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  • Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence.

    ブラックホールは特殊な存在だ

  • They don’t seem to make any sense at all; where do they come from?

    謎に包まれている

  • And what happens if you fall into one?

    中に入ったらどうなるのか?

  • Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms that collapse from enormous gas clouds under their own gravity.

    星は水素の巨大な集まりでありガスが重力で固まったものだ

  • In their core, nuclear fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy.

    中心では水素がヘリウムへと融合し大量のエネルギーを出す

  • This energy, in the form of radiation, pushes against gravity, maintaining a delicate balance between the two forces.

    この放射線と重力の力がバランスを取り 星を作っている

  • As long as there is fusion in the core, a star remains stable enough.

    融合している限り 星の核は安定する

  • But for stars with way more mass than our own Sun, the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements, until they reach iron.

    星が太陽より重ければ順番に重い元素が作られていき 最後に鉄ができる

  • Unlike all the elements that went before, the fusion process that creates iron doesn’t generate any energy.

    それまでの融合とは違い鉄の融合はエネルギーを出さない

  • Iron builds up at the center of the star until it reaches a critical amount, and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken.

    核で鉄が極限まで作られると放射と重力のバランスが崩れる

  • The core collapses.

    核が壊れ 星は一瞬で収縮していく

  • Within a fraction of a second, the star implodes, moving at about a quarter of the speed of light, feeding even more mass into the core.

    光の4分の1の速さで核に質量が集まる この瞬間に他の重い元素が作られ

  • It’s at this very moment that all the heavier elements in the universe are created, as the star dies in a supernova explosion.

    星の死 超新星爆発が起こるそして中性子星か 十分に重ければ

  • This produces either a neutron star or, if the star is massive enough, the entire mass of the core collapses into a black hole.

    ブラックホールが生まれる実際に見えるのは事象の地平面だ

  • If you looked at a black hole, what you’d really be seeing is the event horizon.

    ここを通るには

  • Anything that crosses the event horizon needs to be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape.

    光より速く進む必要があるがそれは不可能だ

  • In other words, it’s impossible.

    ここは何の光も発していない

  • So we just see a black sphere, reflecting nothing.

    だからブラックなのだが

  • But if the event horizon is theblackpart, what is theholepart of the black hole?

    ホールとは何だろうか特異点だ

  • The singularity.

    実体は不明だが ここは密度が無限で

  • Were not sure what it is exactly.

    1点にすべての質量が集まっている

  • A singularity may be infinitely dense, meaning all its mass is concentrated into a single point in space with no surface or volume.

    と考えられている今はまだ未解明

  • Or something completely different.

    0で割るようなものだ

  • Right now, we just don’t know.

    ブラックホールは掃除機とは違う

  • It’s like a dividing by zero error.

    太陽をブラックホールに変えても

  • By the way, black holes do not suck things up like a vacuum cleaner.

    凍る以外 地球に変化はないだろう

  • If we were to swap the Sun for an equally massive black hole, nothing much would change for Earth, except that we would freeze to death, of course.

    ブラックホールに入るとどうなるかここでは時間の流れが違う あなたを中に投げ込んだ場合

  • What would happen to you if you fell into a black hole?

    徐々にゆっくりと落ちて

  • The experience of time is different around black holes.

    ある時点で止まり

  • From the outside, you seem to slow down as you approach the event horizon, so time passes slower for you.

    赤くなって 消えるあなたからは世界が早送りで見えて

  • At some point, you would appear to freeze in time, slowly turn red, and disappear.

    きっと楽しいだろうその先については

  • While from your perspective, you can watch the rest of the universe in fast-forward, kind of like seeing into the future.

    二つの道が考えられる一つは 即死

  • Right now, we don’t know what happens next, but we think it could be one of two things.

    ブラックホールが空間を曲げすぎて方角がなくなり

  • One: you die a quick death.

    事象の地平面の中では

  • A black hole curves space so much that once you cross the event horizon there is only one possible direction.

    一方向にしか進めない閉じていく狭い道のようなものだ

  • You can take this literally: inside the event horizon, you can only go in one direction.

