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  • [narrator] Turn on a faucet and clean water rushes out,

    蛇口をひねれば水が出る

  • as much as we want, anytime we want.

    いつでも 欲しい時に

  • It's easy to forget that the quest for this

    忘れがちですが これは大変な苦労の賜物

  • has been one of the defining struggles of human history.

    水を制した文明は栄え ―

  • Civilizations that harnessed water, thrived.

    失敗すると滅びました

  • The ones that failed... fell.

    現在 人類の7割が ―

  • Today, seven in ten people on Earth

    家で水道を使えます

  • can count on having running water in their homes.

    水は川から主管に流れ ―

  • [man] The water flows from the risers to connecting mains,

    排水管で各建物に 届けられます

  • and finally through service connections into each building on the street.

    でも実態は…

  • [narrator] At least, so they think.

    ケープタウンで 水がなくなるかも

  • Cape Town. It could become the first major city in the world

    ケープタウンでは 水道水の枯渇デイ・ゼロが間近です

  • to run out of water.

    あと92日で水道水の 供給が止まるかも

  • Cape Town, South Africa, is inching closer now to Day Zero.

    原因は干ばつです

  • Just 92 days away from having to shut off most water taps

    ケープタウンは 大都市で初めて ―

  • because of a severe drought.

    水道供給の停止を計画

  • [narrator] Cape Town is the first major city in the world

    400万人の人が 水の配給を受けるために ―

  • to plan to indefinitely shut off its water supply.

    長い列に並ぶことになります

  • Four million people would stop getting running water.

    他にも ―

  • They'd get water rations,

    サンパウロ メルボルン ジャカルタ ロンドン

  • and they'd need to line up at city water stations to get it.

    北京 イスタンブール 東京 バンガロール

  • And it's not just Cape Town.

    バルセロナ メキシコシティで ―

  • São Paulo, Melbourne, Jakarta, London,

    約20年で 水が枯渇すると予想され ―

  • Beijing, Istanbul, Tokyo, Bangalore,

    根本的な変革が必要です

  • Barcelona and Mexico City

    アミナ・モハメッド 国連事務副総長

  • will all face their own Day Zero in the next few decades,

    水道のおかげで 多くの人が―

  • unless their water use radically changes.

    水は無限に使えると 思いがち

  • There are perceptions that it is there in bountiful amounts

    それが問題です

  • and everyone has access to it because you can turn a tap,

    実際は 2040年までに 世界の大部分が水不足に

  • and that's a big problem.

    世界的危機であり 深刻化している

  • [narrator] In fact, by 2040

    ベッツィ・オットー 水資源専門家 今すでに 分岐点に来ていて―

  • most of the world won't have enough water to meet demand year-round.

    放っておけば 手に負えなくなる

  • We're facing a global water crisis and it's getting worse.

    水に代替品はなく枯渇すれば 人は数日で死にます

  • We're at a real inflection point where, if we're not careful,

    なぜ こんな事態に なったのでしょう?

  • we may actually get out ahead of our ability to manage it.

    世界はどうなって いくのでしょうか?

  • [narrator] There's no substitute for water.

    水道が自然を制しました

  • Each of us will die in just a few days without it.

    一部の投資家にとって―

  • How have we built a world

    これは黄金の液体です

  • where we don't have enough of its most valuable resource?

    今すぐ 汚染を止めろ

  • And as this crisis grows,

    水は今や商品となり 新たな価値がつく

  • what will the new world look like?

    水を空気のように 自明と思っていいのか?

  • [man] Waterways, built by the people

    世界の水危機

  • to free the land of the tyranny of nature.

    青い惑星 地球

  • For some investors, what they see in this glass

    水はふんだんにあります その量は3.26億兆ガロン

  • is liquid gold.

    過去も未来もずっと

  • Clean water. Now.

    氷や水蒸気になっても 地球上に存在します

  • [crowd chants]

    地球上のすべての水のうち ―

  • -[in Spanish] In defense of water. -[man 2] Water becomes a commodity.

    97%は海水で 2%は南極と北極の氷

  • It takes on new value.

    つまり人類が使えるのは 残りの1%だけ

  • People claim it, haul it, treasure it.

    水不足の話で 焦点になるのは―

  • [man 3] Dare we take our water supply for granted as we do the air we breathe?

