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  • Has anyone among you ever been exposed to tear gas?

    翻訳: Tomoyuki Suzuki 校正: Yasushi Aoki

  • Tear gas? Anyone?

    皆さんの中で催涙ガスを浴びた 経験のある方はいらっしゃいますか?

  • I'm sorry to hear that, so you might know that it's a very toxic substance,

    催涙ガスですよ? どなたかいませんか?

  • but you might not know that it's a very simple molecule

    お気の毒様です これがとても有害な 物質あることはご存知かもしれませんが

  • with an unpronouncable name:

    発音不能な名前を持った ごく単純な分子だというのは

  • it's called chlorobenzalmalononitrile.


  • I made it.


  • It's decades old, but it's becoming very trendy among police forces


  • around the planet lately, it seems,

    何十年も前に発明されたものですが 近年になって世界中の警察が

  • and according to my experience as a non-voluntary breather of it,

    とても頻繁に使うように なっているようです

  • tear gas has two main but quite opposite effects.

    無理に吸わされた私の経験から 申し上げると

  • One, it can really burn your eyes,

    催涙ガスには2つの 正反対な作用があります

  • and two, it can also help you to open them.

    1つ目は 目にひどい痛みを与えること

  • Tear gas definitely helped to open mine to something

    2つ目は 目を開かせるということです

  • that I want to share with you this afternoon:

    催涙ガスは 確かに私の目を見開かせ

  • that livestreaming the power of independent broadcasts through the web

    今日は 皆さんにそのことを お話ししたいと思います

  • can be a game-changer in journalism,

    ウェブを通じた 個人によるライブ中継は

  • in activism, and as I see it, in the political discourse as well.


  • That idea started to dawn on me in early 2011

    それに私の考えでは 政治的議論の形態を 大きく変える可能性があります

  • when I was covering a protest in São Paulo.

    このような考えが浮かんだのは 2011年の初めに

  • It was the marijuana march,

    サン・パウロでの抗議運動を 報道していた時のことです

  • a gathering of people asking for the legalization of cannabis.


  • When that group started to move,

    大麻合法化を求める人々が 集結していました

  • the riot police came from the back with rubber bullets, bombs,


  • and then the gas.

    機動隊が背後から ゴム弾や 悪臭弾 催涙ガスで

  • But to make a long story short,


  • I had entered that protest as the editor-in-chief


  • of a well-established printed magazine where I'd worked for 11 years,

    私は11年間勤めていた ある有名な雑誌の編集長として

  • and thanks to this unsolicited effects of tear gas,


  • I left it as a journalist that was now committed to new ways

    催涙ガスの避けがたい 効果のおかげで

  • of sharing the raw experience of what it's like to be there, actually.

    その場を去った時 私は心に決めていました

  • So in the following week, I was back in the streets,

    このような場所における生の経験を伝える 新たな方法に取り組もうと

  • but that time, I wasn't a member of any media outlet anymore.

    次の週 私は再び 抗議デモの中にいました

  • I was there as an independent livestreamer, and all I had with me

    もうすでに 報道機関とは 一切無関係です

  • was basically borrowed equipment.


  • I had a very simple camera and a backpack with 3G modems.

    持っていた装備は 基本的にみんな借り物でした

  • And I had this weblink that could be shared through social media,

    ごくシンプルなカメラと 3Gモデムを入れたリュックです

  • could be put in any website,

    ソーシャルメディアで共有したり ウェブサイトに埋め込める

  • and that time, the protest went along fine.

    ストリーミングへのリンクを 告知しておきました

  • There was no violence.

    その時は抗議運動は 問題なく終わり

  • There was no action scenes.


  • But there was something really exciting,

    立ち回りも ありませんでした

  • because I could see at a distance the TV channels covering it,

    しかし とても興味深い発見がありました

  • and they had these big vans and the teams and the cameras,

    離れたところで TV局が中継しているのが見えましたが

  • and I was basically doing the same thing

    大きな車両に中継チームと 何台ものカメラがありました

  • and all I had was a backpack.

    私の方は基本的に同じ事を たった1人で

  • And that was really exciting to a journalist,

    リュックひとつで やっていたんです

  • but the most interesting part was when I got back home, actually,

    これはジャーナリストとして 胸躍ることでした

  • because I learned that I had been watched

    しかし家に帰ってみると もっと面白いことがありました

  • by more than 90,000 people,


  • and I got hundreds of emails and messages of people asking me, basically,


  • how did I do it,

    何百ものメールやメッセージが 届きましたが その内容は概ね

  • how it was possible to do such a thing.


