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  • On a small island in the middle of the Irish Sea, fortresses preside over the rugged shores.


  • This unlikely location was the birthplace of a medieval empire that lasted 200 years, ruled by a dynasty of sea kings.

    このありそうもない場所は、200 年間続いた中世の帝国の発祥の地であり、海王の王朝によって支配されていました。

  • The first of these kings was Godred Crovan, a notorious warlord descended from Irish and Viking rulers.


  • Starting in 1079, Godred consolidated power over the Isle of Man and the Hebrides, a collection of islands off the west coast of Scotland.

    1079 年以降、ゴッドレッドはマン島とスコットランド西岸のヘブリディーズ諸島に対する権力を強化しました。

  • He seized control of important sea routes between the British Isles, Scandinavia, and the North Atlantic.


  • A turbulent period followed Godred's death, characterised by invasions from Norway and Ireland, and intense feuding between princes.


  • But his descendants held on to power, building coastal fortresses, roving the seaways, throwing themselves into epic battles, and consolidating control over an impressive maritime kingdom.


  • The inhabitants of this kingdom had both Gaelic and Norse roots, and many probably spoke both languages.


  • Those on the Isle of Man were known as the Manx people, while those in the Hebrides were known as Islanders or People of the Isles.


  • Though we still don't know for sure how many there were, we do know this relatively small group had an outsize impact on the region.


  • Perched on cliffs with sweeping views and safe harbors, seaside fortresses helped the kings control shipping, commerce, and resources.


  • The empire commanded vast fleets of Viking-style long ships, which they used for trading, raiding, and plundering the seas.


  • Observing this prowess, many neighboring rulers sought their aid.


  • The brothers Rognvald and Olaf each solved neighbors' maritime woes: King Rognvald supplied military assistance to the Scottish king, and King Olaf's forces served as a Coast Guard at the English King Henry III's requestfor a hefty fee.

    ラグンヴァルドとオラフの兄弟は、それぞれ隣国の海運の悩みを解決しました。ラグンヴァルド王はスコットランド王を軍事的に支援し、オラフ王の軍隊は英国王ヘンリー 3 世の要請に応じて沿岸警備隊を務め、高額の報酬を得ました。

  • The sea kings also sparred with their powerful neighbors, but they had a particularly bitter rivalry with another dynasty in their own isles: a line of rulers in the Hebrides.


  • In the 1150s, a chieftain of this line, Somerled, defeated the Manx King, his brother-in-law, in a naval battle and formed a rival Kingdom of the Isles, fracturing the old kingdom.

    1150 年代、この家系の族長サマレッドは海戦で義理の兄弟であるマンクス王を打ち負かし、ライバルのアイルズ王国を形成し、旧王国を崩壊させました。

  • This began a century-long rivalry between Somerled's line, who ruled the southern and central Hebrides, and the Manx Kings, who ruled the Isle of Man and northern Hebrides, to control the seaways.

    これにより、南ヘブリディーズ諸島と中央ヘブリディーズ諸島を支配したサマレッドの血統と、マン島と北ヘブリディーズ諸島を支配したマンクス王との間で、海路を支配するための 100 年にわたる競争が始まりました。

  • Family feuds often blossomed into bitter civil wars.


  • In 1223, King Rognvald sent a letter to his son commanding him to murder his uncle Olaf.


  • When Olaf discovered the plot, he launched a vicious attack on his nephew, blinding and mutilating him.


  • After Rognvald's death several years later, people realized the letter ordering the attack might have been forged.


  • The Manx kings attempted to resolve disagreements at Tynwald, an open-air parliament centered on a mound, where assemblies ruled on matters of justice and other issues.


  • Such sites were commonly used in the Viking world for resolving anything from local disputes to matters involving kings.


  • These meetings didn't always go smoothlysometimes violence erupted, and in 1237, two rival factions squabbled to the point of breaking up the assembly at Tynwald.

    しかし、このような会議はいつもスムーズにいくわけではなく、時には暴力沙汰に発展することもあり、1237年には2つの派閥が対立し タインワルドの集会が壊されるほどでした。

  • The four-tiered mound at Tynwald survives to this day, and the modern Manx parliament still holds an annual meeting there.


  • In 1248, King Harald of Man died in a shipwreck and was succeeded by his brother.


  • Weeks into the new king's reign, a rebel knight assassinated him.


  • His brother Magnus died in 1265 at Castle Rushenwithout an heir.


  • According to one scribe, his death marked the day that "kings ceased to reign in Man."

    ある書記によれば、彼の死は、その日を境に 「王が人類を支配することをやめた」を意味しました。

  • Scotland annexed Man and the Isles the next year, in 1266.


  • We know about the exploits of the sea kings primarily from a chronicle written by Christian scribes living on the Isle of Man, and from the praise poems composed to celebrate the kings' victories.


  • Today, although the sea kings are long gone, their presence remains etched onto the landscape.


On a small island in the middle of the Irish Sea, fortresses preside over the rugged shores.


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    Minjane に公開 2022 年 08 月 21 日