    その1%の水が 使えるかっていうこと

  • [narrator] Earth is the blue planet.

    答えは場所によります

  • There's no shortage of waterWe have 326 million trillion gallons of it.

    クエートは 水が最も少ない国の一つ

  • Always have, always will.

    最も豊富な国の一つ カナダには ―

  • Water may freeze into ice or evaporate into air,

    なんと その1万倍の 水があります

  • but it doesn't leave our planet.

    もう一つ大事なのは ―

  • If you sucked up all the water on Earth, it would fit into this sphere.

    液状の淡水1%

  • But 97% of it is salty and 2% is trapped in ice at the poles,

    地下にあり 汲み上げが困難なことです

  • so all of humankind relies on just 1% of that water to survive.

    そのため人類の大半は 水や湖のそばに住むように

  • When people talk about running out of water,

    人口の約9割が 淡水から 10キロ以内に住んでいます

  • what they really mean is,

    アステカ人が湖のそばに 定住しメキシコシティに

  • do they have access to that very small percentage?

    これは その頃の 運河の名残です

  • [narrator] And the answer depends a lot on where you live.

    16世紀に スペイン人が上陸し ―

  • Kuwait is one of the poorest countries in terms of water per capita,

    水に浮かぶ街の 魔法のような景色に ―

  • and Canada, one of the richest, doesn't have twice as much

    魅了されました

  • or even ten times as much. It has 10,000 times as much.

    その後スペイン人が 湖を干拓し ―

  • But it also matters where the water is.

    空いた場所に 人が住むように

  • That 1% of Earth's water that we all rely on,

    地表水はメキシコでも ―

  • most of it is underground and really difficult and expensive to get to,

    貴重な資源として 扱われました

  • so humans have mostly settled close to surface water, like rivers and lakes.

    1950年以降 メキシコシティの人口は急増

  • Around 90% of the world's population

    現在では2200万人に

  • lives less than ten kilometers from a freshwater source.

    メキシコシティにとって 最大の危機の一つは―

  • Hundreds of years ago, when the Aztecs settled on what is now Mexico City,

    水問題だ

  • they saw a giant lake.

    ロンドンより 降水量が多いのに ―

  • These are the last remnants of the canals they made.

    今や雨水が集まる 湖がないため ―

  • When the Spanish came in the 16th century,

    洪水が起きます

  • one soldier marveled at the Aztec city rising from the water

    同時に 他の地域から 水を引いたり ―

  • that seemed like an enchanted vision.

    地下水も汲み上げます

  • But then the Spanish started draining the lake,

    地下水の汲み上げ技術は 進歩しました

  • and over the next few centuries that space was filled by people.

    でも問題も

  • Like in most places, surface water in Mexico

    帯水層と呼ばれる この水源は―

  • was treated as a public resource, key to development.

    蓄積に何千年もの時間が かかります

  • And since 1950, Mexico City's population has exploded.

    地下水は定期預金に似てる

  • It's now home to 22 million people.

    本当に必要な時に 利用するものよ

  • I would say some of the most important threats

    ところがメキシコシティは…

  • for Mexico City are related to water.

    水供給の約5割を 帯水層からまかなっている

  • [narrator] Mexico City gets more rain than notoriously rainy London.

    つまり今後30~50年で その5割の水を失う

  • But the lakes that would have collected that water are long gone,

    もう一つの副作用は ―

  • so the city floods.

    土壌の圧縮です

  • But they still need to pipe in

    メキシコシティは 沈みつつあり ―

  • most of their water from other parts of Mexico.

    年間 約23センチ沈む地域も

  • Or they pump it from underground.

    NASAの衛星から インド北部の帯水層が ―

  • We've gotten a lot better at accessing groundwater.

    10年で 29兆ガロン 減ったことがわかります

  • But there's a catch.

    人口増加が その理由

  • Those water deposits, called aquifers, have accumulated over millennia

    水の消費は今世紀で7倍に

  • and they'll take millennia to fill back up.

    川や湖を満たし 農業に 不可欠な雨や雪の量も ―

  • Groundwater is sort of like the savings account,

    より不安定に

  • which it's fine to draw on sometimes, especially when you have a drought.

    気候変動で使える水が減り―

  • [narrator] That's not what Mexico City's been doing.