  • And I learned something else, that that was actually the first time

    「どうしたら そんなことが出来るの?」 といったものでした

  • that somebody had ever done a livestreaming in a street protest


  • in the country.

    路上の抗議運動を 個人がライブ中継したのは

  • And that really shocked me,

    我が国では初めてのことだった ということです

  • because I was no geek, I was no technology guy,


  • and all the equipment needed was already there,

    自分はコンピュータ・マニアではないし 技術にも詳しくありません

  • was easily available.


  • And I realized that we had a frontier here,


  • a very important one,

    自分は非常に重要な 未開の領域にいるのだと

  • that it was just a matter of changing the perspective,


  • and the web could be actually used,

    物事の見方を少し 変えるだけでいいのです

  • already used, as a colossal and uncontrollable


  • and highly anarchical TV channel, TV network,

    巨大で 制御できない 無政府状態の

  • and anyone with very basic skills and very basic equipment,

    テレビチャンネルとして 使えるということです

  • even someone like me who had this little stuttering issue,

    誰でも ごく基本的なスキルと 簡単な装備さえあれば

  • so if it happens, bear with me please,

    私のような どもりのある人間ですら —

  • even someone like me could become a broadcaster.

    聞きづらかったら ご容赦下さい —

  • And that sounded revolutionary in my mind.

    私のような人間ですら ニュース放送ができるのです

  • So for the next couple of years,


  • I started to experiment with livestreaming in different ways,

    その後 2年ほど

  • not only in the streets but mostly in studios and in homes,

    様々な方法で ライブ中継を試みました

  • until the beginning of 2013, last year,

    街頭だけでなく スタジオや家でもよくやりました

  • when I became the cofounder of a group calleddia NINJA.

    昨年2013年の 初め頃まで続け

  • NINJA is an acronym

    そしてこの年「メディア NINJA」というグループを 共同で設立しました

  • that stands for Narrativas Independentes Jornalismo e Ação,


  • or in English, independent narratives, journalism, and action.

    Narrativas Independentes Jornalismo e Ação の略で

  • It was a media group that had little media plan.

    「独立した解説、報道および行動」 という意味があり

  • We didn't have any financial structure.

    あまり媒体計画のない 報道のための集団です

  • We were not planning to make money out of this,


  • which was wise, because you shouldn't try to make money out of journalism now.

    また そこからお金を稼ごうとも 考えていませんでした

  • But we had a very solid and clear conviction,

    これは賢明なことで 今時ジャーナリズムで 稼ごうなんて思わない方がいいです

  • that we knew that the hyperconnected environment of social media

    しかし我々には確固とした明確な 信念がありました

  • could maybe allow us to consolidate

    それは ソーシャルディアで 複雑に繋がった環境によって

  • a network of experimental journalists throughout the country.


  • So we launched a Facebook page first, and then a manifesto,

    ネットワークを 作り上げられるはずだということです

  • and started to cover the streets in a very simple way.

    そこでまず フェイスブックページを 作って 声明文を出し

  • But then something happened, something that wasn't predicted,

    そして街頭で とても単純な方法で 報道活動を開始しました

  • that no one could have anticipated.

    すると あることが起きました 予期しないことが起こったのです

  • Street protests started to erupt in São Paulo.


  • They began as very local and specific.

    サンパウロで 抗議運動が始まったんですが

  • They were against the bus fare hike that had just happened in the city.

    最初は局所的で 特定のテーマのものでした

  • This is a bus.

    市内のバス運賃値上げに対する 反対運動です

  • It's written there, "Theft."


  • But those kind of manifestations started to grow,


  • and they kept happening.


  • So the police violence against them started to grow as well.


  • But there was another conflict,

    そして警察による暴力的な取り締まりも 頻繁になっていきました

  • the one I believe that's more important here

    しかし ここには 別の衝突もありました

  • to make my point that it was a narrative conflict.


  • There was this mainstream media version of the facts

    より重要なものだと思いますが それは 報道内容に関する衝突です

  • that anyone who was on the streets could easily challenge


  • if they presented their own vision of what was actually happening there.

    その場にいた誰であろうと 自分の見たものを示せさえすれば

  • And it was this clash of visions, this clash of narratives,

    本当に起きていたことは違うと 反論できたでしょう

  • that I think turned those protests

    この「視点」や「報道内容」の 衝突こそが

  • into a long period in the country of political reckoning

    ただの抗議運動が 国内における長期の

  • where hundreds of thousands of people,

    政治的変化を もたらすことになり

  • probably more than a million people

    何十万 いや おそらくは 百万人以上の人々を

  • took to the streets in the whole country.


