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  • Hello. Nice to meet you. (Applause)

  • I work at the KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute)

  • doing jobs related with designing aircrafts, and developing unmanned aircraft system.

  • My name is Sam Ok Koo.

  • Today, I am going to talk about

  • a topic involved in

  • the keyword on the screen,

  • UAS, the unmanned aircraft system.

  • Thanks to the development of science and technology,

  • so-called 3d(dull, dirty, difficult) jobs have been increasingly substituted by robotic machines.

  • On the extended front line of this trend

  • is there the aerial robot, or, UAS,

  • which does not need pilots.

  • While I am introducing you the area of the unmanned aircraft technology,

  • I would like to not only finish in UAS,

  • but also, dream the way to the future aerial vehicle with you.

  • These includes adapting UAS technologies,

  • which does not need pilots,

  • to airplanes people take.

  • For example,

  • like vehicles we drive,

  • untrained people

  • can easily take airplanes.

  • I may ask few questions.

  • Many people here seem to have experiences of taking airplanes.

  • Anyone has entered to an airplane cockpit?

  • It is quite rare.

  • Have anyone grabbed cockpit sticks at amusement parks?

  • (Laughs) Yes, quite many.

  • There seems to be many professions among the appliers.

  • Anyone is pilot currently?

  • No one seems to be. Is there one person?

  • OK. There is one person.

  • Actually I am a pilot.

  • Then, let's assume that,

  • airplanes requires prices, driving skills, and difficulties,

  • which are similar with those of cars.

  • Then, anyone want to take them and fly?

  • Yes. There are plenty.

  • Many people would take them.

  • It is an impossible dream right now,

  • but if we combine contents I am going to talk about today,

  • in the recent future,

  • I think there could be

  • aircrafts which requires

  • difficulties of driving cars

  • What do you think this number looks like to be?

  • If I ask this to elementary school students, they answer "1".

  • This number means the count of pilots

  • at an aircraft cockpit.

  • After WW II,

  • the aircraft manufactures turned their capability

  • in large bombers and cargo aircraft

  • into the commercial trans-continental transport.

  • There were five crew members in the cockpit

  • of the early passenger transports:

  • pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, navigator, and radio operator.

  • They are required 10, or 20 hours,

  • for a long-distance flight.

  • In the early 60's the radio operator was eliminated from the cockpit,

  • due to the development of communications technologies.

  • There are four people left.

  • In the 70's the inertial navigation system was developed, expelled the navigator.

  • and there were a lot of long-distance flight experiences,

  • therefore, the navigator was expelled.

  • Navigator finds the routes

  • for long-distance flights,

  • which is not capable by pilots.

  • Flight engineers are still left.

  • A lot of instrumental panels you can see here.

  • Flight engineers fly for over 10 hours, looking at the wall.

  • While pilots sit towards the front,

  • flight engineers sit towards the sides,

  • monitoring a lot of instrumental panels

  • and could not be relaxed before the landing.

  • As the automation progressed,

  • in the 80's,

  • when people start to use personal mobile computers

  • those many instrumental panels go into a computer screen.

  • As you see in the screen, instrumental panels

  • are changed to digital panels in the computer screen,

  • and even user manuals are imported into computers.

  • From then, if you take airplanes now,

  • there have been only 2 crews remaining in the cockpit.

  • Let's guess what would happen there next. Who will be expelled first? (Laugh)

  • Perhaps, in recent future,

  • as you see here,

  • you may take an airplane, which has a cockpit but not a pilot,

  • for overseas trips.

  • Then, we might not need any pilot.

  • Actually, a long-distance trans-continental flight

  • without any pilot,

  • was proven by the small UAS in this picture in 1998.

  • It took 26+ hours

  • to cross the Atlantic for about 3200km

  • from Newfoundland to Ireland.

  • This airplane is a very small one with 12kg weight.

  • Just after then, 10 years from now,

  • the unmanned trans-Pacific flight was done in 2001 by the Global Hawk,

  • the most sophisticated and highest performance UAS.

  • From California to an air base in Australia,

  • it took 22 hours for flying 13000km, and recorded in the Guinness Book of Records,

  • for a long-distance flight record without pilots.

  • There is basically

  • no technological barrier

  • in long-range flight without a pilot on board.

  • Even though, most UAS is for military purposes.

  • More than 93% is used as military,

  • The typical example is the Predator, you can see in this picture.

  • It is a beautiful-looking airplane, but has a scary name, Predator.

  • But in the beginning, the airplane also used for

  • ground detection, which was a very peaceful purpose.

  • It was practically used for ground detections at NASA,

  • or scientific researches.

  • It started to be used in war at Bosnia in 1995, and Afghanistan in 2000,

  • and started to be armed.

  • As you see now, there are 2 missiles under the beautiful airplane.

  • What do you expect their usages are for?

  • This video is recorded by the Predator, which is a real situation.

  • A video, which detected a specific target at Afghanistan,

  • and attacked the building directly above it.

  • 2 hellfire missiles are launched.

  • You can see a car running away.

  • A person driving the car was lucky.

  • The target was at the different place.

  • Now, from the sky, in the dark, people who didn't recognized the plane flying,

  • were hit by the missile from somewhere, and died.

  • If I show this video to elementary school students,

  • they seems to be interested like watching interesting movies.

  • But kids, let's think as you were in the place. (Laughs)

  • What if the people in there were you, or your brothers at military service?

  • What if the plane up above air was from your bad neighbor country?

  • Think of the Manchu war of 1636, and the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592...

  • Think about those airplanes...

  • Children's face became solid and it became silent.

  • I end the story with "Therefore, you need to study hard." (Laughs)

  • Because of those reasons,

  • Korea is investigating about UAS.

  • In this big picture, it is showing 송골매 which was developed in 90's,

  • and is used for the researches related with observations in the military and in the sky.

  • The next one which is at right upper corner, is 'Remoeye-006',

  • which is sent as troops with Korean soldiers to Afghanistan

  • standing guard duty.

  • From among these, the one which should be focused is at the right bottom:

  • A helicopter, 'Remo-H'.

  • Even though more than 93% of UASs are used for military purposes,

  • one of the most successful applications of civil unmanned aircraft technology is the agricultural helicopters.

  • It is made in Korea. Capable of flying autonomously...

  • If we input the coordinate of a rice paddy, it automatically scans, and sprays aerosols.

  • This can cover 6000 평 (20,000 square meters) in a flight mission of 15-minutes.

  • This increases the productivity very much.

  • In addition, there shows many aircraft models...

  • In research institutions, or schools,

  • There have been many researches related to UAS.

  • Even though UAS is needed for the national defense,

  • it have been researched hard, not to be fallen, behind the technology developments,

  • such as making airplanes unmanned or automated.

  • The Smart UAV Program

  • is another representative UAS-technology development program

  • of our country.

  • As you can see in the screen,

  • I am developing UAS-technology including that vehicle.

  • This vehicle has 2 large tilt-rotors,

  • which is different from other vehicles.

  • When take-off or landing, rotors are headed to above direction,

  • so that it could do vertical take-off, or landing.

  • If it is speeded up, rotors are tilted to front direction.

  • When it speeded up to the certain speed, for example,

  • 250km/h like usual airplanes, it becomes like this.

  • Fixed-wing mode cruise.

  • When it is in helicopter mode,

  • rotors covers all weights to make the plane lift.

  • On the other hand, in fixed-wing mode, wings lift the plane,