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  • Electricity is all around us all the time.​

    電気が身近にあるおかげで

  • Electricity is all around us all the time.​

    快適・安全・愉快な生活ができる

  • It makes our lives easier, safer, more fun,​

    普段は意識しないけどね

  • It makes our lives easier, safer, more fun,​

    だがそうは言っても 電気が多すぎではないだろうか

  • and most of us never think about it.​

    現代社会のインフラのせいで 我々は緩やかな死を迎えるのだろうか

  • and most of us never think about it.​

    本題の前に

  • But is there such a thing as too much electricity?​

    電気とは何か、我々にどう影響するのか 勉強しよう

  • But is there such a thing as too much electricity?​

  • Could the thing that is the foundation of the modern world

  • Could the thing that is the foundation of the modern world

  • slowly be killing us?​

  • slowly be killing us?​

  • Before we dive deeper,​

  • Before we dive deeper,​

  • let's try to understand what electricity is,​

  • let's try to understand what electricity is,​

  • and how it affects us.​

  • and how it affects us.​

  • Electricity is the movement of an electric charge.​

  • Electricity is the movement of an electric charge.​

  • This movement generates ​​ElectricandMagnetic Fields

  • This movement generates ​​ElectricandMagnetic Fields

  • that spread out through space and carry energy.​

  • that spread out through space and carry energy.​

  • We call this phenomenon:​ ​​​Electromagnetic Radiation​.​

  • We call this phenomenon:​ ​​​Electromagnetic Radiation​.​

  • Radiation is a word that makes people very nervous.​

  • Radiation is a word that makes people very nervous.​

  • But, to radiate just means, "giving off".​

  • But, to radiate just means, "giving off".​

  • Like when the radiator in your house gives off heat

  • Like when the radiator in your house gives off heat

  • in the form of infrared radiation.​

  • in the form of infrared radiation.​

  • Different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

  • Different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

  • correspond to different types of radiation.​

  • correspond to different types of radiation.​

  • And, many of them are perfectly harmless.​

  • And, many of them are perfectly harmless.​

  • Some of them can be dangerous though.​

  • Some of them can be dangerous though.​

  • Radiation with very short wavelengths

  • Radiation with very short wavelengths

  • like UV Light, X-Rays, and Gamma Rays

  • like UV Light, X-Rays, and Gamma Rays

  • are strong enough to rip electrons out of their atoms,​

  • are strong enough to rip electrons out of their atoms,​

  • which can cause burns and genetic damage.​

  • which can cause burns and genetic damage.​

  • This is what many people have in mind when they hear the term "radiation".​

  • This is what many people have in mind when they hear the term "radiation".​

  • The rest of the spectrum covers a large range of longer waves

  • The rest of the spectrum covers a large range of longer waves

  • from Visible Light, Infrared,​

  • from Visible Light, Infrared,​

  • Microwaves, to Radio Waves.​

  • Microwaves, to Radio Waves.​

  • This is the kind of radiation that's emitted by all sorts of human technology.​

  • This is the kind of radiation that's emitted by all sorts of human technology.​

