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  • Hadrian's Wall in the North of England One of [the] unsung wonders of the ancient world

  • it's unique [a]

  • spectacular and complex Stone barrier measuring 74 miles long

  • 15 feet [5] and 10 feet wide

  • For 300 years it stood as the Roman Empire's most imposing Frontier

  • Hadrian's war is not only an amazing feat of [engineering], but so important

  • It's been given the status of a [world] [heritage] [site]

  • But it's also an incredible time capsule a window into the human parts

  • This is the immediate fingering. It's a lovely thing and I often wonder about the rao and [tree] lost it

  • Even something this small can tell us about a single person finished of Hadrian's wall

  • every single

  • piece of leather in this style is stamped with the names laid

  • You see if I purchase [Farley's] son of time

  • basically the sort of douchey of the day

  • almost

  • [2,000] years [later] the wall still stands

  • The men women and children who lived along it [to] vanished

  • But they've left [behind] many thousands of clues of what their lives were like

  • including an incredible collection of Handwritten letters

  • right Determines

  • [tell] you in great detail what they're doing? Who they are?

  • There's no comparison

  • Tonight time watch Journeys back through time to unlock the secrets of a lost world

  • Revealing a unique insight into a dreams war and the romans

  • Whose Empire dominated Europe for half a Millennia?

  • I want to travel along Hadrian's wall

  • It's a journey of 74 miles and almost 2,000 years that will take it some wonderful places

  • But even before the war was felt there was a line of force and the most amazing [of] them is in the land

  • These archaeologists are the latest in a long line

  • helping to piece together a picture of life in [Romans], written a

  • little object obviously

  • afternoon last thing

  • Do [you] [prefer] the Bronze belt?

  • Which goes on one of the other little objects with a from this area?

  • they've discovered the remains of nine Roman Forts built on top of each other and

  • dating from the 1st to the 4th Centuries ad

  • Well, this is one of the enormous outside wall posts from the stores builder which looks like it's symptom today was there the troops building

  • Hadrian's wall

  • reign without any

  • Faults on the wall itself at the time while it was being built it would have been a big mean [forest] [or] base somewhere

  • I mean if the build is actually stretching for over 35 [metres], so it's a substantial stores blue

  • Vindolanda Sport was part of the infrastructure for the building of Hadrian's were the most northerly frontier of the Roman Empire

  • But fools Hadrian, and why was he in britain?

  • Publius Alias Adrianna's was 41 when he came to power

  • 117 Ad

  • He inherited an expanding empire that stretched from North [Africa] in the south to Newcastle in the North

  • He dreams in many ways a rather unusual [emperor] in that he took the strategic decision

  • No longer to Expand the Empire

  • Aggressively the way his [kinsman] and predecessor trajan had done he decided to consolidate him

  • along the Frontiers it already had and

  • his way of actually achieving this and if truth could control libyans was to go on a series of

  • prolong tours around the [Empire] to visit the Army's to maintain them around and

  • Generally be seen so they would know who their Paymaster doors

  • by

  • 122 ad the Romans had established a huge Garrison in Britain?

  • expanding out from the southeast

  • But they never managed fully conquered the area north of [new] [course] in carmine

  • Adrian evidently decided that it was not going to be practical to try to conquer the whole of the island at least at that period

  • What he was going to have to do was to establish a fairly tightly defined line across the island marking

  • [roman] reckoning for country from areas which was still at least nominally?

  • independent

  • The only question was what Form would this new route take?

  • Adrian came to Britain in Ad

  • 122 an ordered the construction of a war frontier right the way across the laws of the country

  • The sheer scale of it. I'm just outside Newcastle anymore this end

  • but actually this is where the war began an [existence] sighs down there in the river time and

  • Then it ran up through what's now Swamp M2

  • Shipyard with a bill the carpathian the ship that rescued the survivors from the titanic

  • And the first port along the wall is here

  • [Sega] [Deunan]

  • Hit them the terraced housing to the 1970s

  • Archaeologists have unearthed the ruins of this run's driving round [foot]

  • It was from here [that] Hadrian's wall headed West

  • This is what the war would have looked like

  • [courtesy] and the archaeologists at war's end have reconstructed it to its original height

  • And although no one's certain common sense suggests that donal wall is white the descents of the walk wave and Sim

  • protection for the Soldiers

  • It's when you stand next to the wall as it was when it was first built and it towers above you

  • But you realized the impact that it must have had marching across the landscape

  • And imagine the effect that it had of the locals their lands their farms divided by this incredible structure

