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0:00
our final keynote speaker needs no introduction
to this audience professor

0:04
dr. Jana summer a focus was the Greek Minister
of Finance in 2015 he's a

0:08
leading participants and current debates on
the global and European financial

0:13
crisis he is an author and professor he's
authored the global minutes are

0:17
several academic articles on game theory and
economics he's a professor of

0:21
economic theory at the University of Athens
and holds visiting professorships

0:25
at the Universities of Texas and Stockholm
please please give 'em very

0:30
warm welcome to our final keynote speaker
of the day mister minister

0:34
Yiannis faraha
0:45
well thank you so much for one welcome it's
one of the beer because basically

1:00
is a necessity I'm going to actually argue
that this is not a question of

1:05
whether we like it or not it will be a major
part of any attempt to civilize

1:11
capitalism as capitalism is going through
a spasm caused by its own

1:18
generation of technologies that undermine
itself to put it simply in the

1:26
20 century we had the stabilisation and simulation
of capitalism through the

1:33
rise of social democracy new deeply new deal
in the United States democratic

1:38
social market developments in Europe unfortunately
this social democratic New

1:47
Deal paradigm is finished and you can not
be devised actual make some comments

1:54
on this but first let me let us remind ourselves
of what the social-democratic

1:59
New Deal tradition tradition is all about
2:02
about two things firstly redistribution of
income with the wage labor a kind of

2:10
insurance for the working class working class
ensuring the wedding plus take for

2:17
instance the National Insurance Contributions
scheme in Britain after

2:22
the second world war unemployment insurance
in the United States working

2:28
wage laborers have faced effectively providing
insurance payments to those

2:35
out of a job
2:36
seeing with health provision pensions those
wedding today providing for the

2:44
pensions of those who have stopped working
so insurance and redistribution

2:50
within the working class to put it bluntly
the second dimension of course

2:55
is redistribution between capital and labor
between the rents and labor this

3:01
takes the form of minimum wages that are negotiated
by the state it's also

3:07
process of collective bargaining user usually
triangular involving trade

3:14
unions employers and the state and of course
taxation transfers through the

3:20
taxation now this social democratic tradition
I made a very big statement a

3:27
moment ago today is dead in the water and
it is dead in the water or dying in

3:33
the water for two reasons for reasons that
have to do with two earthquakes

3:39
that if he'd our societies on both sides of
the Atlantic one is the process of

3:44
Finance financialization which created a huge
wedge between capital and labor it

3:50
created a new form of capital financial ice
capital that essentially depleted

3:57
the energy of both labor and in depth and
he's inexorable financialization Dr

4:04
headed comeuppance in 2008 @ ever since you
remember after 1991 socialism died

4:11
with the collapse of the Soviet Union and
then after 2008 capitals date we

4:17
have a new regime now I gotta go bankrupt
accuracy its rule by the bank

4:21
the banks the more bankrupt the bank the greatest
capacity to mobilize and you

4:26
see economic grants comic value from the rest
of society and that's the problem

4:34
with Bank of democracy the fact that for six
years now we have a cynical massive

4:40
transfer of wealth of income of value from
production towards the financial

4:49
eyes financial sector that the remains insolvent
in reality despite this

4:54
synagogue the problem with it is that it is
created two things firstly

5:01
deflationary forces ask anyone working in
a sentimental switzerland today or in

5:06
the Buddhist monk
5:07
on the European Central Bank the Bank of Japan
the Bank of England or the Fed

5:12
becomes sleep at night because of the the
fact that about half of the global

5:20
economy now is languishing in negative interest
rate that this is a reflection

5:25
of the collapse of the Social Democratic New
Deal bargain contract if you want

5:37
of the twentieth century and that collapse
happened in 2008 the world

5:41
after 2008 cannot be understood anymore in
terms of made sense before 2008 just

5:46
like the world after 1929 would not be made
sense off in terms that make sense

5:51
in the Gold Exchange standard era but I had
a 1929 the second reason with the

6:00
deflationary process we have now the first
blank of the social democratic

6:06
tradition is that in the water because the
working class can no longer insuring

6:11
it
6:13
stagnant wages the fact that youngsters are
caught up in a dual labor market and

