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  • What happens to the T in wanted or  parted? The ED endings in American English  


  • are absolutely crazy. We have rules but we don't  always follow them. Today, we're going over rule  


  • 3 for the ED ending verbs. Don't worry, if you  missed one or two, you will not be lost here.  


  • These are the words where the ED ending adds not  just an extra sound, but a full extra syllable.  


  • We're going to make sure that you know how to  integrate them smoothly and perfectly into your  


  • speech so you sound natural speaking  in the past tense in American English.


  • Don't forget, if you like this  video or you learned something new,  


  • please like and subscribe with  notifications, it really helps.


  • We did a deep dive on rule oneFinal sounds in the infinitive  

    ルール1を深く掘り下げてみました。 不定詞の最後の音

  • is unvoiced, tt-- like in walkedWe did a deep dive on rule two.  

    は声にならない、tt...walkedのように。 私たちはルール2について 深く掘り下げてみました

  • Final sound in the infinitive is voiced. The  ED becomes dd-- a D sound like in seemed.  


  • Now, we have one more rule, and it's short. There  are only two sounds involved: the last sound in  


  • the infinitive is T or D. Then the ED ending is  not just an extra sound, but an extra syllable.  


  • Need. A one-syllable word becomes needed, a  two-syllable word. Correct, a two-syllable word,  


  • becomes corrected, a three syllable wordThis ending syllable is always unstressed.

    は修正された、3音節の単語になります。 この語尾の五十音節は常にストレスを感じさせない。

  • Today, we'll go deep on rule three. What  exactly does it mean? What are all the cases,  


  • and how can you use this to sound more  natural and relaxed speaking English?


  • With this extra syllable, we have the IH  sound or you can think of it as the schwa,  


  • plus D. The ending D will always be a flap sound  

    プラスD エンディングのDは必ずフラップ音になる

  • when it links into a word that begins  with a vowel or diphthong. For example:  


  • ended up


  • Ended up, ende-rarara-- ended up, a quick flap  of the tongue for that ED ending. Let's look at  


  • another example: acted onbecomes: acted onacted on, acted on. That flap of the tongue.  

    別の例: acted on-becomes: acted on, acted on, acted on.舌のそのはばたき。

  • At the end of a thought group, or when  the next word begins with a consonant,  


  • that will usually be an unreleased D. Ddd-- That  means we make a sound in the vocal cords for the D  

    通常は未発表のD. Ddd--つまりDのために声帯に音を出すということです。

  • but we don't release it, dd-- it's  just dd-- for example: it ended.  


  • End of my thought group, I didn't  release the d. It ended. Ddd---  


  • That vibrating of the vocal cords  for that voiced sound, ended.


  • Now if it links into a word that begins withconsonant, we'll also make that unreleased sound.  


  • Ended my, ended my, so it's not ended my, endedended. We don't release it. It's ended my, ended  


  • my, ended my. Releasing the D. Ended my, ended  my, just a little bit extra. We don't want to  

    my, end my.Dを解放する 私を終わらせた 私を終わらせた 少しだけ余分に私たちはしたくありません。

  • make that much of the D so we vibrate the vocal  chords but then go on to the next sound. Now if  


  • the next word is you or you're, you might hear the  ending become a J sound. Ended your, ended your.


  • Great. But now let's look at some cases that  affect the T or D at the end of the infinitive.  


  • So not the ED ending but the T at the end of the  word 'heat' for example. Heat, id, does not equal  


  • heated, because the rule for the T is that if  it comes between two vowel or diphthong sounds,  


  • it's a flap T. So it's not tt--heated, that's  a true T, it's heated, dadadada-- heated,  

    それはフラップTだ つまり ttじゃなくて...加熱されてる それが本当のTだ 加熱されてるんだ パパダダダ...

  • heated. So any word where there's a vowel  or diphthong plus T and then an ED ending,  


  • that's a flap T. Heated, dated, notedweighted. Dadadada-- All Flap t's.

    それはフラップTだ 加熱、日付、記録、重さダダダダ--すべてのフラップTのこと。

  • The flap T rule also applies when the sound before  was an R, so R plus T plus vowel or diphthong  


  • is a flap T. That means all the RT,ED ending words  have a flap T like: pardon, par-da-- par-dada--  


  • pardon. Pardon. Alerted  dadada-- alertuh-- alerted.


