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  • Here's an introduction to Phonics & Spelling.

  • æ... ɛ... ɪ... ɔ... ʊ

  • ɑ... e ... i... o... u

  • eɪ... aɪ... oʊ... ju

  • aʊ... ɔɪ

  • l l l l...

  • m...

  • n...

  • ŋ...

  • j...

  • r r r...

  • w w w w...

  • j j j j j...

  • These all say "-er" — the "e - r" sound.

  • I don't think there's any reason that a dictionary should be concerned about the difference.

  • Usually, the difference is British or American English.

  • A dictionary should use the same one for all of the words.

  • The only reason we would care which one of these we use...

  • is for...

  • say, a language expert who's being very, very technical in study.

  • But, most people should not be concerned about which one of these is used.

  • Technically, from a dictionary perspective,

  • it doesn't change the meaning of the word at all!

  • Just consider any of theseif you ever see them

  • to be the "e - r" "-er" sound.

  • This is a schwa. It makes a fast, fast vowel sound.

  • The schwa can technically be any vowel sound as long as it's quick.

  • Usually, it's ə... or ə.

  • This is a clear ʌ sound.

  • This is usually fast, ə.

  • This is a glottal stop, such as "stop it". It's usually used in lazy speech,

  • "Such as Cockney."

  • p... t... k...

  • b... d... g...

  • Notice "p", "t", and "k" don't say "pu... tu... ku..."

  • That would be East Asian languages.

  • In English, it's just p... t... k...

  • This is part of English speaking in "beat-box".

  • t͡ʃ This is a "ch" sound.

  • d͡ʒ This is a "j" sound,

  • which is why the "j" says j like a "y".

  • s... f... ʃ... θ...

  • z... v... ʒ... ð...

  • These make the same sounds;

  • these do not have a voice;

  • these do have a voice.

  • The "h", h, is combined with the "w" sound to make a "w - h" hw sound.

  • This is what we use in most of our "WH" words,

  • such as what, when, why, where.

  • If we pronounce it this way, then all the "WH" words like those have the same sound.

  • But, if we're lazy, it's "what, where, why, when, who".

  • And, that difference is confusing. But, if you see the "wh" as being pronounced this way,

  • it will always make sense, "what, where, why, when, who".

  • You can do your own research on vowels.

  • But, here are some IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) spellings using the letters from above.

  • These are the short vowels...

  • æ... ɛ... ɪ... ɑ... u

  • And then, long vowels.

  • Consider the vowel with an "e" to be long,

  • whether they're right next to each other

  • or if there's one consonant between them.

  • Some curricula teach "a - space - e".

  • I teach "a with e".

  • It doesn't matter if they're right together or if there's one letter between them.

  • They will all make the same long vowel sound.

  • There are also other various spellings that make the same long vowel sound.

  • First learn them by learning...

  • "a - e", "e - e", "i - e", "o - e", "u - e"

  • and then knowing that there are several different variants.

  • And, you can put one letter between them, of course.

  • Learn these slowly, over time.

  • Here are some other sounds...

  • I call these "hard", it's a vowel with an "r".

  • ɑɹ... ər... ər... — the same — ɔər... ʊər...

  • Of course, the "-or" and the "-ur" can also say, "ər... ər... ər... ər... ər..."

  • The difference isn't very important,

  • it's just common and normal.

  • We also have a few other sounds...

  • ɔ... aʊ... ʊ... and ɔɪ...

  • Here are main ways to spell them;

  • here are other ways to spell them you should know about.

  • This "-" dash and the vowels indicates it comes at the end of a word.

  • Here are other words that you can practice with

  • and other charts that you can use.

  • This is how to double consonants.

  • We have different stops and we have ways that those work.

  • This is for practice, many of these are not actual words,

  • but if you know how to put these together and say and read these,

  • your ability to pronounce words will be very good.

  • This is a very good practice sheet.

  • Here are some other strange, complex rules.

  • This is useful to know these.

  • These are "th" differences.

  • θ... The soft "th" sound is voiceless.

  • And, then ð... — the voiced "th" sound.

  • Here's a list of very common words.

  • It's difficult to know the difference, but this chart can help.

  • Here are some other strange spellings.

  • It's good to just know these words.

  • They can be confusing.

  • At the top, these are common words.

  • We see these patterns or words with the same pronunciation, but different spelling.

  • And, here at the bottom we words that are just spelled strangely.

  • And, it's good to know how to pronounce them.

  • If you don't know how to pronounce the words you can always use your language tools,

  • if you're using Google Chrome and click on them and learn how to pronounce them.

  • This is a very interesting chart on how to change the spelling of verbs, depending on the situation.

  • These are some basic rules and they're good to go over and good to know.

  • This can be very useful.

Here's an introduction to Phonics & Spelling.

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A2 初級

フォニックス&スペリング入門 (Introduction to Phonics & Spelling)

  • 189 5
    Jesse Steele に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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