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  • Translator: Timothy Covell Reviewer: Morton Bast

    本日お話したいのは 私の大学であるUMBC

  • So I'll be talking about the success of my campus,

    メリーランド大学 ボルティモア・カウンティー校の取り組みについてです

  • the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, UMBC,

    我が校では あらゆるタイプの学生に対して

  • in educating students of all types,

    美術や人文科学、理工学において 質の高い教育を提供してきました

  • across the arts and humanities and the science and engineering areas.


  • What makes our story especially important

    我々が 通常は成績優秀者とは 目されない生徒達

  • is that we have learned so much from a group of students


  • who are typically not at the top of the academic ladder --

    特定の分野で存在感の薄い生徒達から 多くを学んだ点です

  • students of color, students underrepresented in selected areas.

    また 私の話が特に ユニークなのは

  • And what makes the story especially unique

    アフリカ系やラテン系- いわゆる低所得層出身の

  • is that we have learned how to help African-American students, Latino students,


  • students from low-income backgrounds,

    一流の人材になれるよう 支援する方法を学んだ事です

  • to become some of the best in the world in science and engineering.

    まず私の子供のころの 話から始めましょう

  • And so I begin with a story about my childhood.

    大人は皆 幼少期の経験の 産物ですからね

  • We all are products of our childhood experiences.

    それにしても アラバマ州バーミンガムで 中学3年生だったあの時から

  • It's hard for me to believe that it's been 50 years


  • since I had the experience of being a ninth grade kid in Birmingham, Alabama,

    子供の頃の私は いい成績をとるのが好きで

  • a kid who loved getting A's,


  • a kid who loved math, who loved to read,


  • a kid who would say to the teacher --


  • when the teacher said, "Here are 10 problems," to the class,


  • this little fat kid would say, "Give us 10 more."

    するとクラスメート皆が言うのです 「フリーマン 黙れ」

  • And the whole class would say, "Shut up, Freeman."

    僕を蹴る役も 当番制で決まっていました

  • And there was a designated kicker every day.

    私はいつも 思ったものです

  • And so I was always asking this question:

    「どうしたらもっと多くの子供が 勉強好きになってくれるのだろう?」

  • "Well how could we get more kids to really love to learn?"

    奇遇にも ある日嫌々ながら行った教会の

  • And amazingly, one week in church,


  • when I really didn't want to be there

    気を紛らすために 数学の問題を解いていると

  • and I was in the back of the room being placated by doing math problems,

    ある男性が語る声が 聞こえました

  • I heard this man say this:

    「もしも子供達が バーミンガムで行う

  • "If we can get the children

    今回の平和的なデモに 参加してくれたなら

  • to participate in this peaceful demonstration here in Birmingham,

    アメリカ全土に 子供ですら 善悪の区別がつくこと

  • we can show America that even children know the difference between right and wrong

    そして彼らが最高の教育を 切望していると示すことが出来ます」

  • and that children really do want to get the best possible education."

    私は顔を上げ 「あの人誰?」と聞くと

  • And I looked up and said, "Who is that man?"

    「キング牧師だよ」 と言われました

  • And they said his name was Dr. Martin Luther King.

    私が両親に 「僕行きたい

  • And I said to my parents, "I've got to go.


  • I want to go. I want to be a part of this."


  • And they said, "Absolutely not."


  • (Laughter)


  • And we had a rough go of it.


  • And at that time, quite frankly, you really did not talk back to your parents.

    でも私は言ったのです 「父さん達は偽善者だ

  • And somehow I said, "You know, you guys are hypocrites.

    普段は『あれに行け 話を聞け』と言うのに

  • You make me go to this. You make me listen.

    あの人の呼びかけは 応えるなと言う」

  • The man wants me to go, and now you say no."


  • And they thought about it all night.

    翌朝 私の部屋に来ました

  • And they came into my room the next morning.


  • They had not slept.

