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  • So there are a few things

  • that bring us humans together in the way that an election does.

  • We stand in elections, we vote in elections,

  • we observe elections.

  • Our democracies rely on elections.

  • We all understand why we have elections,

  • and we all leave the house on the same day

  • to go and vote.

  • We cherish the opportunity to have our say,

  • to help decide the future of the country.

  • The fundamental idea is that politicians

  • are given mandate to speak for us,

  • to make decisions on our behalf

  • that affect us all.

  • Without that mandate, they would be corrupt.

  • Well unfortunately, power corrupts,

  • and so people will do lots of things

  • to get power and to stay in power,

  • including doing bad things to elections.

  • You see, even if the idea

  • of the election is perfect,

  • running a countrywide election is a big project,

  • and big projects are messy.

  • Whenever there is an election,

  • it seems like something always goes wrong,

  • someone tries to cheat,

  • or something goes accidentally awry --

  • a ballot box goes missing here,

  • chads are left hanging over here.

  • To make sure as few things as possible go wrong,

  • we have all these procedures around the election.

  • So for example, you come to the polling station,

  • and a poll station worker asks for your ID

  • before giving you a ballot form

  • and asking you to go into a voting booth

  • to fill out your vote.

  • When you come back out, you get to drop your vote

  • into the ballot box

  • where it mixes with all the other votes,

  • so that no one knows how you voted.

  • Well, what I want us to think about for a moment

  • is what happens after that,

  • after you drop your vote into the ballot box.

  • And most people would go home

  • and feel sure that their vote has been counted,

  • because they trust

  • that the election system works.

  • They trust that election workers and election observers

  • do their jobs and do their jobs correctly.

  • The ballot boxes go to counting places.

  • They're unsealed and the votes are poured out

  • and laboriously counted.

  • Most of us have to trust

  • that that happens correctly for our own vote,

  • and we all have to trust that that happens correctly

  • for all the votes in the election.

  • So we have to trust a lot of people.

  • We have to trust a lot of procedures.

  • And sometimes we even have to trust computers.

  • So imagine hundreds of millions of voters

  • casting hundreds of millions of votes,

  • all to be counted correctly

  • and all the things that can possibly go wrong

  • causing all these bad headlines.

  • And you cannot help but feel exhausted at the idea

  • of trying to make elections better.

  • Well in the face of all these bad headlines,

  • researchers have taken a step back

  • and thought about how we can do elections differently.

  • They've zoomed out and looked at the big picture.

  • And the big picture is this:

  • elections should be verifiable.

  • Voters should be able to check

  • that their votes are counted correctly,

  • without breaking election secrecy,

  • which is so very important.

  • And that's the tough part.

  • How do we make an election system completely verifiable,

  • while keeping the votes

  • absolutely secret?

  • Well, the way we've come up with

  • uses computers,

  • but doesn't depend on them.

  • And the secret is the ballot form.

  • And if you look closely at these ballot forms,

  • you'll notice that the candidate list

  • is in a different order on each one.

  • And that means, if you mark your choices on one of them

  • and then remove the candidate list,

  • I won't be able to tell from the bit remaining

  • what your vote is for.

  • And on each ballot form there is this encrypted value

  • in the form of this 2D barcode

  • on the right.

  • And there's some complicated cryptography

  • going on in there,

  • but what's not complicated

  • is voting with one of these forms.

  • So we can let computers do all the complicated cryptography for us,

  • and then we'll use the paper for verification.

  • So this is how you vote.

  • You get one of these ballot forms at random,

  • and then you go into the voting booth,

  • and you mark your choices,

  • and you tear along a perforation.

  • And you shred the candidate list.

  • And the bit that remains, the one with your marks,

  • this is your encrypted vote.

  • So you let a poll station worker

  • scan your encrypted vote.

  • And because it's encrypted,

  • it can be submitted, stored

  • and counted centrally

  • and displayed on a website

  • for anyone to see, including you.

  • So you take this encrypted vote

  • home as your receipt.

  • And after the close of the election,

  • you can check that your vote was counted

  • by comparing your receipt

  • to the vote on the website.

  • And remember, the vote is encrypted

  • from the moment you leave the voting booth,

  • so if, in fact, and election official wants to find out how you voted,

  • they will not be able to.

  • If the government wants to find out how you voted,

  • they won't be able to.

  • No hacker can break in

  • and find out how you voted.

  • No hacker can break in and change your vote,

  • because then it won't match your receipt.

  • Votes can't go missing,

  • because then you won't find yours when you look for it.

  • But the election magic doesn't stop there.

  • Instead, we want to make the whole process

  • so transparent

  • that news media and international observers

  • and anyone who wants to

  • can download all the election data

  • and do the count themselves.

  • They can check that all the votes were counted correctly.

  • They can check

  • that the announced result of the election

  • is the correct one.

  • And these are elections

  • by the people, for the people,

  • so the next step for our democracies

  • are transparent

  • and verifiable elections.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

So there are a few things

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B1 中級

デビッド・ビスマーク:電子投票 (David Bismark:electronic voting)

  • 240 19
    Chan に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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