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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast


  • Across Europe and Central Asia,


  • approximately one million children live in large

    大規模な居住型施設 ― 孤児院で 暮らします

  • residential institutions, usually known as orphanages.

    孤児院と聞くと 愛情あふれる温かな環境を

  • Most people imagine orphanages as a benign environment


  • that care for children.

    孤児院の実態を わかっている人ですら

  • Others know more about the living conditions there,


  • but still think they're a necessary evil.

    両親のいない子どもを そんなにたくさん

  • After all, where else would we put all of those children

    収容できる場所は 他にないからです

  • who don't have any parents?

    しかし 60年に渡る 研究で明らかになったのは

  • But 60 years of research has demonstrated


  • that separating children from their families


  • and placing them in large institutions

    健康や発達が 損なわれるという事実です

  • seriously harms their health and development,

    生後間もない赤ちゃんでは 特に顕著です

  • and this is particularly true for young babies.


  • As we know, babies are born


  • without their full muscle development,


  • and that includes the brain.

    脳は 3才までに 成長を完了しますが

  • During the first three years of life, the brain grows


  • to its full size, with most of that growth taking place


  • in the first six months. The brain develops

    脳は経験と刺激に 応じて発達します

  • in response to experience and to stimulation.

    赤ちゃんが新しい事を 学ぶたび たとえば ―

  • Every time a young baby learns something new --


  • to focus its eyes,

    動きや表情をまねる 何かを手に取る

  • to mimic a movement or a facial expression,

    単語を話す お座りする そういった事を学ぶたびに

  • to pick something up, to form a word or to sit up --

    新しいシナプスの結合が 脳で形成されます

  • new synaptic connections are being built in the brain.

    親になると 子どもの 学習の速さに驚きます

  • New parents are astonished by the rapidity of this learning.

    親が子ども達の能力に 感心したり 喜んだりするのは当然です

  • They are quite rightly amazed and delighted by their children's cleverness.


  • They communicate their delight to their children,


  • who respond with smiles,

    もっとやりたい もっと学びたい という希望で応えます

  • and a desire to achieve more and to learn more.

    親子間に 愛情が芽生えることで

  • This forming of the powerful attachment between child and parent

    身体的 社会的 ―

  • provides the building blocks for physical, social,

    言語 認知 精神運動面の 発達の基礎ができます

  • language, cognitive and psychomotor development.

    親子関係は 将来の 人間関係 つまり友人や

  • It is the model for all future relationships with friends,

    パートナーや我が子との 関係の基礎になります

  • with partners and with their own children.

    ほとんどの家庭で 関係は自然にできあがり―

  • It happens so naturally in most families


  • that we don't even notice it. Most of us are unaware


  • of its importance to human development and, by extension,

    健全な社会の発展に 重要だと気づきにくいのです

  • to the development of a healthy society.

    関係に問題が生じて はじめて ―

  • And it's only when it goes wrong that we start to realize

    子どもにとって家庭が 重要だとわかるのです

  • the importance of families to children.

    1993年の8月に 私が初めて目にしたのは

  • In August, 1993, I had my first opportunity to witness

    子どもが施設に収容され 十分に世話されないため

  • on a massive scale the impact on children

    大きな影響を 受けている様子でした

  • of institutionalization and the absence of parenting.


  • Those of us who remember the newspaper reports

    ルーマニアでの 新聞報道が記憶にある方は

  • that came out of Romania after the 1989 revolution

    施設の劣悪な状況を 思い出せるでしょう

  • will recall the horrors of the conditions in some of those institutions.

    私は依頼されて 大規模施設の所長を援助し

  • I was asked to help the director of a large institution to

    子どもを家族と 別れさせない活動をしました

  • help prevent the separation of children from their families.

    550人の赤ちゃんを収容する チャウシェスクのモデル孤児院だったので

  • Housing 550 babies, this was Ceausescu's show orphanage,

    状況は他より ずっと良いと 聞かされていました

  • and so I'd been told the conditions were much better.

    私は小さい子どもがいる 現場で働いてきたので

  • Having worked with lots of young children, I expected

    施設は騒々しいだろうと 予想していました

  • the institution to be a riot of noise,


  • but it was as silent as a convent.

    子どもがいるとは とても思えないのに

  • It was hard to believe there were any children there at all,

    所長が案内してくれる どの部屋にも

  • yet the director showed me into room after room,

    無数のベッドが 並んでいます

  • each containing row upon row of cots,

    子どもがベッドに横たわり ぼんやりと宙を眺めています

  • in each of which lay a child staring into space.

