはO型の ストレス反応は戦うか逃げるか反応に基づいている」

  • He explains that the neurotransmitter dopamine is converted into the neurotransmitter norepinephrine

    なぜかというと、ドパミンという神経伝達物質が 伝達物質のノルエピネフリンに変更されるには

  • by an enzyme called dopamine beta-hydroxylase, and that blood type O people have higher levels

    ドーパミンβ-ヒドロキシラーゼという酵素(DBH)が必要 で、O型の人のほうがこの酵素の量が多いので

  • of DBH, so they are prone to anxiety from increased levels of norepinephrine.

    ノルエピネフリンの量が普通以上多く、 O型のほうが不安感になりやすいという

  • Higher levels of norepinephrine apparently also causes a tendency towards anger and aggression.


  • Hence, this is why he recommends type O people to do vigorous exercise and eat a lot of protein


  • because that will block the enzyme DBH.


  • In the book, there are no reference numbers next to his claims, andAppendix G: The


  • Scientific Evidencedidn't have any information on where he got this dopamine beta-hydroxylase

    本の後ろにある「Appendix G - 化学的証拠」には DBH酵素に関しての研究書など何も載っていない

  • idea, but I went ahead and looked into it and found a paper by a Donna Hobgood under


  • Medical Hypotheses


  • She explains that the gene for the enzyme we just discussed - dopamine beta hydroxylase

    ドンナ・ホブグードによると、 DBH酵素のための遺伝子は

  • is on chromosome 9q34 and is in tight linkage disequilibrium with the ABO blood typing gene.

    染色体9q34に乗っていて、血液型を規定する遺伝子 と密接な連鎖不平衡している

  • This might have been what one of the Japanese doctors in the earlier mentioned medpeer survey


  • was referring to when he said that the reason he believes blood type is related to personality


  • is thatHe had heard that the gene for blood type and personality factors are close


  • to each other on DNA.”

    その医者が書いた理由は「DNAにおいて、血液型と 性格因子を規定する遺伝子が近いからですね。」

  • Hobgood says in her paper thatlow activity DBH would relate to impulsive behaviors while

    ホブグードは仮説として言う: 「DBH酵素の低活動は衝動的な行動に関連するが

  • high activity DBH would relate to persistent behaviors.”


  • Then, in 2015, inspired by the hypothesis presented by Hobgood, Japanese researchers

    2015年に、ホブグードの仮説の検証として、 日本の研究者が

  • investigatedABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.”


  • The results of the study showed significant differences in persistence scores, showing


  • that subjects with the blood type A allele were more persistent.