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  • Why do we like some foods more than others?


  • What is it about burgers and cakes that we crave?


  • And what is happening in our brains when we choose what to eat?


  • If you hopped into an MRI machine and were offered a delicious chocolate milkshake, you would see your brain's reward system light up like a funfair.

    もし、あなたがMRIの機械に飛び込んで、提供されたとしたら美味しいチョコレートミルクセーキです。 を見ると、脳の報酬系が遊園地のように明るくなるのがわかります。

  • Right above your eyes is your orbitofrontal cortex, a part of the brain which is especially developed in humans and primates.

    目のすぐ上には眼窩前頭葉があります。脳の中で特に発達した部分 ヒトと霊長類で

  • Here, bundles of neurons respond to different sensations and nutrients - taste, smell, how smooth and rich the milkshake feels - and the more your neurons light up, the more delicious the food seems.

    ここでは、神経細胞の束が、さまざまな感覚や栄養素に反応します。味、香り、ミルクセーキの滑らかさと濃厚さを感じることができます。 と、神経細胞が光れば光るほど、食べ物が美味しく感じられるようになります。

  • Two things which particularly delight these reward neurons are fat and sugar.


  • Combinations of fat and sugar can be even more delightful, such as in that delicious milkshake, or cakes, or doughnuts.


  • But your neurons don't just respond to these sensations, they also activate when you're planning what to eat in a contest with each other to get you to choose them.

    しかし、神経細胞はこれらの感覚に反応するだけではありません。また、何を食べようかと考えているときにも起動します。 あなたに選んでもらうために、お互いに競い合っているのです。

  • Pick me.” says silky smooth mouth feel.

    "Pick me. "と言うと、シルクのような滑らかな口当たり。

  • No! Me!” shouts sugary sweetness.


  • You never pick me.” quietly mumbles the smell of broccoli.

    "You never pick me. "と静かにつぶやくのは、ブロッコリーの香り。

  • And once you have chosen, the same neurons track your progress, and as you eat, they get less and less active as you approach fullness.


  • But we're not entirely at the mercy of the demands of our orbitofrontal cortex.


  • Having information about the food can make a big difference.


  • Hop back into that MRI machine and slurp down some soup.


  • There are two types - one is labelled 'rich and delicious flavor', and the other is labelled 'boiled vegetable water'.


  • Your neurons light up at the taste of 'rich and delicious', and less for 'boiled vegetable water'.


  • But wait a minute, you've been tricked! Those were both the same soup.


  • The only difference was the name and that was enough to completely change your experience of it.


  • This experiment was also done with wine - telling people that the wine cost more made their neuron activity increase and the wine tasted better.

    この実験はワインでも行われました。ワインの値段が高いことを伝える その結果、ニューロンの活動が活発になり、ワインが美味しくなりました。

  • Another part of the brain involved in choosing food is the amygdala.


  • The amygdala also has a role to play when you choose where to go out with another person.


  • If you've seen what they prefer in the past, your amygdala will have developed so-called simulation neurons.


  • These predict the choice you think they will make which you can then factor into your own suggestions of what to eat together.

    相手が選ぶであろう選択肢を予測するそれを自分の提案に反映させることができます。 一緒に何を食べようか?

  • Differences in our genes are also a factor in how susceptible we are to the siren call of our reward neurons, with some people being naturally more responsive to the reward we feel from eating sugar and fat than others.

    遺伝子の違いも影響しています。報酬ニューロンのサイレン・コールに合わせて 人によっては、もともと反応が良い人もいます。 は、糖分や脂肪分を食べたときに感じる報酬を、他の人よりも高く設定しています。

  • Scientific experiments give us clues about how our brains compute our choices of what to eat, but the way we experience these choices in our lives and in society is also complex.

    科学実験がヒントになる私たちの脳が、何を食べるかという選択をどのように計算しているかについて。 しかし、その選択を人生や社会の中でどのように経験するかは も複雑です。

  • Dr. Emily Contois, Assistant Professor of Media Studies, gives her take.

    メディア研究の助教授であるEmily Contois博士の意見です。

  • We choose the food we eat for a lot of different reasons:

    私たちが食べ物を選ぶのには、さまざまな理由があります。What's available at the grocery store?便利なものは?

  • What's available at the grocery store? What's convenient?

  • What's affordable? What do we have good memories about?


  • What tastes good to us? What do we think is healthy?


  • What is our current health status?


  • What defines our ideas about who we are?


  • So when we think about food in the digital age, one of the biggest things that has changed the way people eat and the kinds of foods that they are seeking out are social media platforms.

    そこで、デジタル時代の食を考えると人々の食生活を変えた最大の要因の一つは そして、彼らが求めている食品の種類は はソーシャル・メディア・プラットフォームです。

  • Instagram, and the desire for people to be able to take beautiful food photos, has transformed the idea that you are what you eat into you are what you post.

    インスタグラム、そして人々の欲求を満たすためには美しい料理の写真 は、「あなたはあなたの食べるものである」という考えを変えました。 には、「you are what you post」という言葉があります。

  • So we seek a lot of different things from the food that we eat.


  • We can seek comfort, we can seek a connection to history, to our families, to our heritage.


  • But we can also seek in it a sense of control.


  • When we live in moments that are full of economic, political and social strife, sometimes we seek in food that sense of security and safety.

    という瞬間に生きていると経済的、政治的、社会的な争いに満ちていた。 私たちは食べ物に安心感や安全性を求めることがあります。

  • So in those moments, we sometimes see people get really interested in ideas about naturalness, health and purity, as a way to protect ourselves from contexts outside of our control.

    そのような時には、人を見ることもあります。は、自然さや健康、純粋さなどの考え方にとても興味があります。 自分の力ではどうにもならない状況から自分を守るための手段として。

  • So food also tells stories about who we are. The full complexity of our identity.


  • What we eat tells stories about our gender and our sexuality, our race and our ethnicity, our social class, or our aspirations about our social class, the region where we live, even whether we live in an urban or a rural area.

    私たちが食べるものは、私たちのジェンダーやセクシュアリティを物語っています。私たちの人種、民族、社会階級。 あるいは、自分の社会階級についての願望。 私たちの住む地域の 都会に住んでいようが、田舎に住んでいようが関係ありません。

  • What we eat tells these contradictory, complex stories about who we are.


  • In the future, we can use our knowledge of what is happening in our brains to design foods that are low in calories and are still attractive, but healthy.

    将来的には、これまでの知識を脳の中で何が起こっているかを把握して、食品をデザインする。 カロリーが低く、魅力的でありながらヘルシーなもの。

  • And we can help ourselves by understanding how our reward neurons plot to get what they want.


  • We can be aware of times that we tend to make poor choices, like when we choose a food because of some label which appeals to us, rather than because of its taste.

    私たちは、間違った選択をしがちな時期を自覚することができます。何かのラベルを見て食べ物を選ぶのと同じように それは、味ではなく、私たちの心に訴えるものです。

  • So in the end, we are at least not fully at the mercy of our reward neurons.


  • We can use our understanding to help design healthy foods and make healthy choices.


Why do we like some foods more than others?



動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 ニューロン 報酬 食べ物 食べる 扁桃 選択

ドーナツが我慢できない理由を科学的に解明|BBC Ideas (The science behind why doughnuts are so hard to resist | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer に公開 2021 年 07 月 08 日