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Welcome to the lesson!
You're about to learn how to use the past perfect
to talk about new experiences
Remember, the past perfect is made with
'had'
'not'
if it's negative
plus the past participle
and with this meaning
it's very common to use the preposition 'before'
Have...
you met Ben?
A few years ago, he got his first job at a shoe store.
As it was his first job
he did many things for the first time
For example, he helped a customer
He used a cash register
and he cleaned a store
All of these things
were brand new experiences in his life
Let's look at how to talk about these things
using the past perfect
Here is the grammatical structure
First, you put the subject
Then, the verb phrase
Which begins with the auxiliary verb 'had'
then the negative particle 'not'
Actually, with this meaning
It is more common to use never
instead of 'not'
This makes your meaning stronger
plus the past participle
then comes the object
and finally the preposition 'before'
However, before is optional
Take a look at out first example
He used a cash register for the first time
In our new sentence, the subject will stay the same
'He'
Now the verb phrase 'had never used'
and the object
'a cash register'
and finally, 'before'
This gives us the sentence
He had never used a cash register before
Now, our next example
The verb is 'cleaned'
He had never cleaned a store before
And in our final example the verb is 'helped'
This becomes, 'he had never helped a customer before'
A few months later
Ben met a girl named Jen
They ended up dating for a while
and finally getting married
At the wedding, they each had many new experiences
Ben wore a tuxedo for the first time
Jen walked down the aisle
and...they went on a honeymoon
Here's how we would talk about these experiences
using the past perfect
Ben had never worn a tuxedo before
Jen had never walked down the aisle before
and...they had never gone on a honeymoon before
I have a surprise for you
More grammar!
Try not to get too excited
Instead of using 'before' at the end of the phrase
It's common to use this structure
'Before'
plus a clause in the past simple
and then a clause in the past perfect
For example
Before he got married
Ben had never worn a tuxedo
Before she got married, Jen had never walked down the aisle
and finally, before Ben and Jen got married, they had never gone on a honeymoon
Surprise, surprise, surprise
A few months later,
Jen was...
pregnant!
What a life changing experience!
She had a pregnancy glow for the first time
She lived with very little sleep
and...she changed a diaper
Now it's time to see these new experiences
written in the past perfect
Before she got pregnant, Jen had never had a pregnancy glow
Before she had a baby, Jen had never lived with very little sleep
and finally,...
before she had a baby,
jen had never changed a diaper
It's that time again
time to practice what you've learned
What you need to do is write a sentence
talking about the new experiences given
using 'before' plus the past simple
then a clause in the past perfect
For example,
Johnny went to the zoo
for the first time in his life
he saw an elephant
this becomes
Before Johnny went to the zoo,
he had never seen an elephant
Here are your questions, good luck!
Here are your answers
If you would like more practice
click on the link in the description
to visit my website
There is a printable handout there
with more questions and answers
Thank you for watching. Have a great day!
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

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Past Perfect: to Talk about New Experiences

1131 タグ追加 保存
Samuel 2018 年 8 月 23 日 に公開
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