6:19
they find it very difficult about Switzerland
of course now but I'm

6:22
talking about the rest of the developed world
so easily successful only because

6:28
it's only one of them and nobody else can
be like but that's another

6:33
discussion the fact remains that the first
black the usual as amongst wage

6:42
laborers is simply not possible because wage
wages have stagnated such an extent

6:46
that it is impossible for the wedding last
in shorts and a second plant blank

6:53
the redistribution between capital and labor
is becoming increasingly

6:56
impossible for two reasons first the politics
that has become quite toxic

7:02
just look at what's happening the negotiations
between Greece and the

7:05
troika within the European Union at the moment
in the United States where you've

7:09
got a congress be doing at the white house
in a white house redoing the

7:13
congress this distribution between capital
and labor that was part and

7:17
parcel of the new deal in social democracy
7:20
required political governance Europe and the
United States around governor as we

7:25
speak at the leak completely on government
and so that's the first that

7:30
the second half way has to do this is nothing
new I'm sure has been discussed

7:37
their everyday a glimpse of this discussion
7:40
let me put it very bluntly in science fiction
terms their eyes of the machines

7:44
artificial intelligence will consume very
very soon is already doing it all

7:51
the repetitive routine work or algorithmic
work is going to be replaced

7:56
especially the moment machines pass the Turing
test and it is impossible for you

8:01
and I do understand when we speak to some
of the other phone where they were

8:05
speaking to him sooner or to human person
once we have that women have a

8:10
massive displacement effect which for the
first time in human history is going

8:16
to overwhelm the creation of more job destruction
than job creation remember

8:22
that the bankrupt agree that they have referred
to came at the tail end of a

8:29
thirty-year period of replacement or manufacturing
jobs in the developing

8:34
world with low-wage in a bit of work employment
rate swings in Britain

8:41
speaker comes from employment rates are quite
high in Britain and the white

8:46
house in the United States but the bulk of
those jobs that were created to leads

8:52
to replace the jobs that were lost after 2008
after 1975 and 1983 low-wage jobs

8:59
that ones that would be called immediately
the moment artificial

9:04
intelligence overcomes the test and we are
facing a major issue there

9:11
to link it with what I was saying before this
displacement is going to reinforce

9:17
the deflation reprocess the keep our central
bankers awake at night because

9:22
it will eliminate a significant measure of
aggregate demand it will create an

9:27
even greater level of income inequality and
primarily disparity between savings

9:33
in the end is this battle between savings
and investment will force the

9:39
price of money the rate of interest even below
the current low low levels so this

9:46
is why I'm saying the basic income is going
to be an essential part of a

9:50
necessary part of any attempt to stabilize
I D and to civilized I don't

9:57
need to decide to do I define basic income
let me just say that this travel

10:05
we are going to have to carry hearts and minds
will be an ethical and unethical

10:11
under dozen simply putting out of opposition
from the heads but also from

10:19
opposition from the have nots from such a
democrat from leftists from those who

10:26
whose own sense of dignity response against
naturally the idea of something

10:34
for nothing

10:36
this is why it's important to couch facing
come as what it is it is the idea

10:42
that and allow me to not aided in broadens
we are going to overturn the

10:50
current narrative on life under capital the
current narrative the dominant

10:56
paradigm is what that we have private production
of wealth which is then

11:06
appropriated by the state for social purposes
in reality our production

11:15
is correct it is often and it is only then
privately appropriate unless we

11:21
make the shift in an hour we're not going
to be able to succeed to convince

11:26
even those who will benefit from basic income
that it is worthwhile struggling

11:31
for it
11:32
dagen iPhone and pick it up and it will do
you find it

11:37
you find a variety of technologies each one
of them was created by some

11:42
government grant none of them was produced
by Apple nothing was refused by

11:48
Google none of them were produced with was
produced by Facebook they were all

11:53
produced bike down some government grant this
is what I'm saying about his way

11:58
I'm adding to the collective production of
wealth which is then privately

12:04
appropriated if you start thinking of it that
way then it's very easy to start

12:09
thinking of basic income as it didn't a dividend
of those to the collective that

12:15
was responsible for collectively producing
the wealth and the gadgets and

12:20
a product and the markets because this forced
separation using a separation

12:25
between the market and the state needs to
be dissolved there would have been no