    40人の新生児がいる部屋でも 泣き声は聞こえません

  • In a room of 40 newborns, not one of them was crying.


  • Yet I could see soiled nappies, and I could see


  • that some of the children were distressed,

    聞こえるのは子ども達が 力なく発するうめき声だけ

  • but the only noise was a low, continuous moan.


  • The head nurse told me proudly,

    「子ども達は とても お行儀がいいでしょう」

  • "You see, our children are very well-behaved."

    その後 数日でわかりました

  • Over the next few days, I began to realize

    静かなのは そこだけではないのです

  • that this quietness was not exceptional.

    赤ちゃんが入所すると 最初の数時間は泣きます

  • The newly admitted babies would cry for the first few hours,

    でも欲求が 満たされないとわかると

  • but their demands were not met, and so eventually

    泣かなくなるのです 赤ちゃんは数日で

  • they learned not to bother. Within a few days,

    無気力 無関心で 宙を眺めるだけになります

  • they were listless, lethargic, and staring into space


  • like all the others.

    長年 多くの人や新聞報道が

  • Over the years, many people and news reports


  • have blamed the personnel in the institutions

    彼らが子どもに 害を与えているというのです

  • for the harm caused to the children, but often, one member

    でも職員1人で10〜20人 時には40人の子どもを世話するのです

  • of staff is caring for 10, 20, and even 40 children.

    だから決められた計画を 実施するのが精一杯です

  • Hence they have no option but to implement a regimented program.

    子どもを7時に起こし 7時30分に食事を与えます

  • The children must be woken at 7 and fed at 7:30.


  • At 8, their nappies must be changed, so a staff member

    担当する10〜20人に 食事を与える時間はわずか30分です

  • may have only 30 minutes to feed 10 or 20 children.

    子どもが8時30分に おむつを汚してしまうと

  • If a child soils its nappy at 8:30, he will have to wait

    取り替えてもらうまでに 数時間待たねばなりません

  • several hours before it can be changed again.

    子どもが他の人間と 触れ合う時間は

  • The child's daily contact with another human being

    食事とおむつ交換の時だけ 1日わずか数分に限られ

  • is reduced to a few hurried minutes of feeding and changing,


  • and otherwise their only stimulation is the ceiling,


  • the walls or the bars of their cots.

    初めてチャウシェスクの 施設を訪れてから

  • Since my first visit to Ceausescu's institution,

    チェコ共和国や スーダンをはじめ 18か国で

  • I've seen hundreds of such places across 18 countries,


  • from the Czech Republic to Sudan.

    土地や文化が 多様であっても

  • Across all of these diverse lands and cultures,

    施設や そこでの子どもの暮らしは

  • the institutions, and the child's journey through them,


  • is depressingly similar.

    外からの刺激が少ないため 自己刺激行動 ―

  • Lack of stimulation often leads to self-stimulating behaviors

    手をヒラヒラさせたり 前後に揺れたり

  • like hand-flapping, rocking back and forth,

    攻撃的になる様子が見られます 施設によっては そんな行動を

  • or aggression, and in some institutions, psychiatric drugs


  • are used to control the behavior of these children,


  • whilst in others, children are tied up to prevent them


  • from harming themselves or others.


  • These children are quickly labeled as having disabilities


  • and transferred to another institution for children with disabilities.

    一度 施設に入ると 出所する事はまれです

  • Most of these children will never leave the institution again.

    障害のない子どもでも 3才になると

  • For those without disabilities, at age three,

    別の施設に送られ さらに7才で

  • they're transferred to another institution, and at age seven,

    次の施設に送られます 年令と性別で分けられるので

  • to yet another. Segregated according to age and gender,

    兄弟姉妹ですら 離ればなれになります

  • they are arbitrarily separated from their siblings,

    別れを言う間さえ 与えられないことも

  • often without even a chance to say goodbye.

    食べ物は不十分で 飢えることもしばしばです

  • There's rarely enough to eat. They are often hungry.


  • The older children bully the little ones. They learn to

    子ども達は生きる術として 身を守るために屈服します

  • survive. They learn to defend themselves, or they go under.

    施設を出ると 社会に適応する ―

  • When they leave the institution, they find it really difficult


  • to cope and to integrate into society.

