Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • 1066!

  • The start of the royal family on these fair isles.

  • Well, there were kings and mini countries before that and druids before that, and Pangaea

  • before that, but we have to start somewhere and a millennia ago is plenty far -- if that

  • leaves out Æthelred the Unready, so it goes.

  • William the Conqueror, conquered in the 'Norman Conquest' -- Norman here being code for *French*.

  • Because it's the olden days, people had lots of kids, but to keep things simple this family

  • tree is going to leave out many of them on each branch because not every child matters.

  • So William had three kids we care about: William II, Henry I and Adela.

  • If you've seen the video about royal succession -- click here if you haven't -- you'll know

  • that formal rules for passing on the crown will get established, but for now, it's a

  • free-for-all, home team advantage to the eldest son, but never forget bigger-army diplomacy.

  • Upon William the Conquerors death, William II became king.

  • William II didn't marry, and on a bros day out with Henry died in a 'Hunting Accident'

  • that gave Henry I the crown.

  • Henry I had at least 26 children of which only two were 100% legit.

  • He declared his daughter would rule next (after his son died in a ship wreck) and swore his

  • knights to honor Empress Matilda by crossing their hearts, hoping to die, sticking a needle

  • in their eye -- *but* when Henry I died while Matilda was in France, many ignored this while

  • her cousin Stephen raced to Westminster using faster army diplomacy to get coronated first.

  • Empress Matilda did eventually return and start a decades-long civil war -- that was

  • pretty much a stalemate because turtling in the 1100s was an effective RTS tactic.

  • While she did rule part of the island, as Matilda never had an official coronation,

  • her monarchical status is disputed.

  • Now, as Stephen's children were either dead, disinterested, or a nun -- his crown went

  • to his nephew, Henry II who had four sons: Henry the Young, Richard the Lionheart, King

  • Johnand Geoff.

  • (Guess who died before his turn?)

  • Henry II saw the history thus far of conquering, assassination, (maybe) usurpation, attritional

  • war -- and decided waiting until after the death of the current king before sorting out

  • the *next* king didn't work.

  • So Henry II changed the system and crowned Henry the Young co-king with him, invoking

  • the rule of two: one is none.

  • Two is one.

  • If it's important, you need a backup.

  • It was a good plan for stability, helped by the young King's popularity, but unfortunately

  • -- the apprentice rebelled against the master, rallying his brothers -- which resulted in

  • another civil war of disputed monarchs during which Henry the Young died of dysentery, Henry

  • the Elder died of fever, and Richard I took the crown.

  • After Richard came John and four eldest son successions in a row: John to Henry III (insert

  • Magna Carta here) to Edward I (Longshanks) to Edward II -- to Edward III.

  • Actually Ed II was overthrown by Isabelle of France A.K.A the She-Wolf of France A.K.A.

  • his wife.

  • After deposing her husband, she acted as regent for their son.

  • Every one of these arrows glosses over a bit of complexity.

  • Edward III had five sons: Edward the Black Prince, Lionel, John, Edmund, and Thomas,

  • none of which would wear the crown.

  • When Edward III died, his throne would have gone to The Black Prince, but he was dead

  • at the time so the crown went to his boringly named son Richard, now the second.

  • There's a bunch of drama lamma stuff around Richard the second which your English teacher

  • might force you to read about -- but spoiler alert, history's ending is always the same:

  • bigger-army diplomacy, this time from Henry IV who gets the crown and Richard II gets

  • starvation in captivity.

  • Another Henry before we get to the War of the Roses:

  • A war that strikes terror (and boredom) in the minds of students of history the nation

  • over who have to deal with *this* family tree 'simplified' to explain why everyone was angry,

  • but the shortest version ever is Edward III's great, great, grandsons duked it out, even

  • though one of them was dead for part of the fight -- but we can't get into that now so

  • Henry VI to Edward IV to Henry VI to Edward IV.

  • The end.

  • Edward IV, on his deathbed left his crown to his son.

  • But being twelve he needed protection, so Richard, his best-ist uncle in the world,

  • promised to take super-good care of him.

  • Edward V then promptly disappeared under suspicious circumstances that left Richard to become

  • Richard the third.

  • But he didn't stay king for long because Edward III's great, great, great, great grandson

  • Henry VII -- took the crown, put a ring on Elizabeth of York to lock down that royal

  • legitimacy and then sired Henry VIII -- splitter of churches, and ladies.

  • Henry VIII thought it was high time to formalize the rules of inheritance, so he wrote them

  • out in his will -- basically saying oldest boys first, girls only if there aren't any

  • boys -- and Parliament approved the rules.

  • Which should have made everything neat and tidy, but we're about to enter the really

  • messy time...

