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JUDY WOODRUFF: But first: The reading gap
among school children in this country is disturbing.

Fewer than 40 percent of fourth and eighth
graders are considered proficient readers.

There is a push to change how students are
taught to read, and it is being led by parents

whose children have dyslexia.
Special correspondent Lisa Stark of our partner
Education Week reports from Arkansas for our

education segment, Making the Grade.
LISA STARK: Meet the families who changed
how every child in Arkansas will learn to

read, because they know what it's like for
kids to struggle with reading.

Here's Kim Head:
KIM HEAD, Arkansas Dyslexia Support Group:
My kid is crawling under the table, stomach

aches, doesn't want to go to school.
We're in tears.
LISA STARK: Amber Jones:
AMBER JONES, Arkansas Dyslexia Support Group:
The psychological damage that happens to them

when they cannot figure out reading.
Scott Gann:
SCOTT GANN, Arkansas Dyslexia Support Group:
He said, "I told you I can't read.

Nobody believes me."
LISA STARK: These families have spent thousands
of dollars on educational testing and tutoring

to discover their children have dyslexia,
a learning disability that makes it difficult

to spell and read.
It affects one in five individuals.
Here's Dixie Evans:
DIXIE EVANS, Arkansas Dyslexia Support Group:
Not being able to get the help from your school,

the people that are supposed to know, that
are supposed to have the answers, not being

able to get that help and having to go out
and find it on your own.

AUDI ALUMBAUGH, Arkansas Dyslexia Support
Group: The sense of urgency with us is, while

the schools are trying to figure their way,
these kids, they don't have time to wait.

LISA STARK: Audi Alumbaugh has led the push
to pass new state laws on reading instruction.

She has a niece with dyslexia.
AUDI ALUMBAUGH: She is not a strong reader
still because of our delay in figuring out

what was going on, but she will be a success.
And I saw how it impacts every fiber of the
family, which is what everybody here says.

And there's just no need.
We have a system in place to fix this.
LISA STARK: That system includes explicit
instruction in phonics, teaching students

how letters and sounds go together to help
the brain process the written word.

WOMAN: If we have the word brush, brush, an
we want to take away the buh, we are left

with?
CHILDREN: Rush.
WOMAN: Very good.
SARAH SAYKO, National Center on Improving
Literacy: We absolutely know that this is

the best way the teach children to read.
LISA STARK: Sarah Sayko with the National
Center on Improving Literacy says this approach

works well for all students, not just those
with dyslexia.

SARAH SAYKO: We know without a doubt that
reading is not a natural process.

Reading has to be taught.
And it needs to be taught systematically.
LISA STARK: Here's what that looks like at
Springhill Elementary in Greenbrier, Arkansas,

where students with characteristics of dyslexia
get intensive reading instruction.

CHILDREN: Rain.
WOMAN: Rain.
Oh, I tried to trick you all on that one.
Very good.
LISA STARK: Why are you in those groups?
Do you know?
What's that for?
Dan, do you want to say something about that?
DANI FULMER, Student: To help us spell better,
I think.

LISA STARK: What about you, Cord?
CORD BEAIRD, STUDENT: Read better.
ACE NEWLAND, Student: Write better.
LISA STARK: Ace, Cord, and Dani are taught
the use their senses of touch, feel, and movement

to help imprint words into their brains.
ACE NEWLAND: And like pounding tapping helps
me like write it.

LISA STARK: So it helps to pound the word
out and tap the word out?

ACE NEWLAND: Yes.
LISA STARK: And why is that, do you think?
ACE NEWLAND: Because you're sounding out each
letter.

LISA STARK: And letters become words.
Words become stories.
Reading is no longer something to avoid.
CORD BEAIRD: And then now I know a lot about
reading.

And when I go to chapter book, I will get
stuck on big words.

DANI FULMER: I would like to see words.
And I would like to just see them and say,
oh, I know that word, and then just keep on

reading.
LISA STARK: Are you able to do that at all
yet?