  • Constance is just one of seventeen major faults will do on the wall

  • the [forks] at highly developed infrastructures each one home to several hundred people

  • In places Hadrian's wall crosses some wonderfully wild terrain

  • Even today this would be a major construction job, but the Romans built it nearly 2,000 years ago

  • we have to envisage an

  • area of Britain where the wasn't all that much stone building certainly new Monumental masonry

  • So it would have been a totally alien thing

  • It would be like a visitation from from another world, and it will be God's not

  • Not the least that the purposes of Hadrian's wall was to make a huge statement of power in the landscape of this province

  • This would have been a monument

  • Unprecedented not only in the Island, but really in the whole of the law empire

  • So how on Earth did they do it?

  • Well the roman

  • Stonemasons left behind some clues on this Rock-strewn hill at [Fallow] [field] quarry half a mile from the war

  • Today, it's very quiet and peaceful in Rural

  • But any two thousand years ago it been very different the whole hillside would have been swarming with Roman Masons

  • The Air would have been filled with the sound of hammer and chisel and a constant stream of wagons coming along to take away

  • the finished blocks of stone

  • The scale of what the romans did is incredible? They're quite away this entire hillside

  • And you can even see the way they worked these homes were [made] by Roman chisels

  • they got a [halfway] to try to split this block and then abandoned it [a]

  • [contrast] of the great wall of China for example which was built by slave labor Hadrian's walls built by the Soldiers [themselves]

  • Soldiers were trained in

  • Construction techniques some of them were very skilled Masons so they had all the skills within legions to build something even on this huge scale

  • Dr.. Peter Hill is a stonemason and an expert on the construction of Hadrian's wall

  • He spent years following the trail left behind by the romans, but if you look at this one here

  • This is now in three pieces

  • But it obviously

  • Is all one that's all the one when it came out you see by the way. It shapes all came out of one stone and

  • They simply lift see how it's 13 or 12

  • And they just that's a straight lift out of the day

  • Yes, straight. [leave] [up] [over] [here] [onto] [the] side yeah. I mean you [me] pick twice today

  • Among the ruins the archaeologists found Roman tools

  • These finds give an insight into how the masons shape the stones to go the warm

  • and incredibly the design and size [are] almost identical to the tools used by Stonemasons today, I

  • Could use aroma stone motions to all think innumerable ferns changeable

  • And they haven't changed in two thousand years and beginning [work] [some] [because] hamels have obtained

  • Further investigation by gluten [so] that the masons would have worked for about twenty minutes on each stone before it was placed in the ward

  • It calculates that they would have had to have done this 18 million times

  • And Peter is uncovered further evidence of how the Masons went about their work

  • We know how the romans lifted the big stones Bill?

  • and

  • Left us clues in the form of a hole here

  • There's a Lewis hall and into that goes [Lewis]

  • Right you've got to tapered legs here which go into this undercut hole on each side

  • right and then they are forced apart by the

  • Parallel leg goes between them

  • And then you simply push shackles

  • with a pin

  • Crane hook into there, and you lift, so you could lift a stone digitize

  • I stay on this side is three-quarters of a turn with that no problem at all right and

  • This isn't a Modern Louis which fits into a roman Louis hole we've got roman Lewis's of survived, so we know these

  • Basically the same tools tool and Clever Latvia Clever very clever

  • At the museum of antiquities in Newcastle there are even more clues

  • The archeologists have also discovered many of the names of the Roman Civil war

  • Welcome to our clay pen

  • Here we have with Mike all filing cabinets all the evidence for agents were always here

  • You've got a fair amount of stone wood she was a stone [Mikey]

  • And no one knows these Romans better than Lindsey Alison Jones

  • We have huge benefits on [Cajon's] wall in the Roman army like to record their achievements in stone

  • And a very good example is this

  • Stone here which came form our castle 38?

  • and this is the stone which actually tells us that it was Hadrian who built Hadrian's wall h a

  • [d] r [i] a n

  • It also tells us that the [2nd] legion your guster was involved in the building

  • But then it [actually] tells us the name of [the] governor at the time Paulus pretorius new posts

  • And that means we can pin down the start of the building Hadrian's wall

  • to ad 1 to 2 1 to 5

  • So if it hadn't been for [this] stone would not know that it was hatred that [should] [open] [or] absolutely

  • [I] [mean] before these inscriptions were found there was a huge rao called [newell] controversy when

  • Academics fought over whether it was septimus Severus or Hadrian

  • And it was inscriptions like this that proved the point that it was k giunti built Hadrian's wall

  • it was probably a really [zài] [a] very huge architectural limiters and so a

  • Hand without blueprint and they are Maga Rom with it

  • Following Hadrian's instructions the Soldiers built castles at every Milan on the wall

  • But in places the bureaucracy of the [emperor's] design raised some eyebrows amongst his men

  • right we're at [the] North Gate of Marcantel 37 just west of our stands for

  • Splendid Mark ethel Gateway [10] [foot] wise

  • Passageway big enough to get a large wagon through and you go through it

  • And you're on the edge of a cliff are you on the edge [of] a cliff?

