中級 45 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
Learning medicine is hard work!
Osmosis makes it easy.
It takes your lectures and notes to create
a personalized study plan with exclusive videos,

practice questions and flashcards, and so
much more.

Try it free today!
Pediatric brain tumors are masses of abnormal
cells that generally occur in children, and

result from the uncontrolled growth of those
cells within the brain.

OK - let's start with some basic brain anatomy.
First off, there's the cerebral cortex which
is the part of the brain that's supratentorial

or above the tentorium, and the cerebellum,
which is infratentorial or below the tentorium.

And the brain has four interconnected cavities
called ventricles, which are filled with cerebrospinal

fluid - a fluid that helps provide buoyancy
and protection, as well as metabolic fuel

for the brain.
Highest up, are two C-shaped lateral ventricles
that lie deep in each cerebral hemisphere.

The two lateral ventricles drain their cerebrospinal
fluid into the third ventricle, which is a

narrow, funnel-shaped, cavity at the center
of the brain.

The third ventricle makes a bit more cerebrospinal
fluid and then sends all of it to the fourth

ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct.
The fourth ventricle is a tent-shaped cavity
located between the brainstem and the cerebellum.

After the fourth ventricle, the cerebrospinal
fluid enters the subarachnoid space, which

is the space between the arachnoid and pia
mater, two of the inner linings of the meninges

which cover and protect both the brain and
the spine.

So this makes it possible for cerebrospinal
fluid to also flow through the central canal

of the spine.
Now, focusing in on cells within the brain
- there are many different types with specialized

functions.
For example, neurons communicate neurologic
information through neurotransmitter regulated

electrical impulses.
Then there are cells that secrete hormones
into circulation and regulate the functions

of other cells throughout the body.
These cells are found in glands, like the
supratentorial pineal gland which is located

just behind the third ventricle.
Or the infratentorial pituitary gland located
near the front of the third ventricle.

There is also a category of cells called neuroglial
cells that help support brain homeostasis,

and neuronal functions.
These include astrocytes which have cellular
processes coming off their cell body, giving

them a star-shaped appearance.
Astrocytes are found throughout the brain
and spinal cord, and their main roles include

maintaining the blood-brain barrier, providing
nourishment to neurons, and recycling neurotransmitters.

Ependymal cells are also neuroglial cells,
and they're cuboidal-to-columnar - so square

to rectangular shaped - ciliated cells that
line the ventricles and central canal.

One of their main roles is to regulate the
circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Some brain cells have a limited ability to
be replaced, especially during injury, and

they do it by having undifferentiated stem
cells - called embryonic stem cells - in the

brain activate and mature into a specialized
cell.

Now, a tumor develops if there's a DNA mutation
in any of these cell types that leads to uncontrolled

cell division.
Typically these are mutations in proto-oncogenes
which results in a promotion of cell division,

or mutations in tumor suppressor genes which
results in a loss of inhibition of cell division.

You can think of proto-oncogenes as the accelerator
or gas pedal and tumor suppressor genes as

the brakes.
Too much acceleration or an inability to brake
can lead to runaway cell division.

As a result, the mutated cells can start piling
up on each other and can become a tumor mass.

Some of these tumors are benign and stay well
contained or localized.

But some become malignant tumors or cancers,
and these are the ones that break through

their basement membrane and invade nearby
tissues.

Malignant tumor cells can get into nearby
blood or lymph vessels, and travel from the

primary site to establish a secondary site
of tumor growth somewhere else in the body

- and that's called metastasis.
Brain tumors can be categorized by their primary
site location as either supratentorial, or

infratentorial tumors – though some tumors
can form in either.

They are typically named by the cell type
involved, so for example an astrocytoma is

a tumor formed by mutated astrocytes.
But their severity is classified, or graded
by the World Health Organization's (WHO)

scale.
The scale goes from I to IV based on the morphologic
and functional features of the tumor cells;

a grade IV tumor being the most abnormal looking
cells that also tend to be the most aggressive.

But not all tumors have all four grades because
some tumors are basically always more benign,

whereas others are more aggressive.
So let's start with tumor types that are
generally infratentorial tumors, because they

make up the majority of pediatric brain tumors.
Overall, the most common malignant tumor is
a medulloblastoma, which typically forms in

or around the cerebellum, adjacent to the
fourth ventricle.

Medulloblastomas originate from embryonic
stem cells and they tend to be extremely aggressive.

One relatively unique feature is that they
metastasize through the cerebrospinal fluid

in a process called drop metastasis where
the tumor spreads to the base of the spine.

