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  • Recently there has been a lot of talk about measles.

    最近 はしかの話題が多い

  • What does measles actually do, and should you vaccinate against it?

    はしかは何をするのか

  • Or is this just hysteria?

    ワクチンは打つべきか

  • Measles is a virus:

    騒ぎすぎなのか

  • a hull of proteins, RNA,

    はしかはウイルスだ

  • plus some more proteins for reproduction.

    RNAやタンパク質を持っている

  • It cannot reproduce by itself; it needs a host cell to do so.

    増殖するには 宿主細胞が必要だ

  • To understand measles, we have to understand the immune system.

    免疫を理解するところから始めよう

  • You might already have seen

    免疫の動画はもう見たかな?

  • the visual system we developed to help here.

    はしかに関連する部分を見ていこう

  • Now, let’s focus on the parts of the immune system relevant to measles.

    はしかは鼻 口 目から体に入る

  • The measles virus enters humans through the nose, mouth, or eyes.

    まず 肺から始まる

  • The measles infection starts in the lungs.

    はしかは肺に入ると

  • Measles is especially good at infecting the body’s first line of defence:

    マクロファージに感染する

  • macrophages, powerful guard cells that protect the lungs from intruders.

    肺への侵入者を防ぐ護衛だ

  • They enter a cell and take it over.

    これを乗っ取る

  • The virus reprograms the cell and

    乗っ取られた細胞は

  • transforms it into a dangerous virus production center.

    ウイルス生産センターに変わる

  • Once a cell is filled with viruses,

    細胞一杯になると放出され

  • they leave the crippled cell and begin the cycle over again.

    これを繰り返していく

  • But the immune system has powerful weapons against virus infections:

    免疫系にも強力な武器がある

  • natural killer cells.

    ナチュラルキラー細胞だ

  • These cells basically patrol the body and check other cells for infections.

    体内を見回って守っている細胞で

  • If they find an infected cell, they order it to commit suicide.

    感染を見つけると 自殺を促していく

  • This is so effective that for the first 10 days or so,

    これは効果的で 10日ほどは

  • you will not even notice that youre infected with measles.

    感染したことに気づかない

  • And now, the reason why measles is so powerful.

    だがここからが はしかの本領発揮だ

  • After a period of fighting and dying,

    戦闘後 マクロファージは

  • macrophages alert the brain of the immune system:

    樹状細胞に敵襲を伝える

  • the dendritic cells.

    樹状細胞の仕事は 敵の情報を集め

  • The job of the dendritic cells is to collect samples of intruders,

    強力な武器を活性化させ

  • travel to the lymph nodes,

    仲間を奮い立たせることだ

  • and then activate the heavy weapons

    だが はしかは恐ろしい戦術を使う

  • that eradicate the infection very fast in a team effort.

    樹状細胞に感染し

  • But the measles virus uses a dreadful tactic.

    体の奥へと進入するのだ

  • It infects the dendritic cells

    味方の振りをしているため

  • and uses them as a Trojan horse to enter deeper into the body.

    誰も気づかない

  • The infected cells travel to the next lymph node

    リンパ節に着くと そこの

  • to alert other immune cells.

    T細胞やB細胞に感染する

  • Once it arrives,

    敵と戦うための部隊にだ

  • the measles virus spreads around the virgin T and B cells

    感染はとても早い

  • and infects them.

    リンパ系や血流から

  • It attacks the very system that evolved to fight it.

    あちこちに広がっていく

  • Now, things happen very fast.

    体中の臓器 脾臓や肝臓や腸

  • The lymph system spreads the virus everywhere

    そして肺に感染する

  • and it enters the bloodstream,

    症状も出てくる

  • infecting cells while traveling.

    高熱 頭痛 吐き気 発疹だ

  • Measles infects organs like

    部隊が勝ちかけていた肺に

  • the spleen, the liver, the intestines, and, most importantly, the lungs.

    何百万ものウイルスが押し寄せ

  • The symptoms range from

    壊滅させられる

  • a very high fever, headache, sickness, bronchitis, and, of course, a rash.

    この時咳をすると ウイルスが飛ぶ

  • In the lungs, the immune system was doing pretty okay.

    感染力は強く ワクチン接種なしだと

  • But now, millions of viruses attack a second time

    90%の確率で感染してしまう

  • and kill countless cells, wiping out the defense systems.