12:30
markets if there were no states that we have
no capitalism if it was not a state

12:35
that would be doable no Google if it was not
state and similarly there will be no

12:41
state if they were no private entrepreneurs
it would be no state is

12:44
there were no private firms we need to resolve
this false division and we have

12:52
to attack the narrative head on basic income
is about giving money to the

12:59
undeserving it is about giving money to the
rich it is about giving money to the

13:06
surface the beach bums the ones that we did
like the ones that we would not like

13:11
to be our children and who if they were true
then we will we will be scolding

13:16
them so we must not side the track be sidetracked
by simply talking about good

13:24
people getting money that they deserve
13:26
talk about undeserving people
13:28
that get money courtesy of the fact that they
are members of a society that is

13:33
collectively producing wealth and then on
top of this we need to add the

13:40
narrative of stabilization think about in
Europe today in the United States had

13:46
a basis income would really help central bankers
go to sleep at night it will be

13:52
counted inflationary it will be a unique defense
against the slow-burning

13:58
recessionary impact of 2008
14:01
now there are a decent argument against basic
14:08
that we must not avoid some of you may say
to you yes but they do not need a

14:18
basic a basic income well sure but they don't
they don't need to have the first

14:25
10,000 Swiss francs they make being tax-exempt
either nobody's worried about

14:30
that surely we hear being said it's better
to target the money that society

14:36
has on those who are deserving well yes but
you have to think of the other side

14:41
of the story due to separate the deserving
from the undeserving you need

14:46
to bureaucracy whose purpose is doodle at
that bureaucracy tends to replicate

14:52
itself bureaucrats love to reproduce themselves
and to reproduce their power

14:56
over society and to do so by creating a stigma
attached to those whom they

15:01
considered to be undeserving it is very similar
to psychiatry the moment he

15:07
introduced a three-member Michelle and the
story about the madhouse you create

15:13
an additive original reason power structure
the person who has the

15:17
certificate to be this psychiatrist decides
Hussain who has the right to be

15:25
free citizen
15:28
the other argument which i think is also one
that needs to be confronted is that

15:33
people should have a right to a job not a
ride to basic income and ugly should

15:39
be promoting work not schloss well I think
that there are two points here

15:43
that need to be made when physically nothing
stops us as a society

15:48
century those who are idle why should we have
them stuff I know that my kids

15:57
where I'd like I would be centering them but
they will not be throwing them out

16:02
of the house

16:02
secondly and more importantly there I'd to
turn down a job is essential for a

16:12
well-functioning labor market and for a civilized
society and have that I a

16:17
genuine right to turn down a job you must
have an alternative and outside

16:22
option because desperate beagle
16:25
accepted do desperate things I heard somebody
here today are you talking

16:28
about

16:28
cleaner whose job is not respected whose name
is not known I have a story to tell

16:39
about that works in a number of universities
and I remembered in the old

16:42
days where cleaners at work for the university
and they were like my boss

16:47
they would come into my office and they will
they will know my family they would

16:54
know about my wife they would not about me
that would tell me off that would say

16:58
the 8 o'clock at night got your wife what
are you doing

17:02
yeah and they had a sense of belonging to
an institution and being

17:06
institutional important and what happened
we subcontracted the labor to

17:10
firms that hire by night people that are faceless
were turned over all the time

17:17
but less were not institutionally connected
to the place where this is the

17:21
University the National Gallery in London
and so on and so forth and there

17:26
is but why did this process spin out of control
it did because the cleaners had

17:33
no us outside option no right to say no to
the subcontracted contact

17:40
now just so that we do not face only the negative
arguments let me just before I

17:48
conclude that opened this after discussion
let me mention what I think

17:52
essential aspects from a social perspective
not just from a

17:56
macroeconomic perspective it is important
to state the macroeconomic

17:59
case will be stabilizing the financial markets
investment of an unlikely but

18:07
there are others at the level of the micro
and sociological

18:15
democracy put forward the idea of a social
safety net

18:21
remember that well we need to counter this
let's have a good for catching you

18:27
when you're fully but when you're caught in
it some time to get out of them

18:33
sometimes very easy to be trumped think of
basic income as a foundation set a

