Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Hey there I'm Mike Rugnetta, this is crash course theater and today

  • we're exeunt in late medieval Europe and headed to late medieval Japan introducing one of the world's most distinct and

  • Lasting theatrical styles, Noh. What's that York? No. It's no it's called Noh.

  • Yes

  • Noh.

  • No, Noh is the name no, spelled n o h

  • The H is silent, handle it dude. Anyway, we'll be tracing Noh's origins showing how it flourished in the 14th century

  • And then we'll explore its staging.

  • We'll look at Kyogen, the farcical scenes between Noh plays which act as a nice reminder that the world isn't all

  • Vengeful ghosts and lamenting women

  • We'll also look at Atsumori, Zeami Motokiyo's

  • Flute playing samurai Noh drama so put on your favorite spirit mask and let's go

  • We don't exactly know when or how theatres arrived in Japan

  • But the mythical version goes like so. One time the sun goddess Amaterasu

  • Was teased so badly by her brothers that she hid in the heavenly rock cave and the world went dark.

  • Not great, so the gods tried to get her to emerge

  • But nothing worked until Amano-Uzumeno, the goddess of dawn mirth and revelry came up with a brilliant plan

  • She would sing and dance while taking off her clothes, so she does this and the gods go

  • crazy so crazy

  • that the sun goddess pokes her head out and is like what's all this fuss about

  • Light returns to the world and maybe also stripping gets invented. Stripping, theater, and light a natural tree, oh really.

  • In terms of non-mythical origins sacred dance was part of Shintoism the traditional religion of japan

  • particularly important was Kagura or God music a dance performed by priestesses

  • But in the 6th century CE, Buddhism arrived and with it Japan adopted

  • Additional forms of dance and ritual we know about some of these from a 712 CE. text called Records of Ancient Things

  • Sort of does what it says on the title.

  • In 782 some killjoy Nobles nix palace entertainers who were then taken in by Buddhist and Shinto

  • Temples at which point worship got a lot more exciting

  • Maybe you're noticing some similarities with the rise of liturgical drama in the West. Noh has two more

  • immediate predecessors Dengaku, or field music possibly originated in Korea

  • it was associated with spring rice sowing and fall rice harvest festivals and

  • included comedy juggling and dance Sarugaku, or monkey music possibly originating in China featured animal acts and

  • Nudity more significant for no Sarugaku also included dance theater in which the chorus would speak the lines for the main

  • character when the dance became too vigorous in the 12th century Buddhist temples adopted Sarugaku Noh a

  • cleaned-up version of the Sarugaku as a

  • Teaching tool even without animal acts were still a pretty long way from no proper

  • Though the real funny moment came with Kiyotsugu Kan'nami an acclaimed Sarugaku Noh performer .

  • When he shows up Japan is structured as a Shogunate meaning that while there's an emperor most of the ruling is done by the Shogun the

  • highest-ranking general the Shogun in the late 14th century is Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.

  • And he is big-time into culture he becomes a patron at two Kan'Ami and then a patron and lover of Kan'Ami

  • 'he's son Zeami Motokiyo.

  • Father Kan'Amii manages to combine

  • Sarugaku Noh with stories borrowed from

  • Classical Japanese sources like The Tales of Genji and then ties the whole thing up with a Buddhist bow

  • Son Zeami then takes that form

  • Perfects it, and write some theory about it

  • Because I mean come on someone's got to be doing theory at your theater, right?

  • Zeami, also writes about a hundred of the plays

  • Considered Noh canon and guess what we still have 21 of them yes sources.

  • Noh plays are short only 10 or so pages long, but they take anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 hours

  • To perform, which may seem like a nice reasonable evening at the theater

  • But when there are five types of Noh play and court entertainment includes one of each type

  • Performances could last a but numbing eight

  • hours each play consists of two scenes and most involve a ghost a demon or a

  • Tormented human who can't rest the language is a mix of verse and prose

  • most of it sung or chanted

  • Every Noh play ends with the dance the five types of noh

  • Play are the Kami Mono, which involved the sacred story of a Shinto shrine.

  • Shura Mono plays are about warriors like Atsumori

  • We're gonna meet him soon Katsura Mono plays or wig plays are about wigs. JK(just kidding)

  • They're about ladies who were played by wig wearing men because surprise surprise dudes only.

  • the fourth type of no play is basically a grab-bag

  • Though it often included Gendai Mono plays which told

  • naturalistic stories or the Kyojo Mono aka mad woman plays which are

  • Sad wig plays about a woman who loses a child or a lover and then goes insane.

  • the final type the Kichiku mono or demon plays feature

  • Supernatural beings and have the coolest

  • masks I mean look at this and

  • Also, this Noh dramas are philosophical and somewhat

  • static they're heavily influenced by Shinto ideas about our connection to nature and Buddhist ideas concerning the

  • Transitory nature of life and the destructiveness of desire there's not a lot of action and the goal is to convey a mood

  • Rather than to tell a story each play has at least three characters and some have four or five

  • The three essential types of characters are first the Shite, or main character

  • This is the only character to wear a mask second the Tsure the Shite's

  • companion and third the Waki or witness or

  • antagonist sometimes the Shite is disguised in the first scene and

  • Reveals himself in the second scene sometimes as in Atsumori the Shite plays two different characters

  • Between subsequent Noh plays and sometimes between the scenes of one play

  • Comedy scenes called Kyogen were staged these were probably a nice change of pace because Noh plays

  • Aren't um?

