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  • Homeopathy may be the most controversial but also the most popular alternative medicine.

    ホメオパシーは、最も議論の的となる、 しかし最もポピュラーな代替医療であろう。

  • While some argue against it, others swear by its great power and effectiveness.

    反対する者もいれば、 その素晴らしい力と効果を断言する者もいる

  • How does homeopathy work?


  • How did it become what it is today, and what can modern medicine learn from it?

    今日のホメオパシーはどのように形作られ、 現代医療が学ぶべきものは何だろうか

  • The first principle of homeopathy is "like cures like."

    ホメオパシー第1の原則は 「似たものが似たものを治す」である。

  • Remedies use ingredients that cause the symptoms you want to cure.

    「治療(レメディ)」には、治療したい症状を 引き起こす物質が使われる

  • In practice, that means that remedies against fever could, for example, be made from belladonna, which also causes fever.

    例えば、発熱の治療に 同じく熱症を引き起こすベラドンナを用いる

  • A mixture based from bee venom is used to treat itchy swellings, and so on.


  • The second principle is the special method of preparation called potentization.

    第2の原則が「ポテンタゼーション(希釈+振盪)」 という特別な法則

  • The idea is that diluting and agitating the ingredients activates their curative powers and enhances their effect.

    物質を溶かしてかき混ぜることで 治療効果を生み、高めることができるというものだ

  • To do this, the ingredient is dissolved in alcohol or distilled water.


  • Homeopaths take one part of the solution and mix it with nine parts of water,


  • diluting it down to one tenth of its original concentration, and shaking it.


  • What you have now is a 1X potency:


  • one-part ingredient and nine parts solvent,


  • named after the Roman numeral X, for 10.

    ローマ数字の10を意味するXから 名づけられている

  • Now, this process is repeated.


  • Take one part, mix it with nine parts of pure water and shake it vigorously. Now you have 2X.

    1をとり、9の純水と混ぜ、勢いよく振る これで2Xができる

  • You do this again and again until you reach the desired grade of potency.


  • The finished remedy is then taken orally, or sometimes

    こうしてできた「レメディ」は、 経口摂取するか

  • it's applied as little sugar pellets that are sold as globuli.

    グロ-ビュリと呼ばれる砂糖と混ぜた 丸薬にして飲む

  • A 20X potency, for example, is like dissolving one aspirin pill in the water volume of the whole Atlantic.

    20Ⅹの場合、頭痛薬一粒を 大西洋に溶かすほどの希釈率になる

  • But many are much more extreme, like 30C, for example.

    しかし、30Ⅽと呼ばれるものは、 もっと極端な希釈率となる

  • C means that the mixture has one part ingredient and 99 parts water.


  • So the commonly sold 30C mixture means one part ingredient and


  • one million billion billion billion billion billion BILLION parts of water.


  • If we wanted a globuli pill with a single atom of the original ingredient,

    もし、原子一粒の大きさの材料から 30Cの丸薬を作ろうとするなら

  • then our pill would be the diameter of the distance between the Earth and the Sun.


  • 150,000,000 kilometers


  • A pill so massive, that it would collapse into a black hole under its own mass.

    あまりに巨大すぎて、自らブラックホール化し 崩壊してしまうだろう

  • Because of this, potentization is one of the biggest criticisms of homeopathy.

    このため、ポテンタリゼ-ションは ホメオパシーに対する最も大きな批判の一つとなる

  • The extreme dilution is supposed to make the ingredients more potent,


  • but on a physical level, this doesn't really make sense.


  • Most homeopathic remedies are diluted so much

    多くのホメオパシーのレメディは あまりに薄められており

  • that not a single atom of the active ingredient is left in them.


  • The explanation of why the mixtures still work is that shaking the mixture after every dilution leaves behind a

    なぜ、この混合液が効果を発揮するかというと 希釈されるたびに、原料の魂のようなエッセンスが

  • spirit-like essence of the ingredient.


  • Basically, the idea is that water remembers what was put into it.

    水の中に入ったものを 水は記憶するという考え方だ

  • But if this were true, then every substance that ever met a drop of water would leave an essence behind

    しかし、もしこれが本当なら 水の中に落ちたすべてのエッセンスの記憶が

  • and lead to unpredictable effects when it was accidentally ingested.

