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  • I'm going to talk to you about some stuff that's in this book of mine

    翻訳: Miwa Nakamura 校正: Keisuke Kusunoki

  • that I hope will resonate with other things you've already heard,


  • and I'll try to make some connections myself, in case you miss them.

    既にどこかで聞いた事があるような 他のことと共鳴するでしょう

  • I want to start with what I call the "official dogma."

    しかしそうでない方のために 私が関連付けながら話していきます

  • The official dogma of what?

    まずは私が「公式教義」と呼ぶもの から始めたいと思います

  • The official dogma of all western industrial societies.


  • And the official dogma runs like this:


  • if we are interested in maximizing the welfare of our citizens,


  • the way to do that is to maximize individual freedom.

    もし我々が自らの市民の繁栄を 最大限にすることに興味があるのなら

  • The reason for this is both that freedom is in and of itself good,

    その方法は 個人の自由を最大限にすることである

  • valuable, worthwhile, essential to being human.

    その理由はひとつは 自由そのものが良いということ

  • And because if people have freedom,

    貴重で、価値があり、 人であることの根幹をなしているから

  • then each of us can act on our own


  • to do the things that will maximize our welfare,


  • and no one has to decide on our behalf.


  • The way to maximize freedom is to maximize choice.

    他の誰も 我々のために決断をしないで済みます

  • The more choice people have, the more freedom they have,

    自由を最大限にするためには 最大限の選択を与えることです

  • and the more freedom they have,

    選択が多ければ その分自由度は増し

  • the more welfare they have.

    自由度が増せば その分繁栄する

  • This, I think, is so deeply embedded in the water supply

    この考えが 私が思うに あまりにも深く浸透しているため

  • that it wouldn't occur to anyone to question it.

    誰もこれに異議を唱えようとすら 思わないのです

  • And it's also deeply embedded in our lives.

    またこれは我々の人生にも 深く埋め込まれています

  • I'll give you some examples of what modern progress has made possible for us.

    近代の発展で可能になったものから いくつか例を出しましょう

  • This is my supermarket. Not such a big one.

    これが私のスーパーです それほど大きくはない

  • I want to say just a word about salad dressing.


  • 175 salad dressings in my supermarket,

    私のスーパーには 175種のドレッシングがあって

  • if you don't count the 10 extra-virgin olive oils

    それに加えて10種の エキストラ・バージン・オリーブ・オイルと

  • and 12 balsamic vinegars you could buy


  • to make a very large number of your own salad dressings,

    もしここの 175の既製品のドレッシングの中には

  • in the off-chance that none of the 175 the store has on offer suit you.

    気に入ったのがなかった時に 自分で作れるようにね

  • So this is what the supermarket is like.


  • And then you go to the consumer electronics store to set up a stereo system --

    で、次に電機店にステレオシステムを 作るために行って

  • speakers, CD player, tape player, tuner, amplifier --

    スピーカー、CDプレーヤー、テープデッキ、 チューナー、アンプなど

  • and in this one single consumer electronics store,


  • there are that many stereo systems.

    上のスーパーと同じ数くらいの ステレオシステムがある

  • We can construct six-and-a-half-million different stereo systems

    1店舗の中にある部品を 組み合わせていくだけで

  • out of the components that are on offer in one store.

    650万種もの ステレオシステムが組み立てられるのです

  • You've got to admit that's a lot of choice.

    これは莫大な数の選択肢だと 認めざるを得ませんね

  • In other domains -- the world of communications.

    他の分野では コミュニケーションの世界

  • There was a time, when I was a boy,


  • when you could get any kind of telephone service you wanted,

    マーベル社からでさえあれば どんな電話サービスでも

  • as long as it came from Ma Bell.


  • You rented your phone. You didn't buy it.


  • One consequence of that, by the way, is that the phone never broke.

    その結果 電話が壊れる事はない ということがありました

  • And those days are gone.


  • We now have an almost unlimited variety of phones,

    我々の前には 特に携帯電話の世界においては

  • especially in the world of cell phones.


  • These are cell phones of the future.


  • My favorite is the middle one --


  • the MP3 player, nose hair trimmer, and creme brulee torch.

    MP3プレーヤー、鼻毛切り クレームブリュレバーナーが一体化してるもの

  • And if by some chance you haven't seen that in your store yet,

    もしお近くの店舗で まだ見かけていなかったとしても大丈夫

  • you can rest assured that one day soon you will.


