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  • At some point, youve probably heard someone call their emotional ex-boyfriend a psycho.

  • Or maybe they said that their tidy roommate had OCD, or their unpredictable neighbor was

  • totally schizo, or their moody sister was bipolar.

  • We do this a lot...and let’s stop.

  • Think about it this way...if your friend doesn’t like sugar, you aren’t likeUgh, he’s

  • such a diabetic.” Just imagine sayingOh! My ex was a TOTAL cancer patient. He was sick

  • ALL THE TIME!” Ughh!

  • Many mental health professionals point out that using diagnostic terms as misplaced metaphors

  • for odd behavior, personality traits, or even changes in the stock market ultimately minimizes

  • serious conditions, and the people who have them.

  • So were here today to help clear up some of these definitions, and explain why the

  • weather isn’t schizophrenic, and how your ex probably isn't actually a psychopath.

  • [Intro]

  • First off, it’s important to understand what "psychological disorder" really means

  • to the experts.

  • Psychologists define a disorder as a deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional pattern of

  • thoughts, feelings, or behavior that interferes with a person’s ability to function in a

  • healthy way.

  • Now, let’s break that down: Deviant doesn’t mean something like dastardly or raunchy -- it

  • just means something that’s different from your general social norm. And that can be

  • pretty broad; like, serial killers are deviant from the norm, but so are geniuses and Olympians.

  • So, to be classified as a disorder, those deviant thoughts or behavior need to cause

  • the person, or people around them, actual distress, which pretty much means a feeling

  • that something is... off.

  • And that distress can turn into a harmful dysfunction if it limits a person’s ability

  • to live and work.

  • Take anxiety, for example. It’s something that we all have to some degree -- getting

  • the jitters before a first date or a big speech in front of a crowd - totally normal.

  • But being so distressed at the thought of interacting with others that you actually

  • can't leave your housethen that’s a disorder.

  • So, your roommate does not have obsessive compulsive disorder, or OCD, just because

  • she can’t bear to have dirty dishes in the sink. But she very well might if her compulsions

  • are interfering with her ability to live a healthy and happy life.

  • OCD isn’t about being neat, or particular, or just deciding that you really like the

  • color orange and want to wear it a lot.

  • It’s a serious, often debilitating condition characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts,

  • which can be known as obsessions, and when theyre accompanied by actions, those are

  • called compulsions.

  • For people with OCD, compulsive behavior can be a way to try to relieve the intense anxiety

  • that comes with obsessive thoughts -- like a fear that, say, if you don’t walk over

  • and touch that light switch exactly four times, something terrible is going to happen.

  • Kind of puts the dirty dishes in perspective.

  • And bee tee dubs, if you don’t wanna wash your dishes and your roommate is mad at you,

  • that is not their problem, because CLEAN YOUR DANG DISHES, JEREMY, AND WOULD IT KILL YOU

  • TO TAKE OUT THE TRASH ONCE A YEAR!

  • Another term I’m sure youve heard -- and heard used incorrectly -- isschizophrenic.”

  • Really not a suitable way to describe your moody neighbor, just because he called the

  • cops last week when your music was too loud, but then came back a few days later with leftover

  • birthday cake.

  • That is not being schizophrenic -- that’s just a person being nice to you one day, and

  • not nice another.

  • True schizophrenia is pretty rare -- affecting only about one percent of the global population

  • -- and it’s probably the most stigmatized and misunderstood psychological disorder of

  • them all.

  • And that might be why the term is so often misused. We see the termschizophrenia

  • used in the media all the time, to describe political flip-flopping and fluctuations in

  • the stock market, even eccentric celebrity style choices.

  • One study of the termsschizophrenicandschizophreniain US media found

  • that 28 percent of references to the condition were casual metaphors...usually about someone

  • or something seeming to have multiple personalities.

  • And guess what….schizophrenia has nothing to do AT ALL with having multiple personalities.

  • This myth may have its origin in the fact that schizophrenia literally meanssplit

  • mind”, because the condition is marked by thoughts and behavior that are out of sync

  • with a person’s actual surroundings and situations. Their mind is split with REALITY...not

  • with itself.

  • People suffering from schizophrenia often suffer from delusions, either of grandeur,

  • like thinking youre the Queen of England, or of extreme paranoia and persecution -- like

  • thinking the CIA and the mafia - or both - are out to get you.

