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  • In August 1947, India gained independence after 200 years of British rule.

    1947 年 8 月、インドは 200 年にわたる英国の支配を経て独立を果たした。

  • What followed was one of the largest and bloodiest forced migrations in history: an estimated one million people lost their lives.

    その後、史上最大かつ最も血なまぐさい強制移住が行われ、100 万人が命を落としたと言われている。

  • Before British colonization, the Indian subcontinent was a patchwork of regional kingdoms known as princely states, populated by Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians, Parsis, and Jews.


  • Each princely state had its own traditions, caste backgrounds, and leadership.


  • Starting in the 1500s, a series of European powers colonized India with coastal trading settlements.

    1500 年代以降、ヨーロッパの列強が相次いでインドを植民地化し、沿岸部に交易のための入植地を設けました。

  • By the mid-18th century, the English East India Company emerged as the primary colonial power in India. The British ruled some provinces directly and ruled the princely states indirectly.

    18 世紀半ばになると、イギリスの東インド会社がインドにおける主要な植民地勢力として出現してきた。イギリスはいくつかの州を直接統治し、侯国には間接統治を行いました。

  • Under indirect rule, the princely states remained sovereign but made political and financial concessions to the British.


  • In the 19th century, the British began to categorize Indians by religious identity — a gross simplification of the communities in India.

    19 世紀、イギリスはインド人を宗教で分類し始めたが、これはインドのコミュニティを著しく単純化したものでありました。

  • They counted Hindus as "majorities" and all other religious communities as distinct "minorities," with Muslims being the largest minority.


  • Sikhs were considered part of the Hindu community by everyone but themselves.


  • In elections, people could only vote for candidates of their own religious identification; these practices exaggerated differences, sowing distrust between communities that had previously co-existed.


  • The 20th century began with decades of anti-colonial movements, where Indians fought for independence from Britain.

    20 世紀は、インド人がイギリスからの独立を求めて戦う、数十年にわたる反植民地運動から始まりました。

  • In the aftermath of World War II, under enormous financial strain from the war, Britain finally caved.


  • Indian political leaders had differing views on what an independent India should look like.


  • Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru represented the Hindu majority and wanted one united India.


  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who led the Muslim minority, thought the rifts created by colonization were too deep to repair. Jinnah argued for a two-nation division where Muslims would have a homeland called Pakistan.


  • Following riots in 1946 and 1947, the British expedited their retreat, planning Indian independence behind closed doors.

    1946 年、1947 年の暴動を受け、イギリスは撤退を早め、密かにインド独立を計画しました。

  • In June 1947, the British viceroy announced that India would gain independence by August, and be partitioned into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistanbut gave little explanation of how exactly this would happen.

    1947 年6月、イギリスの総督は、8月までにインドが独立し、ヒンドゥー教のインドとイスラム教のパキスタンに分割されると発表しましたが、具体的にどうなるかはほとんど説明されませんでした。

  • Using outdated maps, inaccurate census numbers, and minimal knowledge of the land, in a mere five weeks, the Boundary Committee drew a border dividing three provinces under direct British rule: Bengal, Punjab, and Assam.


  • The border took into account where Hindus and Muslims were majorities, but also factors like location and population percentages.


  • So if a Hindu majority area bordered another Hindu majority area, it would be included in India, but if a Hindu majority area bordered Muslim majority areas, it might become part of Pakistan.


  • Princely states on the border had to choose which of the new nations to join, losing their sovereignty in the process.


  • While the Boundary Committee worked on the new map, Hindus and Muslims began moving to areas where they thought they'd be a part of the religious majoritybut they couldn't be sure. Families divided themselves.


  • Fearing sexual violence, parents sent young daughters and wives to regions they perceived to be safe.


  • The new map wasn't revealed until August 17th, 1947 — two days after independence.


  • The provinces of Punjab and Bengal became the geographically separated East and West Pakistan; the rest became Hindu-majority India.


  • In a period of two years, millions of Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan left for India, while Muslims living in India fled villages where their families had lived for centuries.


  • The cities of Lahore, Delhi, Calcutta, Dhaka, and Karachi emptied of old residents and filled with refugees.


  • In the power vacuum British forces left behind, radicalized militias and local groups massacred migrants.


  • Much of the violence occurred in Punjab, and women bore the brunt of it, suffering rape and mutilation. Around 100,000 women were kidnapped and forced to marry their captors.


  • The problems created by Partition went far beyond this immediate deadly aftermath: many families who made temporary moves became permanently displaced, and borders continue to be disputed.


  • In 1971, East Pakistan seceded and became the new country of Bangladesh, meanwhile, the Hindu ruler of Kashmir decided to join India — a decision that was to be finalized by a public referendum of the majority Muslim population.

    1971 年、東パキスタンは分離独立し、バングラデシュという新しい国になった。一方、カシミール地方のヒンドゥー教徒の支配者はインドへの加盟を決め、その決定は、大多数のイスラム教徒の住民投票によって最終決定されることになりました。

  • That referendum still hasn't happened as of 2020, and India and Pakistan have been warring over Kashmir since 1947.

    その住民投票は 2020 年現在も行われておらず、インドとパキスタンは 1947 年以来カシミール地方をめぐって戦争をしています。

  • More than 70 years later, the legacies of the Partition remain clear in the subcontinent: in its new political formations and in the memories of divided families.


In August 1947, India gained independence after 200 years of British rule.

1947 年 8 月、インドは 200 年にわたる英国の支配を経て独立を果たした。

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    Minjane に公開 2022 年 05 月 18 日