18:41
floor on which to stand solidly and to be
able to reach for the sky

18:45
exploitation libertarian economists political
ghana's political game that

18:57
liberty is a driving force define liberty
on in a negative sense in the

19:05
sense of the absence of constants of volunteerism
if you said yes to some

19:10
contract that contract must by definition
be free

19:14
contract therefore it must be some act of
free will

19:21
well it's not the Mafia loves to give us options
that we can't refuse to make us

19:29
offers to choose the fact that we say yes
to them doesn't mean that they were

19:35
chosen free the fact that the government accepted
the terms last summer of the

19:40
driver does not mean that was a voluntary
transaction to have a three

19:45
contract to have a contract that he signed
by both sides

19:50
presenting and exuding the freedom of both
sides each side must have a

19:56
capacity to say no I said that before I'm
saying this once more in his

20:01
innocence freedom in action requires it basic
income
finally again beyond the

20:17
macroeconomic will allow for creative work
to replace the kind of routine

20:26
algorithmic work which is anyway being displaced
by artificial intelligence so

20:34
even want to ameliorate for the ill effects
of capitalism undermining its

20:41
producing gadgets that itself cannot survive
then we need to create a system

20:47
whereby society stakes a claim to the returns
to aggregate capital and this

20:55
claim becomes an income stream that goes to
everyone I don't see why my children

21:02
and your children have an idea trust fund
why Paris Hilton has a right to die

21:07
a trust fund when nobody else will very few
people do singles basis in get basic

21:15
income as a trust fund for all of our children
to be financed by dividends

21:22
from aggregate capital which was after all
created collectively thank you

21:43
questions so R here
21:57
technology and politics do you think is it
an unfortunate coincidence or is it

22:04
related I had a holistic approach organic
of course there is the reason

22:13
why we've had the financialization drive of
the nineteen eighties nineties and

22:19
the thousands which led us to where we are
today has a lot to do with

22:24
technological change and this technological
change now with 3d

22:28
printers and machines that can replace human
intelligence at the level of the

22:33
service sector is going to be in a vicious
feedback effect with the effects

22:40
of the combustion of financial capital so
the answer is utterly interwoven

22:46
interconnected interrelate
22:58
iraq to be a little bit more radical and that
is my question you said the reason

23:09
for the existence of a basic income in conditioner
basic income is income in

23:16
any case it in the context of civilization
of today is to do comes

23:21
from a collective labor that is organized
by state investment in R&D

23:29
technologist come from the relationship between
the public property in private

23:35
property with my dad equality says I think
that the new tools to grow their

23:40
own technological transformation change the
structure is a way your

23:45
virtualization reproducing of wells that means
a very slogan way we can say that

23:49
life itself is put into labor
23:53
indisputably the radio but I really be the
last sentence to life our life yes

24:00
he's put into labor into radio the reason
exploitation of life it's sort of

24:07
subsection of lives it's gonna be home visit
classical substitution between

24:11
real former subsection Maxon terms it is a
new wave of labor organization

24:16
liberalization so I think that the baby is
a good cultural shift is it we need

24:21
to do is to consider basic income as a sort
of a remuneration of productive

24:28
life not only part of social security and
soul so I think that there is

24:34
something that you go behind it affects there
is a collective work some more

24:39
things it is very useful to stress about this
topic just to give golfing to the

24:45
geological geophysical I don't see why we
disagree I don't see why we disagree

24:50
or agree it is better to put it in my daughter
to talk in terms of visiting is

24:58
a sort of a remuneration thanks to win the
way I

25:03
I prefer to say is that we eat gives us an
opportunity to reconsider the notion

25:10
that wealth is privately produced and collectively
appropriated when the

25:16
reality is exactly the opposite and now with
maintenance take Google they have

25:24
imposed take all the value creation by users
the complete breakdown of the

25:32
distinction between consumer and worker so
all these corporations are have huge

25:38
input from their own customers their customers
value and then they are being

25:45
turned into father which has been sold to
advertisers for vital to return

25:52
exchange value to be done directly to these
corporations and exclusive users

25:57
global corporations especially given that
these corporations baby hadn't tax

26:02
so basic income is a very simple way of ensuring
that those who produce the

26:08
valujet a larger share of their thank you
very much I have a customer has kind