Because of this, medulloblastomas are typically
only classified as grade IV.

Histologically, medulloblastomas often have
a feature called Homer-Wright rosettes, which

are dense tangles of neurons and neuroglial
cells, surrounded by ring-like structures

formed by tumors cells.
Now, while medulloblastoma may be the most
common malignant tumor, the most common primary

pediatric tumor is a type of astrocytoma called
a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

Because astrocytes are found through the brain
and spinal cord, astrocytomas can form throughout

those locations, but juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas
are mostly infratentorial tumors in the cerebellum

or near the brainstem.
And while astrocytomas can be graded I through
IV, juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas are only

grade I because they are generally benign
and slow-growing.

Histologically, they can have cysts, or sacs
filled with fluid; bodies of granular material;

and Rosenthal fibers, which are fibers that
clump together in the cytoplasm of the astrocyte

and look a bit like a worm or a corkscrew.
Among the fibers is the structural protein
glial fibrillary acidic protein that is typically

found in astrocytes.
Finally, another common infratentorial tumor
is an ependymoma.

Now, again, they can form in the brain and
spinal cord because that's where ependymal

cells are found, but pediatric ependymomas
tend to form in the fourth ventricle.

Now, there are a few types of ependymomas
and they're WHO graded I through III.

In grade II, classic ependymomas, tumor cells
have a regular, round to oval nucleus.

Histologically, a prominent feature are their
perivascular pseudorosettes, which are ring-like

structures formed by tumors cells with rod-shaped
ependymal processes, like cilia, surrounding

a centralized blood vessel.
Ok, so, now let's focus on supratentorial
pediatric tumors.

The most common is a craniopharyngioma, which
forms near the pituitary gland.

During development, some cells migrate down
from the brain and form the posterior pituitary;

while some cells migrate up from the back
of the throat, called the oropharynx, first

forming the Rathke's pouch and then eventually
forming the anterior pituitary gland.

Now, remnants of Rathke's pouch that do
not mature can form craniopharyngiomas.

They're typically only classified as WHO
grade I tumors because they are typically

benign and slow growing.
Histologically, it's a pretty complex tumor
with lots of prominent features including

multiple cysts filled with a thick “motor-oil”-looking
fluid; and cells that stratify, or arrange

themselves in layers.
The innermost layer tends to have loosely
packed cells that retain their nuclei despite

being filled with keratin, a strong protein,
creating what's called a “wet keratin”

appearance.
A rare supratentorial pediatric tumor is a
pinealoma, which forms in the region of the

pineal gland.
Pinealomas primarily emerge from the endocrine
cells of the pineal gland, and they can be

grade I through IV.
Histologically, prominent features include
large, round tumor cells resembling germline

tumors; or small cells forming Homer-Wright
rosettes.

Now, the most common symptoms of brain tumors
include headaches, nausea, vomiting, and seizures

- and they are a result of the compression
and destruction of healthy brain tissue.

In addition, it's important to consider
the cell type that's involved.

So, for example, a pinealoma may lead to increased
secretion of the hormone beta human chorionic

gonadotropin that can cause an early onset
of puberty.

In addition, as the tumor grows in size, it
can compress nearby cells and structures,

interrupting their normal functions.
For example, as pinealomas, medulloblastomas,
and ependymomas enlarge - the mass of the

tumor can compress nearby ventricles blocking
the flow of cerebrospinal fluid which causes

swelling, called hydrocephalus.
Generally, the diagnosis of central nervous
system tumors includes medical imaging, like

CT scans but more commonly MRIs.
But definitive diagnosis needs to be made
based on the histologic and molecular characteristics

of a tissue biopsy.
Treatments depend on the tumor type, grade,
and symptoms.

And can include surgical removal, radiotherapy,
or chemotherapy - frequently in a combination.

But specific courses of treatment are guided
by the molecular characteristics of the tumor

based on the biopsy.
Finally, the chance of recurrence gets higher
in high grade tumors and in tumors that have

not been fully removed or destroyed.
Ok, quick recap: Pediatric brain tumors can
be infratentorial and supratentorial and form

from a variety of cells.
Tumor types are classified using WHO grading
based on histologic and functional features.

Diagnosis includes medical imagining, with
a definitive diagnosis being made with a tissue

biopsy.
Treatments are largely dependent on the molecular
characteristics and tumor grade, and can incorporate

surgical removal and some combination of radiotherapy
and chemotherapy.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

Pediatric brain tumors - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

45 タグ追加 保存
keep seeing 2019 年 4 月 26 日 に公開
お勧め動画

コメント

読み込み中…
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