    泣いて祈って 考えたのです

  • They had been literally crying and praying and thinking,

    「12歳の我が子が デモに参加すれば

  • "Will we let our 12-year-old


  • participate in this march and probably have to go to jail?"

    熟慮の末 彼らは参加を 認めました

  • And they decided to do it.


  • And when they came in to tell me,


  • I was at first elated.

    しかし突然 犬や消防ホースが

  • And then all of a sudden I began thinking about the dogs and the fire hoses,

    目に浮かび 心底 怖くなりました

  • and I got really scared, I really did.


  • And one of the points I make to people all the time

    時として 勇気ある行動は

  • is that sometimes when people do things that are courageous,

    その人の勇気の 度合いではなく

  • it doesn't really mean that they're that courageous.

    単に信念の強さに 基づいているという点です

  • It simply means that they believe it's important to do it.

    私は良い教育を 受けたかった

  • I wanted a better education.

    お下がりの教科書が 嫌だった

  • I did not want to have to have hand-me-down books.


  • I wanted to know that the school I attended

    必要な設備が整った 学校に通いたかった

  • not only had good teachers, but the resources we needed.


  • And as a result of that experience,

    刑務所に入れられた 数日後

  • in the middle of the week, while I was there in jail,

    キング牧師が両親と共に 来て こう言いました

  • Dr. King came and said with our parents,

    「今子供である君たちが 取る行動は

  • "What you children do this day

    これから生まれる未来の子供たちの 将来を左右するよ」

  • will have an impact on children who have not been born."

    最近気がつきました 今のアメリカ人の三分の二は

  • I recently realized that two-thirds of Americans today

    1963年以降に 生まれています

  • had not been born at the time of 1963.

    彼らがバーミンガムの 少年少女十字軍について

  • And so for them, when they hear about the Children's Crusade in Birmingham,


  • in many ways, if they see it on TV,

    私達が1863年のリンカーンを 映画で観るのと似ています

  • it's like our looking at the 1863 "Lincoln" movie:


  • It's history.

    ここで問うべきは 「我々はその経験から何を学んだか」です

  • And the real question is, what lessons did we learn?

    私にとって一番 大きかったのは

  • Well amazingly, the most important for me was this:

    子供でも自分の教育に 責任が持てるということでした

  • That children can be empowered to take ownership of their education.


  • They can be taught to be passionate

    質問をする喜びも 養うことができるのです

  • about wanting to learn and to love the idea of asking questions.

    だからこそ 私が今学長を務める

  • And so it is especially significant

    メリーランド大学 ボルティモア・カウンティー校が

  • that the university I now lead,

    私がキング牧師と共に 刑務所に入った

  • the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, UMBC,

    同じ年の1963年に 設立されたことは意義深いのです

  • was founded the very year I went to jail with Dr. King, in 1963.

    この大学の設立には 特に重要な意味があります

  • And what made that institutional founding especially important

    ご存知のようにメリーランド州は 南部州です

  • is that Maryland is the South, as you know,

    正直なところ 当時メリーランドで設立された大学で

  • and, quite frankly, it was the first university in our state

    全ての人種の学生を受け入れたのは 我が校が初めてでした

  • founded at a time when students of all races could go there.

    黒人 白人その他様々な 人種の学生がいました

  • And so we had black and white students and others who began to attend.

    そして我が校は ある問いに答えるため

  • And it has been for 50 years an experiment.

    50年間 試行錯誤を重ねてきました

  • The experiment is this:


  • Is it possible to have institutions in our country, universities,


  • where people from all backgrounds can come and learn


  • and learn to work together and learn to become leaders

    お互いに支え合う精神を培うことは 可能なのか?」

  • and to support each other in that experience?


  • Now what is especially important about that experience for me is this:

    私達は芸術・人文学・社会科学の教育に 改善の余地を見出しました

  • We found that we could do a lot in the arts and humanities and social sciences.