    世界中で 非常に長い 干ばつが起きている

  • We take out from the local aquifer around 50% of our water supply.

    問題は 人口増加だけではなく ―

  • That means that probably we'll lose half of our supply of water

    使い方にも

  • in the next 30-50 years.

    人が1日に飲む水は 約3.8リットル

  • [narrator] Sucking up that groundwater has another side effect.

    歯磨きや手洗いにも 約3.8リットル

  • It compresses the soil.

    今ので約11リットル

  • Mexico City is literally sinking.

    でも個人の使用は ―

  • In some places, as much as nine inches a year.

    世界の淡水利用の 約8%にすぎません

  • NASA satellite data shows aquifers in northern India

    大部分は農業と工業に 費やされます

  • decreasing by 29 trillion gallons in just a decade.

    コカコーラを作るのに 必要な水の98%は―

  • There are simply more people on Earth consuming more water.

    この瓶には入ってない

  • This century, water consumption has increased sevenfold.

    必要な水の98%は 材料を作るために使われる

  • And the rain and snow that we count on to water crops and refill lakes and rivers

    ビール1杯には 74リットルの水が

  • is getting less reliable.

    コーヒーには130リットル

  • [Otto] Climate change is making available water much more erratic.

    綿のシャツには 2500リットル必要です

  • We're seeing areas around the world

    でも一番 水を使うのは肉

  • that are experiencing much more extended dry periods.

    ウシの飼料にする アルファルファは ―

  • [narrator] But the problem isn't just that there's more people on Earth using water,

    1キロ育てるのに 510リットル必要です

  • it's how we're using water.

    ウシはこれを 1日12キロ食べるので ―

  • Humans need to drink almost a gallon of water per day.

    計算すると ―

  • Brushing your teeth, washing your hands typically uses about a gallon.

    ハンバーガー1個で 1650リットルの水が必要に

  • [flushes]

    世界の食文化は米国化し ―

  • There goes three gallons.

    肉の消費量が増えています

  • But the drinking, washing and toilet flushing

    でも完全に米国化するには ―

  • of every person on Earth only accounts for 8% of our freshwater use each year.

    水の量が足りません

  • Most of the water goes to agriculture and industry,

    水は資本主義の原則に 当てはまりません

  • and into the food and products we use.

    農家が払うお金はわずか

  • Let's take a bottle of Coca-Cola.

    水の費用は バーガーには含まれず ―

  • 98% of the water in that bottle

    バーガーは 安い価格で売られます

  • is not what you see in that bottle.

    驚きの 99セント

  • 98% of the water is actually embedded in all the ingredients that were grown

    たった2ドル 99!

  • to make that bottle of Coca-Cola.

    世界の大部分で ―

  • [narrator] 74 liters of water goes into every glass of beer.

    水の価格は非常に低いため ―

  • A cup of coffee? 130 liters.

    ムダ使いが増えてしまいます

  • Each of your cotton shirts - 2,500 liters.

    南カリフォルニアでは 年間2兆ガロンが ―

  • But nothing has as much embedded water as meat.

    アルファルファ栽培に 使われます

  • Alfalfa is a common ingredient in cattle feed,

    水源はコロラド川

  • and growing a kilogram of it takes 510 liters of water.

    水代は輸送費より安価です

  • An average cow consumes about 12 kilograms of feed a day.

    南アフリカのワイン産業が 使う水のごく一部で ―

  • Divided up,

    ケープタウンの 水道水が 賄まかなえます

  • just one quarter-pound hamburger takes around 1,650 liters of water to produce.

    インドと中国は 水が大量に要る穀物を ―

  • The world is eating more and more like Americans.

    乾燥地帯で育てています

  • Higher calorie diets with more meat.

    水不足が これを変えるかも

  • But everyone can't eat like Americans.

    ゴールドマンサックスは ―

  • There actually isn't enough water in the world.

    “水は21世紀の 石油になる”と予想

  • Water doesn't abide by some of the basic rules of capitalism.

    ヘッジファンド等が 水の買い占めを始め ―

  • Farmers hardly pay anything for it.

    利益目的で利用する懸念も 高まっています 〝次の希少資源で稼ぐには〞

  • So the true cost of water doesn't end up in the cost of the burger.

