字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント [ Music ] >> The Aborigines of Australia have survived the trackless waste of the continent for centuries. To do so they have developed extraordinary visual spatial skills, a feature of the right hemisphere. Has the combination of experience and evolution changed the way they think? Aboriginal children do not perform as well as white Australian children on conventional verbal tests. One psychologist, Judy Kearins, thought the tests might be ignoring the Aborigines real skills. >> The children I've found know a great deal more than I do and a great deal more than most white Australian people. They take for granted that we possess most of the knowledge they have, and we don't. They think that a sense of direction is built into everybody's instinct, and also the same thing applies to all their knowledge about the wildlife of their region. They don't really seem to think that any of their knowledge is special and it is very much so. >> Dr. Kearins believes that Aboriginal children use their visual and spatial memories more than white children. She invented a game to test her theory. The task? To remember the positions of a set of objects on a board. The manmade objects should be easier for verbally oriented children to remember because natural objects are not as easily described and remembered in words. Kearins used both natural and manmade objects. >> All right, open your eyes and see. >> The most difficult group of all to describe verbally-- 12 stones. Filimina has 30 seconds to memorize the positions of the stones. She can take as long as she likes to put them back. [ Pause ] >> Okay, very good. Now I'll show you, they're almost all in the right places. That one's right. That one's right. That one's right. That one's right. So is that and that and that. That is. That is. That is. That is. These two should be swapped around. I've been testing aboriginal children between the ages of 6 and about 16 years and they always perform better than white Australian children and also the rate of superiority, if you like, stays about the same. They perform at about the, about three years ahead of the white Australian children. So that an Aboriginal child of about seven years would perform about as well as a 10 year old white Australian child. Not quite as well, but it's about a three year difference. They also tend to perform these tasks in even ways in terms of tempo. They don't hurry and put a few back and then slow down. They seem to perform at the same rate all the time and they also don't mutter or mumble which a lot of white Australian children have done while they were doing the tasks, while thinking. They fix to learn the names hoping that that would help them to remember where the items went. >> The two groups of children use different strategies and perhaps different parts of their brains to solve the puzzles.