  • It goes very steeply down was it well [who] gave may here not a lot?

  • Hadrian

  • From the wall. He said I want to get laid every mile and

  • So they built a date where every mile load how looking at the [path]?

  • What we [gave] just lay it off with every bill be a way

  • But it seems that in other places the design of all kept changing even as they built it

  • We neighbors because you can still see the advocates like here a brunton turret not far from Chester's fault

  • This is a good example [of] the romans not being quite as ruthlessly efficient

  • We might have thought because this is Brunton turret and as far as here

  • They build a wide wall 10 roman feet wide

  • But then they seem to change their mind because here they built a wide

  • Foundation 10 roman feet but the actual wall is much narrower, and that's how it carries on from this point onwards

  • They've started building

  • Personally I'd only been building for very long at all when somebody came along and said well hang on. We've changed our minds

  • See that terror [you've] built Rocky down

  • [germar] just you built knocking down. We're going to put forth on the landowners and every 10 miles so that reformed

  • Now sometimes it's wrong [work] or any staff

  • Maybe half finished and then [smashes] [Magner] soldiers just you know

  • This is the new plan [the] house laid out very well with the builders would it know exactly

  • Hadrian assigns

  • 10,000 soldiers to his enormous

  • construction project each century of men was allocated their own sex with Walter building

  • And when they finished they carved an inscription proclaiming your achievement

  • And here we have one of these material stones

  • which gives us the name of the

  • Centurion in charge of that group of men his name is Kirk Ilya

  • [Sprocket] as you can see here and it also tells us that he was in the fifth cohort as well

  • [and] this might have been a few reasons one and it could have been in

  • Quality control, so that people could see which was a good [better] which was about this

  • But I think also the must have a little bonding element. There's a surprise Dunley speak together [as] a group of people

  • the

  • Inscriptions tell us about the people we know the names of individuals it

  • Humanizes Hadrian's wall it puts the people back into the archaeology

  • Patrons wall didn't just [appear] in the landscape it had to be planned it had to be

  • executed and

  • A lot of people would have bashed their souls or both of their legs while they were doing it a lot of people who lived

  • On it that was their home

  • we now know that the wall was built by the second the 6th and the 20th legions and

  • Several other auxiliary units are also named

  • But the Romans left behind much more than stone inscriptions

  • as the

  • archaeologists took

  • They began to uncover the most powerful and colorful insights the political and social life of Romans along the wall

  • ancient secrets revealed

  • That a very distinct line right here that are the burnt clay material [a] very thin

  • Play Arla

  • Nowhere tells us more about the romans than the fault at Vindolanda

  • The soil here is anaerobic which provides perfect conditions for preservation

  • Things are in such good condition here because the varied under the clay and the clay

  • Effectively seals out the object to get no oxygen and get no

  • Oxidization or very little to no rust effectively no rust means that things are in the same condition

  • But they were dropped in when you find them which is just wonderful

  • the finds recovered at Vindolanda provide us with a window into everyday [rome]

  • We know what tools they use?

  • How they cut leather

  • What they ate out?

  • the Birdie family been excavating here for three generations

  • Because of the special soil conditions objects that would normally not have survived have been found perfectly preserved

  • including thousands of artifacts made from leather

  • This is a fairly typical of [our] over roman marching boot. It's got this high upper and

  • this one right knives because it's got

  • Decoration around the Eyelid so it's a little bit more expensive than the plain

  • Soldiers boot and

  • if you can

  • See [the] studs here

  • Very very heavy iron studs in the sole and quite often in a pattern

  • So there's a sort of little decorative feature even to the sole of your shoes

  • some of the items discount the practice

  • others More commonplace

  • But once they're cleaned and preserved there are all

  • important pieces of a jigsaw [puzzle] of the Roman way of life in Britain

  • We have quite a collection of these

  • Lovely boxwood combs [leever] an everyday item in Roman times

  • They're quite simply made for combing the hair yes, but also