  • Funny? There are two kinds of Kyogen, parodies of know which are like satyr plays and

  • scenes of everyday life based around stock characters, which resemble Roman comedies

  • But in both cases. There is one big difference Kyogen are never vulgar

  • They are short usually music less

  • And though the language is more casual than in Noh they are still very

  • Carefully performed the Noh stage is pretty rad the main part the Hon-Butai is

  • Roofed like a shrine and held up by four pillars

  • Jars are embedded under the stage to help with acoustics and a pine tree is painted on the back wall

  • Okay, no not enough. No enough time for a pine tree stage right stands a bridge called the Hashigakari also roofed

  • This is dotted with three pines representing heaven earth and man

  • This is where the main characters enter and exit

  • Noh theater doesn't have scenery

  • But actors wear beautiful costumes of embroidered silk and carry hand props

  • The fan is the most important object as it can symbolize rain

  • Wind the Sun the moon and a lot of other things a three or four person Orchestra called the Hayashi sits at the back of

  • the stage dressed in samurai costumes

  • traditionally the orchestra a flute and two or three drums

  • Follows actors rhythms and movements in addition to the main cast a six to ten person chorus sings

  • Narrates and takes over the lines of the Shite when he's busy dancing like the Sanskrit theater

  • Noh acting is highly gestural and

  • codified no actors train from the age of seven there are no directors and nothing that we would recognize as

  • Rehearsal rigorous training means the actors performances must be perfect every time

  • Only the Shite are masked in most plays and that mask has one of five types. Agent,

  • Male, Female, God or Monster. Zeami who wrote more than 20 booklets

  • Explaining the philosophy and style of Noh said this about acting

  • just as the transparent crystal produces fire and water or a

  • colorless cherry tree bears blossoms and fruit a

  • Superb artist creates a moving work of art out of a landscape

  • Within his soul according to Zeami actors did this using three techniques Monomane, meant

  • identifying with and embodying the character. Yugen meant lending that embodiment elegance while emphasizing the

  • impermanence of life and Hana or flower meant and dowing the performance with spontaneity

  • so that even within those highly systematic

  • Style a play would feel a little different every time. Noh were primarily court entertainments performed for aristocratic audiences

  • But unlike other cultures the Japanese mostly

  • Revered actors during the height of Noh many performers were even able to join the noble cast the samurai

  • Speaking of samurai let's turn to our a tragic tale Zeami's Atsumori.

  • A story adapted from the popular tales of the Heike a Noh thought bubble, No Problem.

  • The play begins as the Waki or witness dressed as a priest enters via the bridge saying

  • Awake to awareness the world's but a dream one may cast it aside is this what is real

  • Just in case the Buddhist influence wasn't totally clear the witness says his name used to be Kumagai

  • But now it's Rensho. He became a monk because he feels guilt over killing a young warrior Atsumori.

  • Rensho explains he'll take a trip and pray for his soul he crosses the stage and his journey is complete

  • arriving at his destination

  • He sees the Shite a flute playing grass cutter. Rensho marvels that a low-class person can play

  • So well the grass cutter encourages him to be more woke

  • and they talk about flutes it turns out the grass cutter is a

  • Relative of Atsumoti so he and the priests pray together and now a pigeon interlude

  • Where in the Waki asks a pesent to tell the story of Atsumori's death?

  • Turns out Atsumori was ready to escape a battle when he realized he left his precious flute returning for it

  • He missed the last boat out

  • He met enemy warrior Kumagae a who admired Atsumori's bravery and elegance, but killed him anyway

  • And then the Waki is like that's me

  • I'm Kumagai in the second scene the Waki prays before bed. The Shite masked as Atsumori's ghost enters and

  • Dances the chorus describes Atsumori's death

  • And there's a moment where it seems like he'll take revenge on Rensho

  • But instead he kneels and asks Rensho to pray for his soul in the hopes

  • They'll both be reborn on a single lotus petal which is the Zen version of a happy ending?

  • Thank you, thought bubble so the moral of the story is that attachment is bad

  • Even if it's two flutes and also don't underestimate grass cutters

  • we can see by its philosophical orientation slow pacing and

  • Melancholy tone that Noh has a different feel than other types of theater

  • We've encountered so far, but there's an even more important difference unlike so much of the ancient theatre

  • We've been learning about Noh is a living art form it is still performed today by troops. Who've inherited traditions passed down since

  • Zeami's time

  • While it struggled in the late 19th and early 20th centuries now. It's considered an essential part of Japanese culture well

  • It's time for me to take the hurry door next time. We'll be heading to Italy where theatres briefly gets neoclassical and then

  • Gets rude until then

  • Curtain crash-course theatre is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios

  • Head over to their channel to check out some of their shows like the art assignment and yawns, and it's okay to be smart

  • Crash course theater is filmed in each

  • Chad and stacey emigholz studio in indianapolis indiana and is produced with the help of all of these very nice people

  • our animation team is thought cafe crash course exists

  • Thanks to the generous support of our patrons at patreon patreon is a voluntary

  • Subscription service where you can support the content you love through a monthly donation and help keep crash course free for everyone

  • forever

  • Thanks for watching

Hey there I'm Mike Rugnetta, this is crash course theater and today

字幕と単語

ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級

能を言うだけ。でも、狂言とも言う。クラッシュコース劇場 #11 (Just Say Noh. But Also Say Kyogen: Crash Course Theater #11)

  • 41 4
    Pei-Yi Lin に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日