    水の中に残ることになり 思いがけない影響を引き起こしかねない

  • Think of all the stuff that lives and floats in the oceans.

    水に住むものや浮かんでいるものを 考えてみると

  • Every sip of water would be a supercharged homeopathic cocktail.

    水を一口飲むことは超高濃度の ホメオパシーカクテルを飲むことになる

  • So how did homeopathy become the most successful alternative medicine?

    では、ホメオパシーはどうやって最も成功した 代替医療になったのだろうか

  • In the 18th century, medicine was very different from today.

    18世紀において、医療は現代とは 全く違っていた

  • Treatments like bloodletting left the patient worse off than before.

    血を抜くような治療がおこなわれ 患者は治療前より悪化することがあった

  • So German physician Samuel Hahnemann wanted a non-invasive, natural way of healing and developed homeopathy.

    そこで、ドイツの医者、ハーマネンは非侵略性の 自然治療を行いたいと思いホメオパシーを発展させた

  • And, in fact, homeopathic hospitals were soon successful because doing no harm beats doing harm.

    そして、事実ホメオパシー病院はすぐに繁盛した 危害を与えなかったからだ

  • Hahnemann imposed very strict rules on his patients.


  • First you had to avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, spicy food, sweet food. No old cheese, no onions, no meat.

    まず、コーヒー、紅茶、アルコール、刺激物、お菓子 古いチーズ、玉ねぎ、肉を禁止

  • No clothes made from sheep's wool, but also no sedentary work, no sitting inside in stuffy air, no warm rooms, no riding horses,

    羊毛の服、座ってする仕事、風通しの悪い部屋、 暖かい部屋、乗馬

  • no napping, no playing games,


  • no masturbation, and of course, no reading pornographic texts, and many more.

    自慰行為、ポルノ小説等々 他にも多くを禁じた

  • Then, and only then, would his remedies work, according to the inventor of homeopathy.

    こうした条件下でのみ、彼の発明したホメオパシーは 効果を発揮したのだろう

  • Of course, all of these instructions are ignored and not talked about today.

    もちろん、現在ではこうした彼の指導は 無視され、語られることもない

  • Medicine has changed a lot in the last 150 years.


  • Never before in human history have we enjoyed a comparable level of health.

    人類はかつてない高いレベルでの健康を 享受してる

  • Never have we lived as long, and this is largely due to the new tools we've developed.

    かつてないほど長寿であるが これは我々が発展させたツールによるところが大きい

  • Modern diagnostics, double-blinded studies, and scientific evaluation to check and prove which stuff works.

    近代的な診断、二重盲検法、 医療関係者の科学的評価

  • Thanks to these tools, after countless studies and reviews,


  • we know beyond a shadow of a doubt that homeopathy does not have any effect beyond placebo.

    ホメオパシーはプラシーボ効果以上のものではないと はっきりと分かった

  • But even so, who cares why it works if it helps people?

    しかし、そうだとしても もし効果があるならばそれでよいではないか

  • Maybe you tried it and felt better,


  • or you know someone that got over a horrible disease while using homeopathic remedies,

    あるいは、ホメオパシーのレメディーを使って 大病を治した人を知っているだろう

  • and there are plenty of reports of it working for children and animals.

    そして、子供や動物にも効果があったという 多くの報告もある

  • What do we make of these experiences?


  • The Placebo Effect is very real and not imaginary.

    プラシーボ効果は厳然たる事実であり 想像上のものではない

  • No matter how smart you are, you're not immune to it.


  • If people believe that something will help them feel better, their trust alone has the desired effect.

    もし、何かのおかげで気分が良くなると信じると そう信じることだけで望む効果を生む

  • And it's been proven that the Placebo Effect can be transferred.

    そしてプラシーボ効果は伝染することも わかっている

  • Children and animals rely on their parents or keepers and are in tune to their emotions.

    子供や動物は両親や飼い主に依存し 彼らの感情に左右される

  • If a parent has a lot of trust in a treatment and eases up, this can help a child relax and help relieve symptoms.

    もし親が治療効果と症状の緩和を強く信じていたら 子供を安心させ症状が改善するだろう

  • This could also be observed with animals who react strongly to the body language cues of the people caring for them.

    動物に関しても、人が癒しているという ボディーランゲージへの強い反応が観察されている

  • But the most powerful tool of homeopathy is time.

