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  • On September, 23, 2013, in London,

  • a man named Michael O'Sullivan killed himself.

  • That would be a tragic event in any circumstances,

  • but what was most shocking about his death is that the coroner's report

  • listed the DWP, the Department of Work and Pensions,

  • as a contributing factor to his death.

  • Michael had been summoned in to attend a fitness-for-work interview,

  • which, despite his many physical and mental problems

  • he had faced over many years,

  • deemed him fit to return to work,

  • regardless of the impact that it might have on him,

  • and left him in a position

  • where he felt that taking his own life was his only way out.

  • Last year, at a football tournament in England,

  • a group of kids who had reached the semi-final stage

  • had to drop out of the tournament

  • right at the stage where they had a chance of winning this entire thing.

  • The reason?

  • They couldn't keep playing; they hadn't eaten properly in days.

  • They literally did not have the energy

  • to finish something that was fun and exciting for them.

  • This was despite the fact

  • that for most of them, their parents were working,

  • and actually, their parents had been going without food

  • to try and keep them fed.

  • But the lack of access to food during school holidays

  • meant that these children were going hungry

  • in a country like ours, which is one of the biggest economies in the world.

  • Here in Glasgow, just earlier this year,

  • Matthew Bloomer was found dead in the center of Glasgow.

  • He'd been living homeless, and he died in a cold Glasgow night.

  • On average, four homeless people are dying in this city, a month,

  • despite everything we have access to.

  • This should be a source of national shame and national outrage;

  • and yet, it ends up looking like statistics.

  • These are only the tip of the iceberg,

  • only a few of many, many stories happening around us.

  • How have we got to this stage?

  • The problem is that we created our welfare state in the post-war period.

  • The country came together at a time when we'd experience

  • devastating loss of life, of property, of resources,

  • and made the decision

  • across party lines, across social boundaries

  • that actually, we had the responsibility to each other,

  • that people should be protected from the cradle to the grave,

  • when they were at their weakest.

  • Yet, we see now a system

  • where that right to protect you and get you a house

  • didn't help Matthew and those others dying.

  • The right to work should count, should matter,

  • should be able to allow you to live,

  • but it doesn't help those families going without food despite having jobs.

  • The idea of protecting people from cradle to grave,

  • when they're at their weakest,

  • didn't support Michael when he needed it most.

  • The welfare state, which is a source of pride and joy for us,

  • was created to try and deal with five giants,

  • five evils that we felt plagued society.

  • The problem is those giants still exist:

  • but they've changed, they've evolved,

  • they've adapted and taking on new characteristics and new impacts.

  • But our system hasn't evolved with them.

  • We live in a world that is changing at an exponential pace:

  • previously, societal change that would have taken decades

  • is now taking years,

  • and as we move into the future, will be taking months.

  • We have to learn how to adapt with that, we have to start to have a space

  • where the challenges and opportunities we face

  • through globalization, climate change,

  • artificial intelligence, robotics, and so many other areas

  • can help us to grow,

  • to open up opportunities for creative lives for our citizens,

  • and not keep us trapped where we are.

  • The theme of today has been about "lead or follow,"

  • and that's exactly what we're faced with now.

  • We look at these looming changes,

  • and we can choose to wait, we can choose to hope

  • that maybe, enough of us can just about manage it,

  • can just about get through,

  • that we can cope with the ever-increasing concentration of wealth and resources

  • into a smaller and smaller focus of society as sustainable,

  • that we can cope with the environmental challenges,

  • and hopefully, not too many people will be lost during that process.

  • Or we can choose to lead,

  • we can choose to find a new social contract,

  • a new approach to society

  • that actually lets us take those opportunities

  • and flourish with them.

  • And I believe, here in Scotland,

  • we have that chance to take that leadership,

  • and I think it will be routed

  • through the introduction of a basic income.

  • Basic income -

  • the idea that every citizen receives a payment every month

  • from the state, directly into their account

  • isn't a new idea; it's been around for centuries.

  • But it's an idea that fits

  • the world we're in and that we're moving into.

  • It has three core components:

  • it's universal; it's unconditional;

  • and it's secure.

