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  • Translator: Krystian Aparta Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    鉛筆を使う体験において 音は大きな部分を占めます

  • The sound is a really big part, I think, of the experience of using a pencil,

    紙に擦れる音が はっきり聞こえますよね

  • and it has this really audible scratchiness.


  • (Scratching)

    小さなことの 大きなアイデア

  • [Small thing. Big idea.]

    キャロライン・ウィーバーの 鉛筆の話

  • [Caroline Weaver on the Pencil]


  • The pencil is a very simple object.

    木製で 何層か塗装が施され

  • It's made of wood with some layers of paint


  • an eraser and a core,


  • which is made out of graphite, clay and water.

    でもデザインが完成するまでに 何百年もかかり

  • Yeah, it took hundreds of people over centuries


  • to come to this design.

    多くの人が関わった 長い歴史があるからこそ

  • And it's that long history of collaboration

    私にとっては 鉛筆は完璧な物なんです

  • that, to me, makes it a very perfect object.


  • The story of the pencil starts with graphite.

    この新しい物質を 便利に応用する方法が

  • People started finding really useful applications


  • for this new substance.


  • They cut it into small sticks


  • and wrapped it in string or sheepskin or paper


  • and sold it on the streets of London

    字を書いたり 絵を描いたり

  • to be used for writing or for drawing

    多くの場合は 農家や羊飼いが

  • or, a lot of times, by farmers and shepherds,


  • who used it to mark their animals.

    一方 フランスでは

  • Over in France,

    ニコラ=ジャック・コンテが 黒鉛をすりつぶし

  • Nicolas-Jacques Conté figured out a method of grinding the graphite,

    粉末の粘土と水を混ぜて ペースト状にする方法を考案しました

  • mixing it with powdered clay and water to make a paste.

    このペーストを 型で成形して窯で焼くと

  • From there, this paste was filled into a mold and fired in a kiln,

    黒鉛の芯が とても丈夫になります

  • and the result was a really strong graphite core

    折れにくく 滑らかで 使いやすく―

  • that wasn't breakable, that was smooth, usable --

    当時は 何よりも優れた素材でした

  • it was so much better than anything else that existed at the time,

    現在に至るまで 鉛筆の製法は 変わっていません

  • and to this day, that's the method that's still used in making pencils.

    かたやアメリカの マサチューセッツ州コンコルドでは

  • Meanwhile, over in America, in Concord, Massachusetts,

    ヘンリー・デイヴィッド・ソローが 鉛筆の芯の

  • it was Henry David Thoreau who came up with the grading scale


  • for different hardnesses of pencil.


  • It was graded one through four,

    一般的な使用には 2が適しているとされました

  • number two being the ideal hardness for general use.

    やわらかい鉛筆ほど 黒鉛の含有量が高く

  • The softer the pencil, the more graphite it had in it,

    描く線は より濃く滑らかになります

  • and the darker and smoother the line will be.

    硬い鉛筆ほど 粘土の含有量が高く

  • The firmer the pencil, the more clay it had in it

    線は より薄く細くなります

  • and the lighter and finer it will be.

    元々 手作業で作られていた頃の 鉛筆は円柱状でした

  • Originally, when pencils were handmade, they were made round.


  • There was no easy way to make them,

    この手作業を完全に機械化したのは アメリカ人です

  • and it was the Americans who really mechanized the craft.


  • A lot of people credit Joseph Dixon

    木を板状に切断したり 木材に溝を入れたり

  • for being one of the first people to start developing actual machines

    糊づけしたりする機械の 開発を始めた1人だと

  • to do things like cut wood slats, cut grooves into the wood,


  • apply glue to them ...

    その中で 六角形にした方が

  • And they figured out it was easier and less wasteful


  • to do a hexagonal pencil,


  • and so that became the standard.


  • Since the early days of pencils,

    書いたものを消せるという点が 喜ばれました

  • people have loved that they can be erased.

    元々は パンの柔らかい部分で

  • Originally, it was bread crumbs


  • that were used to scratch away pencil marks


  • and later, rubber and pumice.

    消しゴム付き鉛筆が生まれたのは 1858年のことで

  • The attached eraser happened in 1858,

    アメリカの文房具会社の ハイメン・リップマンが

  • when American stationer Hymen Lipman patented the first pencil


  • with an attached eraser,


  • which really changed the pencil game.

    世界初の黄色い鉛筆は 「コヒノール 1500」です

  • The world's first yellow pencil was the KOH-I-NOOR 1500.

    コヒノール社は 驚いたことに

  • KOH-I-NOOR did this crazy thing


  • where they painted this pencil with 14 coats of yellow paint


  • and dipped the end in 14-carat gold.

    誰にでも その人に合った鉛筆があり

  • There is a pencil for everyone,


  • and every pencil has a story.

    「ブラックウィング 602」は 多くの作家が好んで使ったことで知られ

  • The Blackwing 602 is famous for being used by a lot of writers,

    特にジョン・スタインベックと ウラジーミル・ナボコフです

  • especially John Steinbeck and Vladimir Nabokov.


  • And then, you have the Dixon pencil company.

    ディクソン・タイコンデロガを 作った会社です

  • They're responsible for the Dixon Ticonderoga.


  • It's an icon,

    鉛筆と聞いて 思い浮かぶのも

  • it's what people think of when they think of a pencil

    学校と聞いて思い浮かぶのも この鉛筆です

  • and what they think of when they think of school.

    つくづく思うのは 鉛筆って

  • And the pencil's really a thing that, I think,

    どうやって作るか なぜ今の形になったかについて

  • the average user has never thought twice about,

    普通は深く考えないものだ ということです

  • how it's made or why it's made the way it is,


  • because it's just always been that way.

    私に言わせれば 鉛筆の完成度を

  • In my opinion, there's nothing that can be done

    これ以上 高める方法はありません

  • to make the pencil better than it is.


  • It's perfect.

Translator: Krystian Aparta Reviewer: Camille Martínez

鉛筆を使う体験において 音は大きな部分を占めます


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B1 中級 日本語 TED 鉛筆 ディクソン ゴム 消し ペースト

TED】キャロライン・ウィーバーなぜ鉛筆は完璧なのか (Why the pencil is perfect | Small Thing Big Idea, a TED series) (【TED】Caroline Weaver: Why the pencil is perfect (Why the pencil is perfect | Small Thing Big Idea, a TED series))

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日