  • And what this does is


  • it leads people to walk into their stores asking this question.

    人々が店に来る際 ある質問が既に問われています

  • And do you know what the answer to this question now is?


  • The answer is "No."


  • It is not possible to buy a cell phone that doesn't do too much.

    余計なことをしない携帯電話を 買おうとしてもそれは不可能なのです

  • So, in other aspects of life that are much more significant than buying things,

    さて 購買活動以上に重要な 人生の他の局面においても

  • the same explosion of choice is true.


  • Health care -- it is no longer the case in the United States

    医療について 米国では既に 皆さんが医者のところに行くと

  • that you go to the doctor, and the doctor tells you what to do.

    医者がどうすれば良いか教えてくれる という時代は終わりました

  • Instead, you go to the doctor,

    その代わりに 皆さんが医者に行くと

  • and the doctor tells you, "Well, we could do A, or we could do B.

    医者から Aをすることができるし Bをする事もできる と言われます

  • A has these benefits, and these risks.


  • B has these benefits, and these risks. What do you want to do?"

    Bにはこのような効果とリスクがある あなたはどうしたいですか?と聞かれます

  • And you say, "Doc, what should I do?"

    そこで「先生 私はどうしたらいいでしょう?」 と聞くと

  • And the doc says, "A has these benefits and risks, and B has these benefits and risks.

    医者はAにはこのような効果とリスクが Bにはこのような効果とリスクがあります

  • What do you want to do?"


  • And you say, "If you were me, Doc, what would you do?"

    そこで「先生が私だったらどうしますか?」 と聞いてみると

  • And the doc says, "But I'm not you."

    すると医者は 「でも私はあなたではありません」と言う

  • And the result is -- we call it "patient autonomy,"

    そしてその結果 ―これを「患者の自己決定権」と呼び

  • which makes it sound like a good thing,

    こう呼ぶと とてもいい事のように聞こえますが―

  • but what it really is is a shifting of the burden and the responsibility

    でも本当は何が起こっているのかと言うと 決断権の重荷と責任を

  • for decision-making from somebody who knows something --


  • namely, the doctor --


  • to somebody who knows nothing and is almost certainly sick

    何も知らず 少なくともとても具合が悪いので

  • and thus not in the best shape to be making decisions --

    判断をくだすのに 必ずしも適さない者

  • namely, the patient.


  • There's enormous marketing of prescription drugs

    処方箋薬の市場では われわれ消費者に対して

  • to people like you and me,


  • which, if you think about it, makes no sense at all,

    よくよく考えてみると これは全く意味のない事で

  • since we can't buy them.


  • Why do they market to us if we can't buy them?

    我々が購入することができないものを なぜ売り込むのか?

  • The answer is that they expect us to call our doctors the next morning

    その答えは我々が翌朝 かかりつけの医者に電話をして

  • and ask for our prescriptions to be changed.

    処方箋を変えてもらいたいと 頼ませようとしているのです

  • Something as dramatic as our identity

    私たちのアイデンティティーという ドラマチックなものでさえ

  • has now become a matter of choice,


  • as this slide is meant to indicate.

    このスライドは示しています [性別は本人に選ばせようと思うの]

  • We don't inherit an identity; we get to invent it.


  • And we get to re-invent ourselves as often as we like.

    発明する しかも好きなだけ 再発明するようになると

  • And that means that everyday, when you wake up in the morning,


  • you have to decide what kind of person you want to be.

    自分がどんな人になりたいのか 決断しなくてはならない

  • With respect to marriage and family,


  • there was a time when the default assumption that almost everyone had

    以前には みんなが持つ共通認識として

  • is that you got married as soon as you could,


  • and then you started having kids as soon as you could.

    できるだけ早く 子づくりをするということがありました

  • The only real choice was who,


  • not when, and not what you did after.

    いつ結婚するかとか 結婚後どうするかではありませんでした

  • Nowadays, everything is very much up for grabs.

    現在では 全てのものがどうにでもなってしまっています

  • I teach wonderfully intelligent students,

    私は素晴らしく知性にあふれた学生達を 教えていますが

  • and I assign 20 percent less work than I used to.

    以前と比べて与える課題を 20%くらい減らしています

  • And it's not because they're less smart,

    それは学生達の頭が 悪くなっているからではなく

  • and it's not because they're less diligent.