  • People who have schizophrenia are also likely to suffer from hallucinations -- that is,

  • to see or hear something that isn’t there, while lacking the ability to reliably judge

  • what is and isn’t real.

  • So, “schizophrenicis not a synonym forinconsistent.” It’s a devastating disease

  • and one of the leading causes of disability in the world.

  • Now, speaking of mood swings -- as well as things we shouldn’t use to describe superficial

  • things, let's talk about bipolar. You may recognize it by its older name -- "manic depression."

  • But like depression, bipolar is a type of mood disorder.

  • Our moods are basically long-term emotional states that are pretty subjective and hard

  • to pin down, but they usually fall within two broad categories with very fancy technical

  • names -- good and bad.

  • Mood disorders are marked by emotional extremes and problems in regulating moods.

  • So, the symptoms of depressive disorders include prolonged feelings of hopelessness and lethargy,

  • while bipolar disorders are typified by alternating among depressive, manic, and what you might

  • call more normal or stable phases -- often between phases multiple times a month, week,

  • or even a single day.

  • And keep in mind that mania isn’t about being super happy, or energetic. A true manic

  • episode is an intense period of restless and often overly optimistic hyperactivity, during

  • which your estimation of yourself and your ideas and your abilities can often get really

  • skewed.

  • A person experiencing a manic episode might start feeling awesome, but quickly start to

  • show some seriously poor judgement as they empty their bank accounts on shopping sprees.

  • When they come down off that sleepless high, they often fall, hard, into sometimes suicidal

  • lows.

  • Which brings us to our final, and perhaps most popular psych term, mis-used since the

  • days of Alfred Hitchcock: Psycho.

  • Psychopathy is another outdated term -- it’s more often called sociopathy these days, but

  • professionals know the condition more technically as antisocial personality disorder.

  • It’s probably the most extreme and severe type of personality disorder, which are some

  • of the most difficult disorders to diagnose and, frankly, to live with.

  • That’s mainly because, unlike most disorders, people with personality disorders often aren’t

  • aware of their condition. Sometimes, they think it’s everyone else who’s got the

  • problem.

  • People with antisocial personality disorder exhibit a lack of conscience, even towards

  • friends and family members. Their destructive behavior surfaces in childhood or adolescence,

  • beginning with excessive lying, fighting, stealing, violence, or manipulation.

  • They basically don’t care about any negative consequences of their actions, and because

  • they lack the capacity for empathy, they don’t give a dang about you, or anyone else.

  • So even though we really love Benedict Cumberbatch, his Sherlock Holmes was flat-out wrong when

  • he described himself as a sociopath.

  • I mean, just look at how he and Watson get along. It's adorable!

  • Now, just what causes antisocial disorder or any of the other disorders I’ve mentioned

  • is complicated, and honestly we have a long way to go in understanding it.

  • Some conditions seem to be pretty clearly linked to biological factors such as genetics

  • and brain chemistry, while others seem to stem from specific situations, or environmental

  • factors, like stress or trauma.

  • And some cases appear to have roots in both causes: People could have a genetic predisposition

  • to a condition that tends to run in families, like schizophrenia, but may only have symptoms

  • if theyre triggered by their surroundings. If you want to learn more about these disorders

  • and other scientific aspects of your mind, you can head over to Crash Course, where weve

  • been studying psychology all year. But in the end, were not here to tell you

  • how to talk -- or, for that matter, what to be offended by -- were just all about understanding

  • the world around us, including people. And it’s probably fair to say that using clinical

  • diagnoses to describe haircuts or dishwashing habits only fuels the misunderstanding of

  • mental illness.

  • A final note...in general, when talking about people with medical disorders, try not to

  • let the disorder define them. Instead of saying that someone is a schizophrenic, say that

  • they have schizophrenia. It's hard enough to try not to become your disease when your

  • disease is inside your brain; it's even worse when it's inside everyone else's too.

  • So next time someone is annoying or alarming you with their behavior, allow me to suggest

  • a thesaurus.

  • Thanks for watching this SciShow Infusion -- especially to our Subbable subscribers.

  • To learn how you can support us in exploring the world, just go to subbable.com.

  • And as always, don’t forget to go to YouTube.com/scishow and subscribe!

At some point, youve probably heard someone call their emotional ex-boyfriend a psycho.

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間違った使い方をしている4つの心理学用語 (4 Psychological Terms That You're Using Incorrectly)

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    Eating に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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