  • Security means

  • that you know every month that that money will be in your account

  • to cover your basic needs.

  • It allows you to start to plan for the future.

  • When so many people are living and working through jobs

  • where they are not sure

  • how long their employments are going to last for,

  • with zero-hour contracts or short-term employment,

  • this gives security to look to the future.

  • It's universal.

  • This is a right for every citizen: man, woman, and child.

  • This isn't on the basis

  • of whether we feel you have to have it at a certain point,

  • or in the basis of your economic activity, or the levels of money you make,

  • or the resources you own.

  • This is your right.

  • This reminds us that we have

  • a responsibility to each other and a relationship as a society.

  • And it's unconditional.

  • We've got to a stage where we have a system

  • that is based on conditions, on sanctions, on punishments,

  • on presuming the worst of people.

  • Basic income is the idea that actually we believe in people.

  • We believe that by giving people

  • their access to this money, to this security,

  • they will choose and have the opportunity to live creative, fuller lives.

  • It's a positive affirmation of where we can go.

  • And it's not free money, it's not money for nothing,

  • it's not the idea of giving people nothing

  • for we all share or should share the benefits of society around us.

  • Because is true: no man, woman, or child is an island.

  • All of us rely upon the structures of the state,

  • of international relationships,

  • and of what has been done

  • for the generations that have led to where we are today.

  • Just stop for a minute and think about the worst job you've ever had.

  • Most of us probably can think of it pretty quickly;

  • sadly, some people will still probably be in it.

  • The kind of job that doesn't give you space for growth,

  • that doesn't give you the opportunities to push yourself, to challenge yourself,

  • to go in new directions.

  • In many of those cases, we had those jobs because we had to:

  • we have to pay the bills, we have to survive.

  • Imagine access to a secure form of payment, every month,

  • that allowed you to make new decisions.

  • It doesn't mean you won't work in that job,

  • but you may choose to work less in it,

  • and do something else with your other time.

  • You may have the confidence and the security

  • to challenge some of the working processes.

  • It gives you the space to make decisions for yourself.

  • Think about ideas that you might have had,

  • or friends or family might have had for new businesses, products, charities.

  • How often are these ideas held back because of the risks attached to them?

  • We have responsibilities,

  • we have bills to pay, mortgages and rent to cover;

  • children, loved ones to look after.

  • And these can stop us

  • from having the opportunity to explore, to take a risk.

  • How many world-changing ideas potentially get lost through that,

  • which access to a secure form of payment would allow us to start to consider?

  • Think of how many people have caring responsibilities

  • for loved ones, elderly relatives, children,

  • who contribute to their communities through volunteering,

  • through working in different organizations.

  • We treat that as a luxury, or as an expectation,

  • as a freebie that comes to society,

  • despite the fact that caring alone is probably worth about 20% of our GDP.

  • Imagine actually valuing that,

  • giving people a payment that allowed them to choose

  • to have those opportunities in their lives.

  • They could choose to give back to their communities,

  • to care for people that needed it.

  • I don't want to imagine that;

  • today is about leadership, it's about changing the world,

  • and here, we have a chance to do that.

  • Scotland and Glasgow have a history of innovation, of enterprise,

  • of charity, and of caring for society.

  • And this is our time to do that again.

  • In Scotland, and here in Glasgow,

  • we're exploring experiments about how we can test this out in practice,

  • how we can start to get the evidence

  • that will show the impact that this can genuinely have for people.

  • They can start to change that relationship,

  • take us away from the sanctions-based system we have now

  • to one that is fit for a purpose,

  • for the future that we face and the way that we can work within that.

  • We created our welfare state

  • in the ruins, and after the horrors of the Second World War.

  • If we could create that new society, in that kind of context,

  • we need to ask ourselves: what's stopping us now?

  • (Applause)

On September, 23, 2013, in London,

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TEDx】ベーシックインカム-スコットランドが世界をリードするラディカルなチャンス(再び)|ジェイミー・クック|TEDxGlasgow (【TEDx】Basic income-Scotland's radical chance to lead the world (again) | Jamie Cooke | TEDxGlasgow)

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    王惟惟 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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