    モルドバでは 施設で育った女性は

  • In Moldova, young women raised in institutions

    そうでない女性の10倍の確率で 人身売買の対象になります

  • are 10 times more likely to be trafficked than their peers,

    ロシアでの調査では 施設を出て2年後までに

  • and a Russian study found that two years after leaving institutions,


  • young adults, 20 percent of them had a criminal record,


  • 14 percent were involved in prostitution,


  • and 10 percent had taken their own lives.

    近年 戦争や災害のないヨーロッパに

  • But why are there so many orphans in Europe

    何故これほど多くの孤児が いるのでしょうか?

  • when there hasn't been a great deal of war or disaster in recent years?

    実は孤児の親の95%以上は 生きています

  • In fact, more than 95 percent of these children have living parents,


  • and societies tend to blame these parents

    世間から非難されますが 調査によれば

  • for abandoning these children, but research shows that

    ほとんどの親は 子どもと暮らしたいのです

  • most parents want their children, and that the primary drivers

    子どもを施設に送る 主な理由は

  • behind institutionalization

    貧困 障害 民族的な問題です

  • are poverty, disability and ethnicity.

    多くの国では障害児を 受け入れる学校がなく

  • Many countries have not developed inclusive schools,


  • and so even children with a very mild disability

    6~7才で 寄宿制の

  • are sent away to a residential special school,


  • at age six or seven.

    施設は自宅から 何百キロも離れている場合もあり

  • The institution may be hundreds of miles away from the family home.

    貧しい家庭なら 訪問もままならないため

  • If the family's poor, they find it difficult to visit,

    親子関係が 次第に壊れてしまいます

  • and gradually the relationship breaks down.

    施設にいる どの子にも

  • Behind each of the million children in institutions,

    必死なのに万策尽きた 親がいるのです

  • there is usually a story of parents who are desperate

    モルドバのナタリアも そんな親の一人です

  • and feel they've run out of options, like Natalia in Moldova,

    赤ちゃんを養う ギリギリのお金しかなく

  • who only had enough money to feed her baby,

    上の息子を施設に 送らねばなりませんでした

  • and so had to send her older son to the institution;

    ブルガリアのデシには 子どもが4人いましたが

  • or Desi, in Bulgaria, who looked after her four children

    夫が亡くなり フルタイムで

  • at home until her husband died,


  • but then she had to go out to work full time,

    支援もなく 障害のある子どもを

  • and with no support, felt she had no option

    施設に入れるしか ありませんでした

  • but to place a child with disabilities in an institution;

    また無数の若い女性が 親に妊娠を知られることを恐れて

  • or the countless young girls too terrified to tell their parents


  • they're pregnant, who leave their babies in a hospital;


  • or the new parents, the young couple who have

    初めての子どもに障害が あるとわかっても

  • just found out that their firstborn child has a disability,


  • and instead of being provided with positive messages


  • about their child's potential, are told by the doctors,

    「この子の事は忘れて 施設に入れなさい

  • "Forget her, leave her in the institution,

    家に帰って 健康な子を作ればいい」

  • go home and make a healthy one."

    でも こんな事は避けられます

  • This state of affairs is neither necessary nor is it inevitable.

    全ての子どもには 家族をもつ権利があり

  • Every child has the right to a family, deserves

    家族が必要です 子どもには素晴らしい回復力があり

  • and needs a family, and children are amazingly resilient.

    早い段階で 施設から出して

  • We find that if we get them out of institutions and into loving

    愛情豊かな家庭を与えれば 発達の遅れを取り戻し

  • families early on, they recover their developmental delays,


  • and go on to lead normal, happy lives.


  • It's also much cheaper to provide support to families


  • than it is to provide institutions.

    調査によれば 家族支援サービスのコストは

  • One study suggests that a family support service


  • costs 10 percent of an institutional placement,


  • whilst good quality foster care


  • costs usually about 30 percent.

    適切な支援を提供しつつ コストを下げることで

  • If we spend less on these children but on the right services,


  • we can take the savings and reinvest them in high quality

    質の高い居住型ケアに 資金を分配できるのです

  • residential care for those few children with extremely complex needs.

    ヨーロッパでは ケアの質が低い―

  • Across Europe, a movement is growing to shift the focus

    大規模施設よりも 子どもを保護し

  • and transfer the resources from large institutions

    子どもの能力を伸ばせる 地域型サービスを発展させようと

  • that provide poor quality care to community-based services

    関心がよせられ 資金も移行しています