    そこで60年代は 今上げた分野に注力し

  • And so we began to work on that, for years in the '60s.

    法曹界から人文科学の分野において 多くの人材を育成しました

  • And we produced a number of people in law, all the way to the humanities.

    一流のアーティストもいます ベケットがそうです

  • We produced great artists. Beckett is our muse.

    演劇界に進む学生も多い 立派です

  • A lot of our students get into theater.

    演劇界に進む学生も多い 立派です

  • It's great work.

    私達が直面した課題は 米国が長年抱えている問題と同じです

  • The problem that we faced was the same problem America continues to face --

    即ち 理工学部生の

  • that students in the sciences and engineering,

    黒人学生の 学業不振です

  • black students were not succeeding.


  • But when I looked at the data,

    はっきり言って 黒人学生に限らず多くの生徒が

  • what I found was that, quite frankly, students in general,


  • large numbers were not making it.


  • And as a result of that,

    まずは一番下にいる アフリカ系アメリカ人と

  • we decided to do something that would help, first of all,

    ヒスパニックの生徒を 支援することにしました

  • the group at the bottom, African-American students, and then Hispanic students.

    そして慈善家のロバートとジェーン・マイヤホフも 援助を申し出てくれたのです

  • And Robert and Jane Meyerhoff, philanthropists, said, "We'd like to help."

    ロバートは 「テレビでみる黒人の子供たちの

  • Robert Meyerhoff said, "Why is it that everything I see on TV about black boys,

    話題はバスケットボール以外は 悪いことばかりだ

  • if it's not about basketball, is not positive?

    私はそれを変えたい 何か有益なことをしたい」と言いました

  • I'd like to make a difference, to do something that's positive."

    我々はお互いのアイディアを統合し マイヤホフ奨学金制度を創設しました

  • We married those ideas, and we created this Meyerhoff Scholars program.


  • And what is significant about the program

    ここから私達が多くのことを 学んだ点です

  • is that we learned a number of things.


  • And the question is this:

    いかにして我が校は 理工学部や医学部の博士課程を修了する

  • How is it that now we lead the country in producing African-Americans

    アフリカ系アメリカ人を輩出する 先陣を切るに至ったのでしょう?

  • who go on to complete Ph.D.'s in science and engineering and M.D./Ph.D.'s?

    大したものでしょう 拍手をお願いします

  • That's a big deal. Give me a hand for that. That's a big deal.

    本当にすごいことなんです (拍手)

  • That's a big deal. It really is.


  • (Applause)

    大半の人は 気付いていませんが

  • You see, most people don't realize

    理工学分野で成績不振なのは マイノリティーに限定されません

  • that it's not just minorities who don't do well in science and engineering.

    実はアメリカ人全体に 言えることなのです

  • Quite frankly, you're talking about Americans.

    どういうことか? 理工学部を専攻して

  • If you don't know it, while 20 percent of blacks and Hispanics


  • who begin with a major in science and engineering

    黒人 ヒスパニック系は20%です

  • will actually graduate in science and engineering,

    一方 同様に理工学部を専攻し

  • only 32 percent of whites who begin with majors in those areas


  • actually succeed and graduate in those areas,


  • and only 42 percent of Asian-Americans.


  • And so, the real question is, what is the challenge?

    もちろん 幼稚園から高校の教育は

  • Well a part of it, of course, is K-12.

    課題の一つです 改善しなければなりません

  • We need to strengthen K-12.

    ですが 大学の理工学部の

  • But the other part has to do with the culture


  • of science and engineering on our campuses.

    ご存知無いかも知れませんが 現にSATも優秀で

  • Whether you know it or not, large numbers of students with high SAT's


  • and large numbers of A.P. credits


  • who go to the most prestigious universities in our country

    医学/工学部予備科や工学部を専攻しながら 結局途中で専攻を変えてしまいます

  • begin in pre-med or pre-engineering and engineering, and they end up changing their majors.