    〝モハーベ砂漠で 水億万長者になる計画〞 まるで映画「007」の悪役が 現実になったよう

  • Which is why those fast food places can offer you bargain burgers.

    現時点で―

  • [man 1] How can it be 99 cents?

    我々はボリビアの水の 60%を手中に収めている

  • [man 2] For only 2.99. You heard right: 2.99.

    新政府の水道事業を 一手に担うことになる

  • [narrator] In most places in the world,

    でも 価格上昇にはいい面も

  • water is treated and priced like there will always be enough of it.

    水の価格が上がってコストを 気にするようになれば―

  • So we end up using it in absurdly wasteful ways.

    砂漠でアルファルファは 栽培しない

  • Arid Southern California uses over two trillion gallons of water a year

    この点を覚えておいて下さい

  • to grow alfalfa, which they get from the Colorado River,

    乾燥地域で 農業を営んだら―

  • hundreds of miles away.

    赤字になる

  • The amount they pay for it doesn't even cover the cost of delivery.

    おそらく世界の 灌漑かんがい農地の 95%が ―

  • Just a fraction of the water used by South Africa's wine industry

    非効率な灌漑技術の使用を ―

  • would be enough for Cape Town's taps.

    やめるでしょう

  • India and China both grow their most water-intensive crops

    政府も 投資を最大限に 活かすため ―

  • in some of their driest regions.

    水インフラを修繕するはず

  • But as water gets more scarce, that may change.

    現状ではインフラの維持に 必要な―

  • The bank Goldman Sachs predicted that water would be

    投資が有効にできてない

  • the petroleum of the 21st century.

    その結果 排水の途中で 水道の42%が―

  • And private interests, like hedge funds, have started buying up water,

    漏れてしまっている

  • prompting fears that they'll take advantage of scarcity to turn a profit.

    街の存続が危ぶまれる中 ―

  • And if that sounds like a villain's plot in a James Bond movie,

    飲料水の半分が 漏れているのです

  • that's because it was.

    下水と農業 工業の排水は ―

  • As of this moment,

    1日200万トンに上ります

  • my organization owns more than 60% of Bolivia's water supply.

    水がどれほど貴重なものか 価値が全く理解されてない

  • This contract states that your new government...

    なくなって初めて その価値に気づく

  • will use us as utilities provider.

    2017年 メヒカリ市は ―

  • [narrator] But putting a higher price on water might have benefits.

    コンステレーション・ ブランズ社と契約

  • The benefit of valuing water as we should

    人気ビールのメーカーが ―

  • and sending, you know, a price signal,

    醸造所を造ることに

  • is that we wouldn't be growing alfalfa in the desert.

    地域で最大規模の 投資で ―

  • [narrator] Remember that point. It'll be important later.

    750件の雇用が生まれます

  • We wouldn't be growing crops that don't make sense in really arid places.

    市は対価として 大量の水供給を保証

  • Because the economics of it wouldn't make sense.

    でも市の水資源に問題が

  • [narrator] And 95% of the irrigated farmland in the world

    主な供給源のコロラド川は―

  • probably wouldn't use the most inefficient irrigation method...

    ロッキー山脈の 雪解け水が水源です

  • just flooding the fields.

    でも近年 気温の上昇で 降雪が減り水量が低下

  • And if water had a higher price,

    水面の 跡あとからも明らかです

  • governments might decide it's worth the money

    コロラド川は南に流れ ―

  • to repair our water infrastructure.

    デンヴァー ソルトレイクシティ

  • [Kramer] We are not investing the financial resources needed

    ラスベガス フェニックス LA等を通ります

  • to make a good maintenance of the system.

    そして約600エーカーの 農地も

  • One critical result of this is that we have 42% of leakages

    メリカリ市に着く頃には ―

  • in the water network.

    こんな風に

  • [narrator] Mexico City, which is facing an existential water crisis,

    <水不足が始まったのは ずっと前だ>

  • loses close to half of its drinking water to leaky pipes.

    <醸造所が稼働を 始めたら―>

  • We value water so little,

    サルヴァドール&ローラ メナ・ガルシア 農民

  • we dump two million tons

    <数年で 地下水が尽きる>

  • of sewage and agricultural and industrial waste into it every day.

