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a lot of people including myself
have found the study of world war I to

be a little bit confusing sometimes
and i think the reason is is
the world was very different

leading up to World War I than it is today.
and to some degree
the modern world we live in was shaped

to a large degree by war one
and later world war two

and just to get a sense of what our modern world
looks like

and especially what modern Europe looks like,
this is a map of modern Europe.

But the interesting thing about this map is
instead of being the traditional map

that you normally see
where you just see the country boundaries

the state boundaries
this has a state boundaries right here

in these little gray lines
they show the where where

France and say Switzerland
or Germany or Italy begin

but overlayed on top of that
we see where the languages are spoken

so this is actually much more focused
on where the people speak French

where people speak German
and i think that you all noticed for the
most part throughout most of europe

today's boundaries or modern boundaries
closely closely match up

to where languages are spoken.
There a few areas where this isn't clear, there is more of a disconnect with
Catalan and Spanish
and actually that is leading to uh... some issues,
but for the most part in modern europe
the country boundaries and the linguistic

boundaries
of the national boundaries kind of match up.

If we go, if we rewind to the world entering into world war one,
things were very different.
Some of the boundaries we recognize.
We recognize, we recognize the United Kingdom
and well, Ireland has since been carved out,

but we recognize that as not being that
differently than it is today.

Spain is not that different,
France is not that different,
Italy is not that different,
Germany is a good bit different.
In fact if you take Germany
the German empire entering into World War I

or in the early nineteen hundred's around
1914,
between them and the Russian empire they essentially
they essentially were

swallowing up a bunch of linguistic
groups

a bunch of linguistic groups right over
here that now have their own independent states.

The other thing that you might notice is
this huge, this huge state called Austria Hungary

often called
the Austro-Hungarian empire.

And people say Oh you know there's uh... you
know I'm familiar with

some of these nations that have the word Austria Hungary in them,
but i'm not, you know "what is the Austro Hungarian empire" and what's interesting about
it is that it really was an empire
it was really trying to cobble together all
of these folks that

spoke all different, all of different types of
ethnicities.

This is kind of a zoom in of the austro-hungarian empire leading
into world war one
And the austro-hungarian empire is probably the most
important thing to understand if we're trying to get a sense
of how world war one started.
Because leading up to World War I in
1908, the austro-hungarian empire

formally annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina,
and that's another confusing thing for
many of us but that's actually one country.

It's called Bosnia and Herzegovina or I guess for the
austro-hungarian that was i guess one region that they annexed
and what's interesting about that is
if you look at the linguistic map, you see

that this whole region right
over here speaks a very similar, essentially
they are dialects of Serbian

Croatian and Bosnian.
They're all very linguistically an ethnically connected
so this whole region right over here this
whole region right over here is

linguistically and ethnically connected
and we will see is is that
this desire to to connect people with similar

ethnic or
linguistic roots was well huh linguistic

backgrounds
is what led to a lot of what

happened in world war or at least was the
sparked that fuel to

the people sometimes say
the powder keg of world war one

the other thing that was very different or
the other i

guess country or nation or empire that we
are not used to today

is the Ottoman empire
so if we go today we
see the could the country of turkey which

is kind of on the anatolian peninsula so
this is turkey this is turkey right over here
this is

modern-day turkey
but entering into world war one in
nineteen fourteen turkey was essentially part

of the
remnants of the Ottoman empire

so this right over here is what the
ottoman empire look like

this is this is right over here is roughly
modern-day

turkey
but the Ottoman empire consisted of
modern-day turkey

and much of the modern middle east so
much of a

specially much of the arab especially the
arab

world syria iraq lebanon uh...
much of what we're modern-day
israel is

some of saudi arabia
this was really the dying state of the
ottoman empire did

At it'€™s peak it controlled much of the muslim
world

a controlled
northern africa as well as all the stuff that

you see here
and even a little bit and even a little bit
of persia and

actually a good bit of the balkan southeast
europe and even grease

at the
peak of its on an empire

now i'm talking about going hundreds and hundreds
of

years back into the past
so when we entered
the world war two

we don't have a world where people kind
of our

where states are defined by linguistic boundaries
or by ethnic

boundaries
to a large degree we have these empires that
has existed that

existed as we exited out of the eighteen hundreds
and this empires were not just in europe
like the austria, austro-hungarian

empire
or not just in
the middle east

like the ottoman empire
right over here is a kind of an empire map
at around that point in time

and you see probably the most dominant feature
here

is the british empire that's in this pink
color

so braided
that's

that's united kingdom great britain would just
be would just be

this right over here
you throw in ireland you get the united kingdom
the

great britain was in control of the indian
the entire indian subcontinent

it was essentially although nominally Egypt was somewhat independent
great britain had a huge amount of influence
here

obviously places like canada and australia
and New Zealand were under the control of

or part of the british empire
well a lot of people don't realize
is that significant amount of africa as well

a significant amount of
africa was also was also under british control

and what we have running up into world war
one

is kind of a race for empire and
arms race between the major powers of europe

in particular you have great britain or
or the united kingdom

that obviously had a vast empire
the son never sets on the british empire
was a better setting on this empire that we
just saw here

and the german empire was also starting
to flex its muscle and starting and starting

to militarized
and the more
than german side of the british ruled rising

the more that the british added that the more
the british the more

the germans and one or two after militarized
and vice versa

and you said
this arms race

and they're all trying to build a empires
so the germans the there you they were present
in africa

you have the french who are present in much
of africa

and you have to remember all of this in
context some of this empire building was frankly

just about ego
and just about spreading someone's

influence supplanting their power uh...
a lot of it was uh... based on
kind of ethnic beliefs about civilization

uh...
i guess is a rationalizations to kind a take
control of other people's resources

and a lot of it was we were in a world
where access to resources

in particular access
to row materials and especially oil uh...

could to some degree define
whether a a power was a power at all

and so with that i think we have a
pretty good basis for uh... that

the state of affairs as we enter
into world war I

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Empires before World War I

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VoiceTube 2013 年 5 月 7 日 に公開
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