  • And the number one reason, we find, quite frankly,

    「一年目の科学の授業で つまづいた」です

  • is they did not do well in first year science courses.

    実際米国では一般的に 理工学部の一年目の授業を

  • In fact, we call first year science and engineering, typically around America,

    「ふるい落とし」とか 「関門」と呼んでいます

  • weed-out courses or barrier courses.

    皆さんも 医学部予備科

  • How many of you in this audience know somebody

    または工学部を 専攻して2年以内に

  • who started off in pre-med or engineering

    専攻を変更した 知人がいませんか?

  • and changed their major within a year or two?


  • It's an American challenge. Half of you in the room.


  • I know. I know. I know.


  • And what is interesting about that


  • is that so many students are smart and can do it.

    その素質を開花させる 手段が必要なのです

  • We need to find ways of making it happen.

    マイノリティーの学生向けの 支援策で

  • So what are the four things we did to help minority students

    生徒全般に有効なことが 四つあります

  • that now are helping students in general?


  • Number one: high expectations.

    生徒達が理工学分野で成功するには 学問的素養があり

  • It takes an understanding of the academic preparation of students --

    よい成績が取れ 学習課題の厳しさに堪えられ

  • their grades, the rigor of the course work,

    受験技術を身につけ なおかつ

  • their test-taking skills, their attitude,


  • the fire in their belly, the passion for the work, to make it.

    生徒にそれらが備わるよう 支援することが非常に大事です

  • And so doing things to help students prepare to be in that position, very important.

    また 成果は努力によってのみ生まれると 理解していることも重要です

  • But equally important, it takes an understanding that it's hard work that makes the difference.


  • I don't care how smart you are or how smart you think you are.

    「頭が良い」というのは 単に学ぶ準備が出来ているだけで

  • Smart simply means you're ready to learn.

    学ぶこと 質問することを 喜ぶ心が必要です

  • You're excited about learning and you want to ask good questions.

    ノーベル賞受賞者のI.I.ラビが ニューヨークで育った子供時代

  • I. I. Rabi, a Nobel laureate, said that when he was growing up in New York,

    友達の親は学校から 帰宅した友達に

  • all of his friends' parents would ask them

    「今日は何を習ったの?」と毎日 聞いたそうです

  • "What did you learn in school?" at the end of a day.

    一方 ラビのユダヤ人の母親は

  • And he said, in contrast, his Jewish mother would say,

    「イジー 今日はいい質問をした?」と 聞いたそうです

  • "Izzy, did you ask a good question today?"

    高い期待は好奇心と 直結しています

  • And so high expectations have to do with curiosity

    若者に好奇心を 持ってもらうのです

  • and encouraging young people to be curious.


  • And as a result of those high expectations,


  • we began to find students we wanted to work with


  • to see what could we do to help them,

    単に理工科の授業を 切り抜けるためではなく

  • not simply to survive in science and engineering,

    卓越した人材に育って もらうためです

  • but to become the very best, to excel.


  • Interestingly enough, an example:

    最初の履修科目でCを取ったある学生の 志望は医科大学院でした

  • One young man who earned a C in the first course and wanted to go on to med school,

    私たちは彼に 「再受講だね

  • we said, "We need to have you retake the course,

    次の段階に進むなら 盤石な基礎知識が必要だよ」と言いました

  • because you need a strong foundation if you're going to move to the next level."

    基礎学習の善し悪しは 次の段階に響きます

  • Every foundation makes the difference in the next level.


  • He retook the course.


  • That young man went on to graduate from UMBC,

    ペンシルバニア大学で医学士/博士号を 取得した初の黒人となり

  • to become the first black to get the M.D./Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.


  • He now works at Harvard.

    いい話でしょう 彼に拍手!

  • Nice story. Give him a hand for that too.


  • (Applause)


  • Secondly, it's not about test scores only.