    そして質量の一点集中により数センチの幅でも

  • It’s like being in a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step.

    何万倍も違う重力が働くようになる

  • The mass of a black hole is so concentrated, at some point, even tiny distances of a few centimeters would mean that gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body.

    細胞同士は引っ張られて裂け原子レベルに分解される 二つ目は 超即死 地平面を越えた瞬間

  • Your cells get torn apart as your body stretches more and more, until youre a hot stream of plasma one atom wide.

    壁にぶつかって死ぬどちらも楽しくはなさそうだ

  • Two: you die a very quick death.

    死ぬ速さは質量によって違う

  • Very soon after you cross the event horizon, you would hit a fire wall and be terminated in an instant.

    小さい場合地平面の前で死ぬが大きい場合は中を旅することになる

  • Neither of these options are particularly pleasant.

    特異点から距離がある分

  • How soon you would die depends on the mass of the black hole.

    生きれるということだ

  • A smaller black hole would kill you before you even entered its event horizon, while you probably could travel inside a supermassive black hole for quite a while.

    サイズは色々ある太陽より質量が小さいものや 小惑星大のものまで

  • As a rule of thumb, the further away from the singularity you are, the longer you live.

    超巨大ブラックホールはどの銀河の中心部でも

  • Black holes come in different sizes.

    何億年と成長している

  • There are stellar-mass black holes with a few times the mass of the Sun and the diameter of an asteroid.

    現在 最大のものはS5 0014+81というもので

  • And then there are the supermassive black holes, which are found at the heart of every galaxy and have been feeding for billions of years.

    太陽の400億倍の質量がある直径は2367億キロメートルで 太陽から冥王星までの距離の47倍だ

  • Currently, the largest supermassive black hole known is S5 0014+81, forty billion times the mass of our Sun.

    ブラックホールはその強さによりホーキング放射で蒸発する

  • It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter, which is 47 times the distance from the Sun to Pluto.

    空の空間を見てみよう空の空間は空ではなく

  • As powerful as black holes are, they will eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation.

    二対の仮想粒子が生成消滅しているブラックホールの端では

  • To understand how this works, we have to look at empty space.

    この片方が吸い込まれ

  • Empty space is not really empty, but filled with virtual particles popping into existence and annihilating each other again.

    もう片方が外に逃げるこれでエネルギーが失われる

  • When this happens right on the edge of a black hole, one of the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole, and the other will escape and become a real particle.

    質量が小さくなるほどこの速度は速くなる 小惑星ほどの質量で 室温ほどの放出

  • So the black hole is losing energy.

    山ほどの質量で 太陽ほどの熱を出し

  • This happens incredibly slowly at first, and gets faster as the black hole becomes smaller.

    最後の瞬間には核爆弾の数十億倍規模で大爆発する

  • When it arrives at the mass of a large asteroid, it’s radiating at room temperature.

    この過程は緩やかで最大だと蒸発に1グーゴル年かかる

  • When it has the mass of a mountain, it radiates at about the heat of our Sun.

    長すぎて それが蒸発するところは

  • And in the last second of its life, the black hole radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion.

    誰も見られないだろうその頃生命は存在できないからだ

  • But this process is incredibly slow.

    まだ面白い話が残っているのだが

  • The biggest black holes we know might take up to a googol years to evaporate.

    それはパート2で見ていこうSubtitles by the Amara.org community

  • Nobody will be around to witness it.

  • The universe will have become uninhabitable long before then.

  • This is not the end of our story; there are loads more interesting ideas about black holes.

  • Well explore them in part 2.

  • A big thanks to Fraser Cain for help with this video.

  • By the way, weve made some Kurzgesagt wallpapers in 4K for different screen sizes;

  • you can get them on our Patreon page, which also helps us to make more videos.

  • Like this December, the first month ever with three videos!

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence.

ブラックホールは特殊な存在だ

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B1 中級 日本語 ブラック 質量 ホール 太陽 重力 融合

ブラックホールの説明 - 誕生から死まで (Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death)

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    mommy に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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