  • But it wasn't about the bus fare hike anymore.

    駆り立てることに なったのでしょう

  • It was about everything.

    もはや バス運賃値上げ問題だけでなく

  • The people's demands, their expectations,


  • the reasons why they were on the streets


  • could be as diverse as they could be contradictory in many cases.


  • If you could read it, you would understand me.

    互いに矛盾し合う場合も 少なくありません

  • But it was in this environment of political catharsis

    これらプラカードに書いてあることが読めれば お分かりになるでしょう

  • that the country was going through

    これらの出来事は この国における

  • that it had to do with politics, indeed,

    政治的鬱憤の解消の過程で 起きたことであり

  • but it had to do also with a new way of organizing,


  • through a new way of communicating.

    新たに登場した コミュニケーション手段による

  • It was in that environment thatdia NINJA emerged

    新しい行動の組織化方法 ということでもあったのです

  • from almost anonymity to become a national phenomenon,

    この様な背景のもと メディアNINJAは

  • because we did have the right equipment.

    ほぼ無名というところから 全国的な現象になったのです

  • We are not using big cameras.

    これは我々が適切な機器を 手にしていたおかげです

  • We are using basically this.


  • We are using smartphones.


  • And that, actually, allowed us to become invisible in the middle of the protests,


  • but it allowed us to do something else:

    これなら取材する抗議集会の中に 溶け込むことができ

  • to show what it was like to be in the protests,

    また 他のことも可能にしました

  • to present to people at home a subjective perspective.

    抗議集会のただ中にいるのがどんなものか 見せることができて

  • But there was something that is more important,

    家にいる人は 当事者の視線で 見ることができるのです

  • I think, than the equipment.


  • It was our mindset,


  • because we are not behaving as a media outlet.


  • We are not competing for news.


  • We are trying to encourage people,

    スクープを競っている わけではありません

  • to invite people, and to actually teach people


  • how to do this, how they also could become broadcasters.

    どうやったら このような報道ができるのか

  • And that was crucial to turndia NINJA from a small group of people,

    どうすれば放送する側になれるのか 教えようとしています

  • and in a matter of weeks,

    これは小集団だった メディアNINJAが

  • we multiplied and we grew exponentially throughout the country.


  • So in a matter of a week or two, as the protests kept happening,

    全国で爆発的に拡大する上で 重要な要素でした

  • we were hundreds of young people

    抗議運動が続く中 ものの1〜2週間で

  • connected in this network throughout the country.


  • We were covering more than 50 cities at the same time.

    全国の何百という若者たちの 集団ができました

  • That's something that no TV channel could ever do.

    同時に50都市以上で 中継をしていました

  • That was responsible for turning us suddenly, actually,

    いかなるテレビ局も かつて成し得なかったことです

  • into kind of the mainstream media of social media.


  • So we had a couple of thousands of followers on our Facebook page,

    ソーシャルメディアにおける 主要メディアになったのです

  • and soon we had a quarter of a million followers.

    フェイスブックページの フォロワー数は

  • Our posts and our videos

    瞬く間に数千から 25万にまで増えました

  • were being seen by more than 11 million timelines a week.


  • It was way more than any newspaper or any magazine could ever do.

    1週間で1千1百万回も 視聴されました

  • And that turneddia NINJA into something else,

    これは新聞や雑誌のサイトより ずっと大きな数字です

  • more than a media outlet, than a media project.

    このことによって メディアNINJAは 単なる1個のメディア

  • It became almost like a public service

    1個のメディア企画という以上の何かに 変貌を遂げていきました

  • to the citizen, to the protester,

    まるで市民や 抗議する者たち

  • to the activist,


  • because they had a very simple and efficient and peaceful tool


  • to confront both police and media authority.

    というのも 警察や既存メディアのような 権力に対抗するための

  • Many of our images started to be used in regular TV channels.

    とてもシンプル、効率的かつ 平和的な手段となったからです

  • Our livestreams started to be broadcast even in regular televisions

    我々の映像は通常のテレビ放送でも 使われ始めました

  • when things got really rough.

    緊迫した状態になると 我々のライブ中継が

  • Some our images were responsible to take some people out of jail,

    通常のテレビ放送で 流されるようになりました

  • people who were being arrested unfairly

    我々の映像が 誤った容疑で 不正に逮捕された人々を

  • under false accusations, and we could prove them innocent.

    刑務所から解放するのに 役立ちました

  • And that also turneddia NINJA very soon

    彼らの無実を証明することが できたのです