    <一番 損害を受けるのは 農民よ>

  • There's no sense of value

    <彼らの年間使用料は 2千万立法メートル>

  • to what is really an incredibly invaluable resource in water.

    <例えば エンセナーダ市は―>

  • But then when we run out, we find what the cost of water truly is.

    <年間900万立法メートル 使うけど―>

  • [yelling]

    <その倍以上だ>

  • [speaking Spanish]

    <街1つの倍だよ>

  • [narrator] In 2017,

    水が希少になるほど 競争が激しくなり ―

  • the city of Mexicali finalized a deal with Constellation Brands,

    勝者と敗者が生まれます

  • the maker of Modelo and Corona beers,

    決めるのは政府

  • to construct a brewery.

    2018年7月 ―

  • It would be the biggest investment the region had seen in years,

    メキシコ政府は法令を発布

  • creating 750 permanent jobs.

    コンステレーション・ ブランズのような企業が ―

  • And, in exchange, the brewery was guaranteed a lot of water.

    水を確保しやすくなりました

  • But Mexicali doesn't have a lot of water to spare.

    <強盗と同じだ>

  • Its main water source is the Colorado River,

    <メキシコ国民と 世界に向けた警告でもある>

  • which starts in Colorado, in the U.S.

    <世界中の多くの人が―>

  • Fed by melting snow in the Rocky Mountains,

    <企業だけが潤うような 私有化の流れと戦ってる>

  • warmer temperatures in recent years have meant less snow,

    2018年1月 ―

  • which means less river.

    工事を阻むために 人々が集まりました

  • You can tell how much less by that big bathtub ring.

    <あの道路に 大勢の警察が―>

  • The river flows south, quenching a few American cities along the way,

    <盾を持って集まり 隊列を組んだ>

  • like Denver, Salt Lake City,

    <彼女はパイプを持って 向かって行った>

  • Las Vegas, Phoenix and Los Angeles.

    <水を守らなきゃ>

  • Oh, and almost six million acres of farmland.

    <水がなきゃ生きられない>

  • By the time the Colorado River reaches Mexicali,

    <何よりも大切なものよ>

  • it looks like this.

    水不足が世界中で 暴力的な対立を呼んでいます

  • [man, in Spanish] It's been a long time since we've had enough water.

    私が切迫した状況を 目にしたのは―

  • If the brewery settles in and starts producing,

    ナイジェリアの北東部

  • in a few years, we'll run out of underground water.

    ここ数年で チャド湖が干上がり―

  • [in Spanish] The farmers are the ones who get the worst of it.

    生活ができなくなって 対立が始まった

  • [in Spanish] They need 20 million cubic meters per year.

    政府も制御できないほどに

  • If we compare that to, say, cities such as Ensenada,

    水不足はダルフール紛争の 原因にも

  • which need nine million cubic meters, it's more than double.

    2003年以降 何十万人もが 亡くなりました

  • More than double of a city.

    シリア内戦のきっかけも ―

  • [narrator] The more scarce water gets, more access to it becomes a competition,

    2006年の干ばつだという 専門家も

  • with winners and losers,

    水を巡る緊張が高まり ―

  • often with governments picking.

    各国政府は一見 突飛な案に注目しています

  • In July 2018,

    水の製造です

  • the federal government of Mexico issued a decree

    海水の脱塩は過去10年で 倍増しましたが その量は ―

  • making it easier for businesses like Constellation Brands

    全体の1%にも達しません

  • to extract surface water all around the country.

    安価な方法の開発を 皆が待ってる

  • [in Spanish] We see this as a stick-up.

    海水や 地下から取れる 半塩水を脱塩して―

  • It's also a warning

    飲料水にする

  • not only for the Mexican people but the entire world.

    今は多額の費用と 電力がかかる

  • We know that many other parts of the world

    そのために 水の価格を上げると ―

  • are fighting against these privatization projects

    水を使う様々な消費財の 価格も急増することになり ―

  • that line the companies' pockets.

    崩壊する産業も出るかも

  • [narrator] In January 2018,

    コンスタレーション・ ブランズ等の企業は ―

  • protesters tried to physically block the construction

    拠点を変えるかも

  • of the brewery's aqueduct.

    というのも…

  • [in Spanish] The entire group of policemen came through that road