    しかし、ホメオパシーの最も強力なツールは 時間だ

  • Our bodies are survival machines.


  • Infections pass on their own after a few days.


  • But if you take some remedy when you already feel sick, and then start getting better,

    しかし、病気になったと思ったときに レメディを摂取すると、症状が改善し始める

  • it feels like it did indeed cure you, when actually, it would have happened anyway.

    そのおかげで治ったようにみえるが 実際はいずれそうなったことなのだ

  • The homeopathy industry likes to play the gentle alternative to Big Pharma.

    ホメオパシー産業は巨大製薬業界に対する 穏やかな別の選択肢であるようふるまっている

  • But the homeopathic industry IS Big Pharma.

    しかし、ホメオパシー産業は 巨大製薬業界だ

  • Billions of dollars are made with extreme profit margins.


  • The homeopathy industry has its own lobby organizations and fights its enemies as hard as it can.

    ホメオパシー産業はロビー組織を持ち ライバルと激しく戦っている

  • A lot of money is on the line.


  • Globally, the market is expected to reach over 17 billion by 2024.

    2024年までに、世界規模で 市場は170億ドルをこえると予想されている

  • Some critics even argue that the homeopathic industry is bad for public health because it creates distrust in proven medicine.

    ホメオパシー産業は、科学的な裏付けのある 医療への不信を招き

  • The belief in homeopathy correlates with skepticism about vaccinations.


  • This can discourage people to seek the help they need

    ホメオパシー信仰はワクチンへの懐疑と 関連性がある

  • when their lives or the lives of their children are on the line.

    自分や子供の命が危ない時に 必要な助けを呼ぶことを躊躇しかねない

  • But there is actually a key to the success of homeopathy that we could, and should, copy.

    しかし、我々が見習える、見習うべき ホメオパシー成功の鍵がある

  • The first consultation with a homeopath can take hours and is very personal.

    ホメオパシーにおける最初の問診は 数時間をかけることもありとても親身だ

  • For a patient who's already been on a pilgrimage from doctor to doctor,


  • this level of attention and empathy can make a huge difference to their well-being,


  • even if the conversation was not the point of the therapy.

    ホメオパシー治療での親身さと共感は 一般的な治療とは大きく違っている

  • Modern medicine is efficient. It saves millions of lives each year.

    近代医療は効果的で 毎年数百万の命を救っている

  • But it's also a strictly organized system.


  • Tight budgets force doctors and nurses to deal with lots of patients.

    限られた予算のため、医者や看護師は 多くの患者の相手をしなければならない

  • Consultations need to be time-efficient,


  • diagnoses made quickly, treatments fast,


  • which can leave patients feeling invisible, scared, and left behind.

    こうして患者は透明人間のように感じ、恐れ そして置き去りにされたように感じる

  • This is what modern medicine can learn from homeopathy.

    これこそ、近代医療がホメオパシーから 学べることだ

  • It meets a human need that has been left unfulfilled.


  • We need to make time for the individual again. See people, not numbers.

    我々は再び個人を見つめなおす時間をかけるべきだ 番号ではなく、人を見つめるのだ

  • But as important as empathy is, it's not a substitute for actual treatment.

    しかし、共感が大事といっても 実際の治療の代わりにはなれない

  • Faith can move mountains, but sugar water can't cure cancer.

    想いがあれば山も動くが 砂糖水でガンは治らない

  • After a short break of a few years, Kurzgesagt is back in German.

    ※Faith can move moutains =ことわざ 日本語なら 一心岩をも通す

  • Thanks to the support of Funk, we have relaunched the German channel and are beginning to upload a video every 1-2 weeks.

    00:07:54,880 --> 00:08:01,380

  • Besides redoing our favorite videos,

    00:08:01,760 --> 00:08:03,900

  • there'll be a number of videos that will not exist in English for a while.

    00:08:03,900 --> 00:08:07,500

  • Check out the channel here, tell us what you think, and subscribe and watch a few.

    00:08:07,940 --> 00:08:12,160

  • If the channel goes well, the German videos might become a regular thing for years, and we might even do more languages.

    00:08:13,220 --> 00:08:19,740

Homeopathy may be the most controversial but also the most popular alternative medicine.

ホメオパシーは、最も議論の的となる、 しかし最もポピュラーな代替医療であろう。


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