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Hi, I'm Ed Hope, a junior doctor in the UK
and welcome to my channel, Sick Notes
where I explained medical things in simple terms like
the other week I looked at the medical anime Cells at Work
and not only did the show blow me away
but your response to the video did as well
over a million views in a few days
guys thank you so, so much for all the support
So it's only fair that I check out episode number two
of Cells at Work
[anime plays - Japanese audio]
So, we're following our red blood cell again
as she carries the oxygen around the body
and she's lost, like she spent most of the first episode
and we met them briefly before
but we get properly introduced to the very cute platelets
The medical term for them is the thrombocytes
"THROMBO" because they're involved in creating a thrombus-
That's what we call a blood clot
- and CYTE is a name we give to any mature cell
[Japanese audio continues]
So in this depiction they're little kids
and this ties in because platelets are actually very tiny
about a third of the size of a red blood cells
That's because their job is to really plug the small gaps
when a thrombus forms.
And this episode is called a scrape wound
so we're probably going to find out all about how they work and everything they're carrying as well
Aw, I like that the platelet calls the red blood cell "Big Sister"
because this is entirely accurate
because the two are related in the kind of family tree
of blood cells
So they share the same ancestry of cells all produced
in the center of the bones, what we call the bone marrow
in a process we call hematopoiesis
Quite literally means "production of blood"
So we have our stems cells in
the bone marrow
You've probably heard of these in lots of medical research because they've got the
ability to turn into lots of different cell types.
One of these cell types is the myeloid progenitor cells
quite a long word!
And in turn, they can develop into lots of different cells as well
So we have the erythrocyte
the red blood cell,
so one our of fan favorites in Cells at Work.
ERYTHRO means red and CYTE, as we said earlier,
is a mature cell.
The myeloid progenitor cell can also turn into a megakaryocyte
which sounds like something out power rangers, doesn't it?
I'll draw our megakaryocyte here
And this is the cell that produces platelets
Strictly speaking, platelets themselves
are not cells, they're just fragments
broken up from these big megakaryocyte
So when the red blood cell and the platelets refer to themselves
as sisters, you know, they pretty much are
And also just to complete the picture, this myeloid progenitor cell
can also turn into our favorite ...
The neutrophil
So they're kinda all
one big happy family
So this is our scrape wound, uh
it's much more radical than I expected
I mean the whole city, representing the skin,
has been damaged, but this kinda fits right? Anyone that's
had a scrape wound or an abrasion before will know that
it takes a long time to heal actually
you'll notice some discoloration for awhile, sometimes
you'll be permanently left with some kind of scar, so
maybe I underestimated - obviously these guys are very small
so even small injuries are gonna have big effects
on individual cells
There he is, the man! I'm not sure white blood cells quite
do this with red blood cells, but you know
creative license
Okay so in the first episode we had to deal with
one bacterium, the streptococcus pneumoniae
and in this one we have to deal with
a whole bunch, 'cause one of the functions
of the skin is to be a physical barrier between the outside
world and your bodies, so if that gets broken, then any
bacteria that's just normally
happily living on our skin, that doesn't effect us, can then get under
the skin and begin to proliferate
and cause an infection
like we see all these nasties here
And the classic example of a bacterium that normally lives on our skin
and doesn't cause any problems is staphlyococcus aureus
and its really well represented here
so the staphlyococcus, remember I talked about in the last video
means it forms these grape like colonies
We can see that the shape they've made the bacterium
kind of represents that
And aureus means gold or yellow-y color
that's obviously why they've picked this color
because staphlyococcus aureus has this kind of pigment
A gold yellow-y pigment that's part of its
defense mechanism that makes it
harder for the immune system to break down the bacteria
I love that.
Its a great sort of visual depiction
and explanation of vasoconstriction
so when our arteries become more narrow
during acute blood loss to stop blood from getting lost
Some of the really scary massive bleeds
I've seen as an emergency doctor, you get an idea
of the scale that the body can shut down peripherally when it needs to
So the patient would go look very pale and very cold
and although that's what you want your body to do
because you want to preserve all the blood
for the important organs
for a doctor that makes your job more difficult
in treating the patient because, you know, we want
to get access into the veins to try and give blood and fluids
and that's more difficult when the veins are kind of shutting down
So streptococcus pyogenes
So pyogenes means puss
presumably because this bacteria causes
lots of puss when it infects, and
I always wondered what these two bacteria looked like close up
When we meet streptococcus pyogenes here
its tail is made up of all these
little blobs connected together, I think that represents
the streptococcus colony
formation of this chain
that we talked about in the last episode
It does make you think, because you have these colonies
of bacteria on your skin, that when you do get a trauma
and they get in to the body, this
exact thing is happening, you know
not quite as bad ass and
dramatic, but your immune system is doing its job
it is fighting these bugs
Its a pretty amazing thing to happen
just so that all your other cells can carry on living
And so that they can carry on making you, you!
I'm not quite sure what all these other nasties are, the other
bacterium, but maybe we'll find out in later episodes
I'm judging at how much care and attention has gone into this show
No doubt they are based on some kind
of pathogen - maybe we'll find out in later episodes
I don't know of any of them that produce these kinds of
stick like projections, but let me know
in the comments if you do
So the ability to communicate between cells
totally happens, and you might think
how does that happen? Because these neutrophils as we learnt in the first
episode are migrating cells, so they can't really use things like
the nervous system to communicate to each other
well they use chemical messengers
that we call cytokines. so CYTO
meaning cells, as we talked about earlier, and KINES meaning
kinetic, because these cytokines are when a cell
produces them, draw other cells to that area
so that would be what would be going on here
So the staphylococcus aureus
has clearly done her microbiology class, discussing
all the immune cells and their kind of rough timelines
in fighting infection
Aw, so we have the platelets come to the rescue
and we see the blood clotting here
what we kind of thought we'd see at the beginning of the episode
essentially the blood clotting is a
load of chemical reactions that turn something that's soluble
in water, fibrinogen, so it can be transported around the body
to fibren, something insoluble
that forms this kind of net that we can see that covers
up the clot
Then lots of stuff gets stuck in that net
like the platelets and other cells to form a kind of plug
and to stop any blood-
any more blood from coming out of the blood vessel
Aw, we got a little bit of a brewing love story between the red
blood cell and the white blood cell
I feel bad telling you that... this stuff doesn't happen
And I like her little curved piece of hair she has here
I wonder if that's something relevant or not
That's right, I've been reading the comments
So they do show the plug that the fibrin sticks everything to in the end
So very good! Bravo!
Aw man, that's another fantastic episode
I hope you guys enjoyed my thoughts on it
I mean the show does such a great job with explaining
the medical science
Anyway, but if you want me to look at more episodes, then please give
this video a thumbs up and a comment
and subscribe to the channel as well because then you'll be notified
when I do the next one
Just, again, thank you so much for all the support on the first video
I was absolutely blown away by the response
and I really appreciate it, so I'll keep doing
as much content as I can, so
until next time
I'll see you soon


Real DOCTOR reacts to CELLS AT WORK! // Episode 2 // "Scrape Wound"

373 タグ追加 保存
林韋志 2019 年 1 月 13 日 に公開
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