DANI FULMER: Some words.
LISA STARK: For those who can't read well
by the end of third grade, there are lifelong

consequences, including higher school dropout
and poverty rates.

Arkansas ranks in the bottom third of states
when it comes to reading, and this group is

determined to change that.
They have fought for laws to transform reading
instruction, often battling an education establishment

resistant to change, says Dallas Green.
DALLAS GREEN, Arkansas Dyslexia Support Group:
They didn't want us around.

They would see us at educational things, and
it would be like, oh, lord, here they are.

LISA STARK: But perseverance paid off.
Seven years and at least eight bills later,
Arkansas is revamping everything, from dyslexia

screening, to reading instruction, to teacher
take and licensing, costing the state $6 million

a year.
STACY SMITH, Arkansas Department of Education:
Statewide, we have embraced this.

And it's not been easy.
LISA STARK: Not easy, but a watershed moment,
says Stacy Smith, who oversees curriculum

and instruction in Arkansas.
STACY SMITH: When we saw schools who started
implementing dyslexia programs, kind of more

school-wide, and all of a sudden their reading
literacy results were improving, it was kind

of that moment of, wait a second, not all
these kids are dyslexic.

LISA STARK: This type of reading instruction
is the most beneficial for early readers.

That was the conclusion of the federally appointed
National Reading Panel nearly two decades

ago.
STACY SMITH: So, there is actual scientific
evidence about how students learn to read.

And it's largely been ignored.
LISA STARK: Ignored largely because of years
of ideological fights over how to best teach

reading.
Should lessons be heavy with phonics or steeped
in good literature?

Smith says sure kids of course need time with
good books, but from what she's seen in Arkansas,

the first step is comprehensive phonics instruction.
That's why the state is moving to teach every
student this way.

STACY SMITH: Golly, you think, what have we
done?

What have we done for generations to kids
that we didn't really teach to read?

LISA STARK: Arkansas is now retraining thousands
of its educators who were never taught this

method of teaching.
MIRANDA MAHAN, Teacher: When I first started
teaching, I honestly didn't know how to teach

kids to read.
I didn't.
I taught them some sight words.
I taught them the letters and what sounds
they make.

And I hoped that they put it all together.
Rush.
LISA STARK: Teacher Miranda Mahan no longer
has to hope.

She knows kids are learning to read.
MIRANDA MAHAN: I know that we're sending better
readers to first grade now than we did, and

first grade's going to send better readers
to second grade.

And I feel that there's not going to be as
many students fall through the cracks.

LISA STARK: This is happening around the country,
with parents leading the way.

Over 40 states have laws, pilot programs,
or bills ready to be signed around reading

and dyslexia.
But the requirements and mandates vary widely.
In Arkansas, by the school year 2021, all
elementary and special ed teachers must show

that they know how to teach reading based
on the science.

At Springhill, they will beat that deadline.
For principal Stephanie Worthey, this is personal.
Remember that student Ace Newland?
That's her son.
STEPHANIE WORTHEY, Principal, Springhill Elementary:
I was an educator.

And I struggled with my own child.
And had this not come out and I was able to
learn about dyslexia, I wouldn't even have

been able to help my own child, rather less
a whole building full of children.

LISA STARK: So is this new approach working?
Let's go to the source.
ACE NEWLAND: Reading is kind of fun for me
now that I know how and stuff.

LISA STARK: The efforts are still so new,
they haven't yet moved the needle on state

tests.
For those pushing for the changes, there's
little doubt they will.

Would you say that teaching your children
a different way has made a difference for

your child?
WOMAN: Yes.
WOMAN: Yes.
LISA STARK: How much of a difference?
WOMAN: Life-changing, completely.
LISA STARK: Life-changing when children are
truly learning to read.

For education week and the "PBS NewsHour,"
I'm Lisa Stark in Greenbrier, Arkansas.

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What parents of dyslexic children are teaching schools about literacy

80 タグ追加 保存
Yi-Jen Chang 2019 年 5 月 15 日 に公開
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