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  • Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns.

    また会ったわねアダムです。 へようこそ。今日のレッスンは、互助詞についてです。

  • This is something that gives people trouble often it seems, so I'm here to explain it a little bit


  • and show you when to use it, when not to use it.


  • First of all, what does this word mean: "reciprocal"? "To reciprocate"-that's the verb-"to reciprocate"

    まず、この言葉の意味。"互恵的 "とは?"互酬する "は動詞の "to reciprocate "です

  • means to return an action. So I do something for you, you do something for me. The action


  • is reciprocal; goes one way, goes the other way. Doesn't have to be the same action, but


  • it's some sort of... Returning a favour basically or returning help.


  • So we can use: "each other" or "one another" to show a reciprocal action. These are called

    ということで、使うことができます。"お互いに "とか "お互いに "というのは 互恵的な行動を示すためのものですこれらを

  • reciprocal pronouns. Okay? "Each" is a pronoun, "one" is a pronoun, "another" is a pronoun.

    互いの代名詞を使っていいですか?"それぞれ "は代名詞、"一人 "は代名詞、"もう一人 "は代名詞です。

  • These are in groups, they are reciprocal pronouns. Now, quite often, people mix these... They


  • mix the use of this with "themselves". Okay? "Themselves" is not a reciprocal pronoun.

    これを「自分たち」と混ぜて使うのですいいか?"themselves "は逆代名詞ではありません

  • "Themselves" is called a reflexive pronoun. I won't get into too much detail about reflexive here,

    "Themselves "は反射代名詞と呼ばれています。反射代名詞についてはここではあまり詳しく触れません。

  • but a "reflexive pronoun" is a pronoun when you have the subject acting on the object, and the object is the same as the subject.


  • So: "I hit myself." I am the subject, I am also the object.


  • I hit myself, it's reflecting back to me.


  • Reciprocal, there's always somebody else or other people involved besides myself. Okay? Besides me.


  • "Tom and Jerry hated each other." Now, I'm not sure how old some of you are.


  • I know I'm maybe giving away my age a little bit, but Tom and Jerry were very popular cartoon characters when I was a kid.


  • Tom... Tom was the cat I believe, Jerry was the mouse,


  • and they always used to hate each other. Near the end, when I got older, they became friends;

    いつも憎しみ合っていました最後近くになって 私が大人になった時 彼らは友達になりました

  • it was very disappointing. It was better when they hated each other and always used to do bad things to each other because they were... It was kind of funny.


  • "Tom and Jerry hated each other."


  • Tom hated Jerry, Jerry hated Tom; the feeling was reciprocal. Okay?


  • Here, it's not an action, it's a feeling, but we can use it in the same way. We use it like an action verb.


  • "Tom and Jerry hated one another." Basically, the meaning is the same.


  • Now, there's an argument between grammarians, people who study grammar, who think that "each other"

    さて、文法を研究している人たちの間では、"お互いに "という議論があります。

  • should only involve two characters, "one another" should involve more than two characters. Realistically though,

    は二人のキャラクターだけで、"one another "は二人以上のキャラクターが関与している必要があります。現実的にはね

  • they're interchangeable; you can use one or the other.


  • Everybody will get the exact same meaning, regardless which one you use. Okay?


  • Now: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves."


  • Does this mean the same as these two? No, it does not. If we say: "Tom and Jerry hated themselves."

    この2つと同じ意味なのでしょうか?いいえ そうではありませんもし私たちが言うなら"トムとジェリーは自分たちを憎んでいた"

  • means Tom hated Tom, Jerry hated Jerry. No relation between the two. Tom hated himself,


  • Jerry hated himself. Okay? So this is not a reciprocal action; this is a reflexive.

    ジェリーは自分自身を憎んでいたいいですか?これは相互作用ではなく 反射的な行動だ

  • Now, another situation we have is with the apostrophe. Okay?


  • "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at each other's weddings."


  • "Linda and Kate were bridesmaids at one another's weddings."


  • "Wedding", I'm going to have to look that one up. "Each other's weddings" though for sure. Okay?

    "結婚式" それは調べないといけないな"お互いの結婚式 "は確かだけどねいいですか?

  • It basically means the same idea. One to you, one back to me; reciprocal actions. And you can use it.


  • Now, some people put these together, especially language learners who are a little bit new to the language, they say: "Each other".


  • Now, keep in mind, a native speaker will take the "ch" sound with the "o" and mix it - " "eachother",

    さて、覚えておいてください、ネイティブスピーカーは、"ch "の音を "o "と一緒に取って、それを混ぜる - " "お互いに "です。

  • but they are two separate words, you can't mix them.


  • And some people also think you can put the apostrophe


  • after the "s", this is also not the case because we're talking about one person to one person,


  • so the "s" always comes... The apostrophe-sorry-always comes before the "s" to show possession. Okay?

    だから "s "はいつも...アポストロフィ-sorry-alwaysはいつも "s "の前に来るんだ所有権を示すためにいいですか?

  • It's a little bit confusing, but very useful to know how to use these. Actions going two-way.


  • If you're not sure, go to, there'll be a quiz there where you can try out these examples.


  • And if you have any questions, please ask; I'll be very happy to answer them.


  • See you again.


Hi again. I'm Adam. Welcome back to Today's lesson is about reciprocal nouns.

また会ったわねアダムです。 へようこそ。今日のレッスンは、互助詞についてです。


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A2 初級 日本語 ジェリー トム 名詞 互い 憎し 反射


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    Man に公開 2014 年 10 月 09 日