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Hello and welcome to Study English. I'm Margot Politis.
Today on Study English, we're going to look at some of the features of formal, written
English.
In our clip, we'll hear from a man who believes that drinking water is the key to being healthy
and living a long time.
He's going to talk about how he came to his conclusion, and how he tried to get some support
for his project.
How does nature do it? What keeps body cells going and how can we improve on that process
so that we eliminate disease altogether and we live a long and healthy life? I don't think
death and disease is inevitable.
We stumbled on the fact that they weren't actually getting rid of carbon dioxide out
of their bodies, they were neutralising the carbon dioxide in their bodies, and we found
out it was from the water they were drinking.
When we looked at these animals and saw what they were doing, it was exactly as we'd hypothesised
and that was a great feeling, a real feeling of elation.
I tried and I tried and I tried to be conventional in that sense. I went to one hundred people.
I wrote one thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to
the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of medicine,
because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere, so I had to do it
other ways.
This is a food substance, this is something that's been drunk for thousands of years.
This is probably where the mythology of the fountain of youth came from. There would have
been natural springs somewhere bubbling out magnesium bicarbonate at an alkaline pH value.
And people that drank these springs lived longer.
But I want everybody to have the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's
been my life's work, and we're getting somewhere, we're getting somewhere.
One of the most important areas for students to master is the difference between informal
spoken language and formal written English, including academic language.
There are many differences between formal and informal English.
Firstly, in written language, all words must be spelt correctly. There should be no words
in written English that you can't find in a dictionary.
Another important difference is that contractions are not used in formal written English. We
only use contractions in written English if we're trying to represent the way that people
speak.
The clip we've heard today is, of course, spoken English. Listen to part of it again
and see if you can identify the features of informal English.
But I want everybody to have the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's
been my life's work, and we're getting somewhere, we're getting somewhere.
When Dr Beckett is speaking he uses a number of contractions.
He says, "That's been my life's work", and "We're getting somewhere".
That's is short for that is, and we're is short for we are.
So if we were writing these statements, we'd write:
That has been my life's work.
We are getting somewhere.
There are many common contractions. By using them in your spoken language, you will sound
more natural. But be careful to write them out in full in formal situations. Watch for
'not' words like:
couldn't, could not
wouldn't, would not
shouldn't, should not
won't, will not and
don't, do not
Another common feature of informal English is the use of phrasal verbs, or two word verbs.
Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a preposition. They are commonly used in spoken English,
and their meanings are idiomatic, giving the verb a special, new meaning.
Listen for some phrasal verbs in this clip.
We stumbled on the fact that they weren't actually getting rid of carbon dioxide out
of their bodies. They were neutralising the carbon dioxide in their bodies, and we found
out it was from the water they were drinking.
This is probably where the mythology of the fountain of youth came from.
He uses the phrasal verbs "stumbled on, get rid of, found out and came from.
In formal written English, it's best to use single word verbs.
So instead of saying:
They weren't getting rid of carbon dioxide,
we would write:
They weren't eliminating carbon dioxide,
and then we'd get rid of the contraction, so it would read:
They were not eliminating carbon dioxide.
Instead of saying:
We found out it was from the water,
we would write:
We discovered it was from the water.
This is probably where the myth came from.
This is probably where the myth originated.
Let's look at some other examples of common phrasal verbs.
Instead of look into, we would write investigate.
Instead of cut down, we would write reduce.
Keep on could be continue.
Point out could be indicate.
All of these words are more formal than using phrasal verbs.
Another important part of formal written English, is understanding how to use conjunctions.
Short sentences are less formal than compound or complex sentences. If you can, it's good
to try to link short sentences together.
Listen to this clip, then we'll try to turn it into good formal English using coordinating
conjunctions.
I went to one hundred people. I wrote a thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy
of Science. I spoke to the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke
to professors of Medicine, because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere.
He uses a number of simple sentences in a row.
I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to the American Academy of Science.
I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of Medicine.
These could become:
I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science, the American Academy of Science and hospitals.
I also spoke to professors of Medicine.
There are some rules to be aware of when you're using conjunctions.
In formal English, we don't start sentences with coordinating conjunctions.
Words like 'and' and 'but' are joining words. They are not used to begin sentences.
Listen to Dr Bechett again. Notice how he uses conjunctions to start his sentences.
There would have been natural springs somewhere bubbling out magnesium bicarbonate at an alkaline
pH value. And people that drank these springs lived longer. But I want everybody to have
the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's been my life's work.
He uses the word 'and' to begin a sentence.
If we were writing a formal report or essay, we would have to find other words to replace
'and'.
We could begin the sentence with:
furthermore
in addition, or
moreover
We could replace the word 'but' with the word 'however'.
You should make lists of these alternative words, so you use a variety of them in your
written language.
It's important to avoid repetition in your formal written English.
Of course repetition can be used to add emphasis in spoken English.
You might hear people say things like I really, really like that.
But in formal academic writing, you should find other ways of adding emphasis.
Listen to the way Russell uses repetition.
I tried and I tried and I tried to be conventional in that sense. I went to one hundred people.
I wrote one thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to
the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of medicine,
because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere.
Russell says, "I tried and I tried and I tried".
To make this sentence more formal, you could either just drop the repeated verb, or use
an adverb like repeatedly.
We could just write:
I tried or,
I tried repeatedly
Another way you can make your language more formal is to use the prefix re- to indicate
a repeated action. This doesn't apply to all verbs.
Look at this sentence.
He played and played the song again and again.
We could write formally:
He replayed the song repeatedly.
And why don't you try practising ways of making spoken language more formal, or looking at
ways that you can take formal, written language, and turn it into conversational English!
That's all for today, I hope I'll see you next time on Study English. Bye bye.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

Study English - Series 1, Episode 17: Water and ageing

155 タグ追加 保存
大呆危 2018 年 6 月 25 日 に公開
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  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