字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント ( intro music ) Man 1: Come explore with us! Man 2: I am like trembling right now! Voiceover: I have the coolest job in the world. Now we're building things to understand more about the world around us. Woman 1: I love this! Man 3: That was insane. ( cry of joy ) Voiceover: We found eight new species of fish. Man 4: Look. Man 5: This is what we lost. Woman 2: It turns out people really don't believe we can do this. Voiceover: That's awesome, that's why I do what I do. ( applause ) Boyd: And why don't we begin with our Explorer-in-Residence. We'll begin with Enric. Enric: Great! I'm going to tell you a little story now. When I was a kid growing up on the Mediterranean coast of Spain I was completely fascinated by the documentaries that Jacques Cousteau showed us on TV. Now, that was in the 70s and he showed us these amazing coral reefs lots of sharks, whales, sea lions, it was so fantastic. But when I was swimming in the ocean, when I was diving, when I was later the professor at the University of California, this what I saw. Those coral reefs that he showed us were gone. Places that I loved were less and less alive over time. So I was studying human impacts in the ocean. And I saw those dead reefs covered by algae and slime and the big fishes were gone. These fish that you can see are smaller than my diving masks. I quit my job as a professor and I just started going to these remote places. And I started this project that we call Pristine Seas. The goal of this project is to go to the most remote, uninhabited, untouched places in the ocean, the wildest places in the ocean. A coral reef that looks like this, where the corals are alive and predators dominate. And we combine exploration, scientific research, compelling media and then we inspire the leaders of the countries that own these places to protect them in very large reserves. In the last five years, we've been to nine places. And we got five protected. Covering a total of almost half a million square kilometers. And in the next few years we are going to a few more of these places to try to protect the last places that still look like the ocean that was thousands of years ago. Thank you. ( applause ) Boyd: Now Tristram Stuart is gonna give us a little overview of his work quickly. Tristram: We're chopping down rainforest to grow more food but at the same time, a billion people are hungry. And yet we're wasting one third of the world's food supply. That is something of a tragedy but I've made it my life's mission to show that this is a colossal opportunity. If we need to cut down our environmental impact and increase food availability where it's needed most, cutting food waste is a really good place to start. These green beans show you just how simple some of the solutions to food waste can be. I draw your attention to the word trimmed. These beans have been trimmed to size to fit into these plastic containers. That means that Kenyan farmers growing these beans for export to European markets, are cutting sometimes 30, 40 percent of the beans they've grown in a country were the land and the water that they're using to grow these beans are scarce resources. 20 tons a day of waste coming out of this single depot, just outside Nairobi, and contractors collecting this waste have to sign a contract saying they won't feed any of this good food to hungry people. It will all be treated as waste. We're paying for that crime in our supply chains. What we did is four things. First of all, raise awareness through public campaigns on ugly fruit and vegetables and why these standards are unnecessary. Number two, pass a law within the United Kingdom saying that when supermarkets cause their suppliers to waste food, they should share the cost of it. Number three, help farmers in those countries develop secondary markets to get some of that food to markets. And number four, work with the supermarkets to change those standards. We got Tescos to change the way they ask for the beans to be trimmed. They now trim only on one side of the bean rather than two, it's not far enough. They've gone half way but Kenyan farmers... ( laughter ) ...are producing five percent more bean per unit of production than they were before. We did that in a few months. Similar story with bananas in Ecuador. That's the waste of one banana plantation after one day of harvest. Bananas in Costa Rica. These are carrots being wasted because they are too long to fit into these supermarket plastic crates. It's crazy and it's happening everywhere. We have led a global revolution against food waste by doing positive campaigning and feeding the five thousand, which is the name of our organization, at an event that we used to launch our campaigns where we feed five thousand people, all on food that would otherwise be wasted, "Filling bellies, not bins". We also set up the Gleaning Network in Britain and now across Europe were we take volunteers to fields to harvest some of this unused crop and get it people who are hungry and also communicate about those basic, original sources of food waste and what we can do about it. My next mission is to come to America. I'm here now and I'm making friends. ( applause ) And I will show you why it's most important. What this shows is that America has twice as much food in its shops and restaurants than is actually required to keep the population alive. That is a huge opportunity to save money, save resources, save impact on the environment. We're gonna start with portion sizes and we're gonna move up to the farms. We're gonna cause a food waste revolution here in America, we're coming soon. Thank you very much. ( applause ) Boyd: Excellent. And now Shivani Bhalla from our Big Cats initiative in Kenya. Shivani: In under a century we have lost over 90 percent of our planet's lions. Where I'm from in Kenya the situation is just as serious. We have only two thousand lions left in our country. We work to try and understand why this is happening. Lions are running out of space. They also come in to contact with people. The local people, whose livelihoods depend on their livestock, are often targeted by lions. In Samburu, in northern Kenya where I live, our population has grown from 11 lions to over 50 now as a result of conservation efforts. I work with a team and our mission is to promote the co-existence between lions and people in northern Kenya. We do this through a number of community programs. One of which is our warrior program known as Warrior Watch. Here in this picture you see three of the warriors I work with. Previously neglected when it came to conservation, these warriors are now wildlife ambassadors. They're engaged in conservation. We have 16 warriors now working in the region. When we started the program, we asked the warriors what would you like in exchange for all this great wildlife information that you give us? And they said, we would like education. We have never been to school. These are young men aged between 15 to 25, who've never had that opportunity to go and learn how to read and write. We've now changed this. And over the last five years all 17 of our warriors can read and write, both in English and the national language, Kiswahili. This picture was taken a couple of weeks ago at our annual lion kids camp. They've never seen a lion. They've only heard negative experiences with lions. They'd seen the remains of a camel after a lion had preyed on them. But we changed that, we took these kids to see their first ever lion. And their faces say it all. As they saw their first lion they whispered to me, Simba Simba. ( laughter ) And this is what gives me hope for the future. Thank you. ( applause ) Boyd: And now Jack Andraka, our inventor. Jack: So I suppose my story really began when I was 13, when a close family friend, who was like an uncle to me, actually passed away from pancreatic cancer. And when the disease hit so close to home, I knew I needed to learn more. So I went online to find answers and what I had found really shocked me. You see 85 percent of all pancreatic cancers are diagnosed late, when someone has less than a two percent chance of survival. And as I looked deeper, I found an even more shocking statistic. You see there is currently no standard way for detecting pancreatic cancer. Our conventional method is the 60 year old technique. I mean first off that's older than my dad... ( laughter ) ...but also it costs $800 per test and it's grossly inaccurate, missing 30 percent of all cancers and thus is rarely ever used for screening of pancreatic cancer. So armed with eighth grade biology, I decided to set out to change the field of cancer diagnostics. ( laughter ) Bit lofty of a goal but I was going to do it. And so essentially what I did is I stumbled across how we are currently diagnosing these cancers and what we're doing is we're looking at your blood stream particularly for these variations in protein levels and while it sounds extremely straightforward, it's anything but because you have liters and liters of blood which is about an innumerable numbers of these proteins. So it's like trying to find a needle in a stack of nearly identical needles. However, undeterred due to my teenage optimism or how some people label it, complete and utter ignorance of the entire field, I continued on and I essentially found a database of 8000 proteins that are found in your bloodstream when you have these cancers. Essentially I found this one protein that I could use called mesothelin and it's just your ordinary run of the mill type protein, unless of course you have pancreatic, ovarian or lung cancer. In which case it's found in these very high levels in your blood stream.