  • It's because they are preoccupied, asking themselves,

    それは学生達が 他のことで頭がいっぱいだからです

  • "Should I get married or not? Should I get married now?

    「結婚をするべきか否か? 今結婚をするべきか?

  • Should I get married later? Should I have kids first, or a career first?"

    結婚を遅らせるべきか? 子供が先か、キャリアが先か?」

  • All of these are consuming questions.


  • And they're going to answer these questions,

    そして学生達は 私の出した課題を全てやり遂げるかどうかや

  • whether or not it means not doing all the work I assign


  • and not getting a good grade in my courses.


  • And indeed they should. These are important questions to answer.

    そしてそうすべきなのです これらはとても重要な質問ですから

  • Work -- we are blessed, as Carl was pointing out,

    カールが指摘したように 仕事に関して 我々は恵まれています

  • with the technology that enables us

    世界中のどこにいても 一日のどの時間でも

  • to work every minute of every day from any place on the planet --

    仕事をすることを可能にする テクノロジーがあるからです

  • except the Randolph Hotel.


  • (Laughter)


  • There is one corner, by the way,

    それはそうと 1か所だけ

  • that I'm not going to tell anybody about, where the WiFi works.


  • I'm not telling you about it because I want to use it.


  • So what this means, this incredible freedom of choice

    これが意味するところは 仕事に関して我々に与えられている

  • we have with respect to work, is that we have to make a decision,


  • again and again and again,

    私達は常に 何度も何度も何度も仕事をすべきか否かの

  • about whether we should or shouldn't be working.


  • We can go to watch our kid play soccer,


  • and we have our cell phone on one hip,


  • and our Blackberry on our other hip,


  • and our laptop, presumably, on our laps.


  • And even if they're all shut off,


  • every minute that we're watching our kid mutilate a soccer game,

    子供がサッカーの試合を むちゃくちゃにしているのを観ながら

  • we are also asking ourselves,


  • "Should I answer this cell phone call?


  • Should I respond to this email? Should I draft this letter?"

    このメールの返事は? レポートのドラフトは?」

  • And even if the answer to the question is "no,"

    そしてそれらの答えが たとえ全てNoであったとしても

  • it's certainly going to make the experience of your kid's soccer game

    子供のサッカーの試合を見ると言う経験は 自問自答がなかった時とは

  • very different than it would've been.


  • So everywhere we look,


  • big things and small things, material things and lifestyle things,

    大きなことも小さなことも 物質的なことも生活に関わることも

  • life is a matter of choice.


  • And the world we used to live in looked like this.

    我々が以前生きていた世界は このようなものでした

  • That is to say, there were some choices,


  • but not everything was a matter of choice.

    というのは いくつかの選択はありましたが

  • And the world we now live in looks like this.


  • And the question is, is this good news, or bad news?


  • And the answer is yes.

    ここで出てくる問いは これはいいニュースか 悪いニュースか?

  • (Laughter)


  • We all know what's good about it,


  • so I'm going to talk about what's bad about it.


  • All of this choice has two effects,

    ですので私は悪い面について 話したいと思います

  • two negative effects on people.


  • One effect, paradoxically,


  • is that it produces paralysis, rather than liberation.

    一つは 矛盾しているのですが

  • With so many options to choose from,

    これが開放感ではなく 無力感を生むということです

  • people find it very difficult to choose at all.


  • I'll give you one very dramatic example of this:


  • a study that was done of investments in voluntary retirement plans.


  • A colleague of mine got access to investment records from Vanguard,

    定年後の年金投資計画に関する研究で 私の同僚が

  • the gigantic mutual fund company


  • of about a million employees and about 2,000 different workplaces.


  • And what she found is that


  • for every 10 mutual funds the employer offered,


  • rate of participation went down two percent.


  • You offer 50 funds -- 10 percent fewer employees participate

    参加率が2パーセント落ちた という結果が出たのです

  • than if you only offer five. Why?

    50件の投資信託を提示すると 5件提示した時と比べて

  • Because with 50 funds to choose from,

    参加する社員は10%減る 何故でしょう?

  • it's so damn hard to decide which fund to choose

    それは 50件もの投資信託が提示されると

  • that you'll just put it off until tomorrow.


  • And then tomorrow, and then tomorrow,


  • and tomorrow, and tomorrow