  • Because Henry's son lived just long enough to screw it up -- inheriting the throne at

  • 9 there was, of course, a scheming protectorate running things, yet he still declared at 15

  • that his father's rules were dumb and his sisters were dumb and that his first cousin

  • once removed, Lady Jane Grey, should be the next monarch instead.

  • Then he died and Lady Jane Grey became queen at sweet sixteen, sort of -- in a disputed

  • status way for nine days, until beheaded by Mary, the first really, truly officially nobody

  • doubts it Queen.

  • Mary didn't have any kids, and passed the crown to Elizabeth I who became the second

  • queen in a rowto also not have children.

  • But, no problem because Lady Jane Grey was next inoh.

  • Right.

  • Now, this is the point at which we acknowledge, Scotland Exists.

  • They'd been doing their own royal thing which for our purposes joins the English branch

  • where Edward III's great granddaughter married into it in the 1400s and then goes: James,

  • James, James, James, James, Mary Queen of Scotts, James.

  • Bringing us back to the 1600s.

  • Henry the VIII's sister importantly also married into this line of the family giving it English

  • legitimacy points in the eyes of the English Parliament, which asked to borrow Scotland's

  • James, making him king of two countries with two numbers in his name depending on where

  • you're counting from.

  • James had a son, Charles I, and you might think this unification of the monarchs means

  • the very messy time is over.

  • But no.

  • Because Cromwell.

  • Cromwell didn't like kings and beheaded Charles I: declaring no royals no longer, making himself

  • The Lord Protector which was in no way like a king -- even though he was in charge and

  • it was a hereditary office passed to his son.

  • But the Cromwells didn't last -- mainly because his son was a fancy country squire who didn't

  • follow rule 0: keep the army happy -- giving Charles's son, Charles II, the ability to

  • reestablish the monarchy.

  • Charles II had lots of children, all of which were illegitimate, leaving his brother, James

  • II next in line.

  • But James II was *Catholic* and ever since Henry split the church, Catholics had terrible

  • approval ratings.

  • But conveniently, he had nice Protestant daughters, one married to a Dutch Prince who by the nature

  • of these things was the grandson of Charles I. Bonus English legitimacy points, plus,

  • who doesn't like the Dutch?

  • With James so unpopular and William and Mary so popular, the army and nobles pretty much

  • invited the royal couple to 'invade' and James II fled.

  • William and Mary ruled as co-monarchs, but without children the crown went to Queen Anne,

  • who also didn't produce any heirs, though not from lack of effort -- she was pregnant

  • *seventeen* times.

  • Again, finding themselves with a no-royals-no-longer situation, Parliament decided it was really,

  • truly seriously the time to sort out the rules of inheritance to avoid pretenders from every

  • branch of this messy tree fighting over the crown.

  • Parliament did a royal reboot to clear the cruft, defining Sophia of Hanover -- the granddaughter

  • of James dual numbers to be the new starting point for all claims to the crown.

  • These rules finally stuck, thus ending the very messy time.

  • George I, son of Sophia, was the first king under the new rules, then his son George II,

  • to George III, and even though he lost America and his mind, never fear, the rules are here,

  • so the crown continued to calmly descend the family tree, going to George IV, who didn't

  • have any surviving children, to William IV who had ten children -- all illegitimate,

  • then passing through his dead younger brother to Queen Victoria who started her reign in

  • 1837 and made it to just over the finishing line of the 20th century.

  • Which is a doubly impressively long time given the state of medical technology then.

  • After the end of her age, the crown went to her son Edward VII to George V…

  • to Edward VIII who *finally* breaks up this neat and tidy (and somewhat boring) line of

  • succession by committing a scandal: marrying a commoner.

  • An American Commoner!

  • An American Commoner *divorcee*! *twice over*

  • ::Gasp::

  • Actually, the divorces were a real problem and weren't compatible with the Monarch's

  • role as Head of State *and also* the Church of England in the 1930s.

  • Edward abdicated to his brother George VI -- who was reluctant to take the crown, and

  • then had to oversee World War II and the subsequent breakup of the British Empire -- which drained

  • the reluctant King's health, who died at 56 leaving the crown to Elizabeth the Second,

  • in 1952 at the age of 25.

  • Seven years older than Victoria, her great great grandmother was on her coronation day,

  • but in early September, 2015, Elizabeth became the longest-reigning Queen in not just British

  • history, but world history.

  • From Elizabeth II the crown continues on to Charles, the longest heir apparent in British

  • history, to his son William, to his son George.

  • And that, is a brief history of the royal family.

1066!

字幕と単語

ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級

王室の略歴 (Brief History of the Royal Family)

  • 21 5
    April Lu に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語