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  • The appeal to the stone (argumentum ad lapidem) is directly tied to an anecdote involving

  • Dr. Samuel Johnson.

  • The philosopher George Berkeley, associated with a school of thought known as subjective

  • idealism, argued that all worldly objects, including stones, exist only in our perceptions

  • and have no independent reality.

  • Essentially, Berkeley posited that physical objects do not exist independently of the

  • mind perceiving them.

  • In response to Berkeley's complex and seemingly counter-intuitive philosophical claim, Dr.

  • Samuel Johnson's reputedly kicked a large stone and felt its hard, undeniable reality,

  • which caused him pain.

  • He then exclaimed, "I refute it thus," implying that the stone's very real presence, and his

  • ability to kick it, was sufficient refutation of Berkeley's philosophy.

The appeal to the stone (argumentum ad lapidem) is directly tied to an anecdote involving

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Samuel Johnson's Stone: A Physical Rebuttal to George Berkeley's Subjective Idealism

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    Shao Chieh Lo に公開 2023 年 11 月 20 日
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