    肺を守る細胞がいなくなると

  • In this phase, you start coughing out millions of measles viruses.

    他の感染症にかかりやすくなり

  • Measles is so contagious at this stage,

    それが肺炎を引き起こす

  • that if you meet someone who isn’t vaccinated,

    はしかの一般的な死に方だ

  • there’s about a 90% chance youll infect them.

    免疫系は深刻な傷を負い

  • Without the protective army in the lungs, other bacteria or viruses that

    防衛機能は壊れてしまった

  • would usually not stand a chance can now enter the lungs and develop into

    ウイルスは体中の皮膚へと広がり

  • harmful parallel infections that can cause pneumonia,

    感染が見た目にも現れる

  • the most common way to die from measles.

    ウイルスが脳に達し

  • Your body’s immune system is now seriously wounded.

    感染する場合もあり

  • Various protective systems are hurt and disrupted.

    20%から40%の確率で死ぬか

  • The virus spreads everywhere, infecting the skin all over the body.

    脳に長期的損傷が残る

  • The typical measles rash now becomes visible.

    だが免疫系もまだ諦めず 反撃に出る

  • And in some cases, the measles virus

    生き残った樹状細胞は

  • reaches the brain and causes a brain infection.

    反ウイルス部隊を活性化し

  • If it does so, the chances of dying are between 20 to 40 percent,

    形質細胞は抗体を大量に放出する

  • and there may be long-term damage.

    ウイルスにくっついて固める

  • But your body is far from giving up at this stage,

    小さなタンパク質だ

  • and it fights back agressively.

    キラーT細胞は感染した細胞を殺し

  • Some dendritic cells survive long enough to activate

    2~3週間後には

  • the anti-virus forces of the body.

    感染は収まることになる

  • Plasma cells in the lymph nodes start producing billions of antibodies,

    だが免疫系の回復には数ヶ月かかり

  • tiny proteins that mark infected cells for destruction

    その間病気にかかりやすい

  • or clump the virus together.

    免疫系はウイルスを忘れず

  • Killer T cells flood the body and kill infected cells left and right.

    体には永久に免疫ができる

  • After 2 to 3 weeks, the body usually gets

    はしかは甘くない

  • the upper hand and overwhelms the infection.

    84%の人がワクチン接種しているが

  • But the immune system is now seriously weakened,

    2014年には12万人が感染して死んだ

  • and may take weeks or months to recover,

    接種できない人もいる

  • leaving the body vulnerable to other diseases.

    化学療法中の人やHIV患者

  • But, if you make it, you are now immune:

    アレルギーを持つ人たちだ

  • the immune system remembers the virus forever.

    それ以外の人は接種しよう

  • Measles is no joke.

    ワクチン接種は安全で 安く行える

  • Although 84% of all humans are vaccinated against measles,

    はしかは怖い

  • 122,000 people died because of the infection in 2014.

    免疫の強化は必ずすべきだろう

  • Some people cannot get vaccinations,

    接種否定派は 子どものためだと言う

  • either because theyre too young, because of chemotherapy or HIV,

    しかし こう問う必要がある

  • or because theyre allergic to the vaccine.

    はしかの危険は消えたのか?

  • They need the rest of us to stop the disease for them.

    悲しいことに まだだ

  • The measles vaccination is safe, cheap, and available.

    団結し このウイルスを撲滅しよう

  • There are no benifits from having measles at all.

    怪物を正しい場所に追いやるのだ

  • You don’t strengthen your immune system and it’s not more natural.

    歴史の本の中に

  • Most people who don’t vaccinate only want the best for their children,

    Subtitles by the Amara.org community

  • which is honorable.

  • But if you ask yourself,

  • Am I putting the life of my child and other children at risk by

  • not vaccinating against measles?”

  • The sad answer is yes. Yes, you are.

  • Let’s not play the blame game, though.

  • Let’s work together and eradicate this virus.

  • Together, we can get rid of these dreadful monsters and

  • consign them to their rightful place: the history books.

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Recently there has been a lot of talk about measles.

最近 はしかの話題が多い

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麻疹の説明 - ワクチンを接種するかしないか? (Measles Explained — Vaccinate or Not?)

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    mommy に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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