26:18
of been bothering me all day concerning what
you called the second earthquake or

26:22
the rise of the machines what about those
jobs that are not being displayed

26:27
by our technological development but kind
of evolving parallel to a bike

26:31
that's a digital sweatshops in the Philippines
or i click working so I feel

26:37
like both some kind of myth that technological
innovation is gonna

26:42
replace everything but isn't there also a
job sector in New suck job sector

26:48
evolving where humans are you doing rather
machining work to train

26:52
algorithms to cloak to do Facebook censorship
but actually requires Sherman

26:59
work but every technological innovation
27:04
displaces jobs and create jobs what we're
facing now is the first time in

27:10
the first moment in history where they was
that are are about to be displaced

27:16
are far more numerous to the ones that work
which are being created in the US

27:20
were being created a much much lower level
jobs in any more badly immunity to

27:27
it than the ones that are being destroyed
so yes right here right there

27:39
high C celebrates the question of course is
tangential to universal PCI in combat

27:48
on your experience in government would you
think the role of the state should

27:54
be in the transition to the each of automation
and the digital economy and

28:00
how the state tries to reorient e skills agenda
at present we have many countries

28:06
in Europe apprenticeship and scales agenda
which actually embed the

28:11
structural weaknesses so how do you think
she can perform a rule and

28:16
preparing the labor force automation that's
a good question I don't I don't

28:22
have an answer to these Andrea we certainly
need the state to guide the

28:32
process of not so much human capital formation
but the formation of the body

28:43
of difficult knowledge which is necessary
to the problem is that we have

28:48
an educational system in an apprenticeship
system that creates human

28:55
capital of a lowbrow right both universities
and we are jumping down

29:04
education system we are creating incentives
for students to study that

29:10
which they're not good at and which is going
to by the time they graduate will

29:14
be relevant anyway for instance by ensuring
that they leave universities

29:19
with a great amount of debt we are pushing
them at the age of 18 19 to make

29:23
choices as to what they study on the basis
of their own conception of what is

29:27
repetitive which firstly doesn't prove to
be a look at it and secondly which

29:32
forces them to do things that they're not
good at and therefore depletes the

29:36
overall effect of Education Society regarding
apprenticeships I think that

29:46
look in britain today even if fantastic apprenticeship
system is not going to

29:52
work because of the level of investment solo
so what jobs with these apprentices

29:56
get to say that you know the supply side story
that if you could lead to good

30:02
advantage is good industries going to move
to Britain is at its finest guys

30:07
material the level of investment is very low
and it's not just in Britain I am

30:13
appalled by the statistics of Britain's that
in Germany the most successful

30:18
European state economy we have the highest
level of savings in the history

30:24
of Germany and the lowest level of investment
since 1945 so unless you have

30:30
together and invest in aggregate investment
policy and educational

30:36
settings and training set said things that
are in sync with investment you're

30:44
going to fail as a site and
30:54
thank you very much a really interesting talk
I just want a sort of push you a

30:59
little bit further maybe get some reflection
cause I completely agree that

31:03
being able to say no to a job is a requirement
but I also think the next

31:08
step needs to be there needs to be some kind
of system that helps people figure

31:12
out what they want to walk towards what is
it you want a self actualized that

31:17
was wondering do you have any ideas if we
introduce a basic income what other

31:22
systems that the state should the state introduced
in order to help people

31:25
figure out in the process I don't agree with
you on this you know i mean I'm not

31:30
made
31:33
don't confuse me for a statist I don't want
to stay to tell me what I should be

31:39
aspiring to I don't want the state to Delmas
my daughter what you should be

31:44
become when she grows up indeed I have very
little time for all these

31:50
professional orientation schemes whether their
state or private you know

31:54
especially when they did they take thirteen
year olds at school and they

31:58
give them these silly surveys and Delhomme
you will become an engineer

32:02
you'll be able and you're going to be a musician
this is all I have a very deep

32:09
belief in the capacity of human minds to work
things out for themselves if they

32:16
don't have to live in terror that is amazing
32:23
let's please give a warm thank you
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Yanis Varoufakis Basic Income is a Necessity (subtitulos espanol)

669 タグ追加 保存
王惟惟 2018 年 10 月 19 日 に公開
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