    確かに試験は重要ですが 一番大事なことではありません

  • Test scores are important, but they're not the most important thing.

    ある女子学生は成績は良いのに テストの点数はあまり良くありませんでした

  • One young woman had great grades, but test scores were not as high.

    しかし彼女は 素晴らしい素質を持っていました

  • But she had a factor that was very important.

    幼稚園から高校まで 皆勤賞で

  • She never missed a day of school, K-12.


  • There was fire in that belly.

    彼女は勉強を続け ホプキンス大学の医学士/博士号を修了しました

  • That young woman went on, and she is today with an M.D./Ph.D. from Hopkins.

    今や精神医学の終身制教授 神経科学博士号を持つ身です

  • She's on the faculty, tenure track in psychiatry, Ph.D. in neuroscience.

    彼女と指導教官はバイアグラを 糖尿病治療に使う特許を持っています

  • She and her adviser have a patent on a second use of Viagra for diabetes patients.


  • Big hand for her. Big hand for her.


  • (Applause)

    まず 生徒に多いに期待すること

  • And so high expectations, very important.

    そして次に生徒のコミュニティー作りを するのが大事なのです

  • Secondly, the idea of building community among the students.

    理工学部といえば 熾烈な競争の場と

  • You all know that so often in science and engineering


  • we tend to think cutthroat.

    協力することは 通常習いません

  • Students are not taught to work in groups.


  • And that's what we work to do with that group


  • to get them to understand each other,

    信頼を築き お互いを支え

  • to build trust among them, to support each other,

    良い質問を することを学び

  • to learn how to ask good questions,

    概念を明確に伝える 技術も学んでもらいました

  • but also to learn how to explain concepts with clarity.


  • As you know, it's one thing to earn an A yourself,

    他人の「A」のために 力を貸すこととは異なります

  • it's another thing to help someone else do well.

    そのような責任感の有無が 世界を変えるのです

  • And so to feel that sense of responsibility makes all the difference in the world.

    学生のコミュニティーを作る 非常に大事なことです

  • So building community among those students, very important.


  • Third, the idea of, it takes researchers to produce researchers.

    アーティストが アーティストを生むでもいい

  • Whether you're talking about artists producing artists


  • or you're talking about people getting into the social sciences,

    分野に関係なく 芸術でも理工科でも

  • whatever the discipline -- and especially in science and engineering, as in art, for example --

    学生を課題に引き込むのは 科学者です

  • you need scientists to pull the students into the work.

    だからうちの学生は 定期的にラボで作業をしています

  • And so our students are working in labs regularly.


  • And one great example that you'll appreciate:

    数年前にボルティモアで 吹雪があったとき

  • During a snowstorm in Baltimore several years ago,

    ハワード・ヒューズ医学研究所の助成金を 受けていた本校の教員が

  • the guy on our campus with this Howard Hughes Medical Institute grant

    数日後ラボで作業をするために 悪天候にも関わらず戻ってきたのです

  • literally came back to work in his lab after several days,

    他の学生たちも 帰宅を拒みました

  • and all these students had refused to leave the lab.


  • They had food they had packed out.


  • They were in the lab working,


  • and they saw the work, not as schoolwork, but as their lives.


  • They knew they were working on AIDS research.

    驚くべきタンパク質の構造を 研究していました

  • They were looking at this amazing protein design.

    皆その作業に 集中していたのです

  • And what was interesting was each one of them focused on that work.

    教員は 「最高だね」と言いました

  • And he said, "It doesn't get any better than that."

    さて コミュニティーができ

  • And then finally, if you've got the community

    高い期待があり 研究員が研究員を生む状況が整ったら

  • and you've got the high expectations and you've got researchers producing researchers,


  • you have to have people who are willing as faculty


  • to get involved with those students, even in the classroom.

    ある教授がスタッフに 言ったことが忘れられません

  • I'll never forget a faculty member calling the staff and saying,