  • Mobile phones, Wi-Fi routers,​

  • Mobile phones, Wi-Fi routers,​

  • electric power lines, and household appliances.​

  • electric power lines, and household appliances.​

  • This radiation doesn't disrupt molecules in our body.​

  • This radiation doesn't disrupt molecules in our body.​

  • However, some kinds of radiation can stimulate muscles and nerves

  • However, some kinds of radiation can stimulate muscles and nerves

  • and can also make the hair on your body vibrate,​

  • and can also make the hair on your body vibrate,​

  • which can sometimes cause a tingly feeling above certain threshold values.​

  • which can sometimes cause a tingly feeling above certain threshold values.​

  • Other kinds are useful for making dinner.​

  • Other kinds are useful for making dinner.​

  • Microwaves push the water molecules in your food around

  • Microwaves push the water molecules in your food around

  • which warms it up.​

  • which warms it up.​

  • This happens to us all the time.​

  • This happens to us all the time.​

  • For example, the pleasant warmth you feel at the beach

  • For example, the pleasant warmth you feel at the beach

  • is your skin heating up from exposure to

  • is your skin heating up from exposure to

  • electromagnetic infrared radiation from the sun.​

  • electromagnetic infrared radiation from the sun.​

  • We are surrounded by natural, and generally harmless,​

  • We are surrounded by natural, and generally harmless,​

  • sources of electromagnetic radiation all the time

  • sources of electromagnetic radiation all the time

  • and always have been.​

  • and always have been.​

  • But, since the Industrial Revolution,​

  • But, since the Industrial Revolution,​

  • we have added a lot of it to our immediate environment.​

  • we have added a lot of it to our immediate environment.​

  • The question of whether this is actually dangerous

  • The question of whether this is actually dangerous

  • first got public attention when a 1979 study

  • first got public attention when a 1979 study

  • linked leukemia to living near power lines.​

  • linked leukemia to living near power lines.​

  • This particular study was quickly discredited though.​

  • This particular study was quickly discredited though.​

  • The connection could not be explained

  • The connection could not be explained

  • and no direct causal link was confirmed.​

  • and no direct causal link was confirmed.​

  • But once this had been proposed, the idea persisted.​

  • But once this had been proposed, the idea persisted.​

  • And the thousands of studies about possible dangers

  • And the thousands of studies about possible dangers

  • illustrate that it's still seen as a very real threat.​

  • illustrate that it's still seen as a very real threat.​

  • A lot of people claim to be sensitive to the radiation

  • A lot of people claim to be sensitive to the radiation

  • coming from our appliances and cell phones.​

  • coming from our appliances and cell phones.​

  • They report symptoms like headaches,​

  • They report symptoms like headaches,​

  • nausea, skin reactions,​

  • nausea, skin reactions,​

  • burning eyes, or exhaustion.​

  • burning eyes, or exhaustion.​

  • But those are just effects reported on a day-to-day basis.​

  • But those are just effects reported on a day-to-day basis.​

  • A few studies have found much more unsettling results.​

  • A few studies have found much more unsettling results.​

  • Like, possible connections between the side of the brain,​

  • Like, possible connections between the side of the brain,​

  • which people use when they are on their phones,​

  • which people use when they are on their phones,​

  • and the appearance of brain tumors.​

  • and the appearance of brain tumors.​

  • The question that science is trying to answer,​

  • The question that science is trying to answer,​

  • is not so much about the acute effects of irradiation.​

  • is not so much about the acute effects of irradiation.​

  • We know, for example,​

  • We know, for example,​

  • that x-rays cause immediate damage to the DNA in your cells

  • that x-rays cause immediate damage to the DNA in your cells

  • but that the same doesn't happen with radio waves.​

  • but that the same doesn't happen with radio waves.​

  • The question is rather:​

  • The question is rather:​

  • Is the sort of weak electromagnetic radiation we are constantly surrounded by

  • Is the sort of weak electromagnetic radiation we are constantly surrounded by

  • harmful in the long run as a result of some as-yet-unknown mechanism?​

  • harmful in the long run as a result of some as-yet-unknown mechanism?​

  • Answering this question was much harder than we first thought.​

  • Answering this question was much harder than we first thought.​

  • There are thousands of primary sources,​

  • There are thousands of primary sources,​

  • reports, and statements by an onslaught of different organizations.​

  • reports, and statements by an onslaught of different organizations.​

  • So, we read a lot for this video.​

  • So, we read a lot for this video.​

  • You can take a look at our research in the video description.​

  • You can take a look at our research in the video description.​

  • What we found is that this debate is a good example

  • What we found is that this debate is a good example

  • of how science should be communicated and how it shouldn't.​

  • of how science should be communicated and how it shouldn't.​

  • Many of the much-cited studies that spread panic about electromagnetic radiation

  • Many of the much-cited studies that spread panic about electromagnetic radiation

  • are highly controversial.​

  • are highly controversial.​

  • For example,​

  • For example,​

  • a series of population studies based on surveys and self-reporting.​

  • a series of population