  • And this is also true for the D. A D  between vowels or after an R before a  


  • vowel or diphthong is a flap. So for examplein the word 'boarded' boar-- dadadada--  


  • that D at the end of the infinitive  is a flap. Boarded. Worded. Worded.


  • What would it sound like if  it wasn't a flap, but a real  


  • D with the stop and the release? Ddd-- that  would sound like this: worded. Worded. Worded.


  • It's too much D, we make a flap. Worded. GradedFlap sound. Let's look at another case. The sound  

    Dが多すぎてバタバタしてしまいます。言葉にする。グレーディングしました。 バタバタ音。別のケースを見てみましょう。音は

  • before the T of the word in the infinitive  is an N. We might drop that T. We do that in  


  • the NT combination sometimes like in the word  'interview'. It's very common to drop that T.  


  • So let's look at the word want, past tense, with  the ED ending, wanted, but it's actually very  


  • common to drop the T sound in that word, and  it becomes wanted, wanted, this pronunciation  

    その単語のT音を落とすのが一般的で、この発音はwanted, wanted, wantedになります。

  • is more common than the pronunciation with  the T. Let's go to Youglish for examples.

    はTとの発音よりも一般的です。 Youglishで例文を見てみましょう。

  • Wanted. Each one with no T sound at all. Isn't  this interesting? It's the T at the end of want  


  • that puts this into rule three because the final  sound is the T, but we don't even say that.  

    これはルール3に当てはまります 最終的な音はTですが、それすら言いません。

  • This is true also of the word countedyou'll often hear that T dropped, counted.


  • There will definitely be cases where you hear the  T in 'counted' but often not. Pointed is another  


  • word where usually, the T will be dropped. I  pointed out the mistake: pointed out, pointed out,  


  • no T. What about the word planted becoming  planted? Now I listened to a bunch of examples,  

    no T 植えられたことが植えられたことになるという言葉はどうなのでしょうか?今、私はたくさんの例を聞きました。

  • there it does seem to be more common to  actually say the T sound than to drop it,  


  • planted. But even that one can go  either way. Planted or planted.


  • What about ND plus ED ending? We never drop  that D. Ended. If we dropped it it would be  


  • ended, and that would sound very strange to usso ended, ended, bonded, we don't drop the D.  


  • In the other ending clusters, we do say the  T or D. For example the PT ending, prompt, or  

    他の語尾クラスタでは、T または D と言います。

  • interrupt. We do say that T when we  add on the ED. Prompted. Interrupted.  


  • Ted, ted, ted. A light true T. Acted. LiftedFolded. We say the D in fold. Folded. Ded. Folded.

    テッド、テッド、テッド。軽い真のT。行動した。リフト。 フォールド。我々は倍にDを言う。フォールド。控除。フォールド。

  • And those are the cases for rule three. Wow. When  you add up all these videos, we've been talking  


  • about ED endings for well over 30 minutesThings just aren't as simple as they seem.

    30分以上もEDのエンディングの話をしています。 物事は見た目ほど単純ではありません

  • Now, let's test your memory for the main  three rules. Is the ED ending a T sound,  


  • a D sound, or an extra syllable?


  • Here's your first word. Is it agreet, agreedor agree-ed? The final sound on the word  

    最初の言葉はここにあります。それは agreet, agreed, それとも agree-ed ですか?単語の最後の音は

  • when it's in the infinitive is a vowel, that's  voiced, so it's rule three, a D sound. Agreed.

    不定詞の場合は母音で声が出ているので ルール3のD音になっています同意します

  • What about this word? Is it bombet, bombed, or  


  • bomb-ed? The last sound is voiced, it's not a T or  a D, therefore it's rule two, a D sound: bombed.


  • What about this word? Is it  talket, talked, or talk-ed?  


  • The last sound of the word in  the infinitive is unvoiced.  


  • Therefore the ending is unvoiced, T, talked, now  let's listen to a bunch of examples for rule 3,  

    したがって、語尾はunvoiced, T, talked, now let's listen a bunch of examples for rule 3.

  • ED endings. Some of them will have  a dropped T, some of them will  


  • have a flap. Get used to simplifying and  linking these words into the next words.


  • First, you'll hear a phrase. Then  you'll hear just the two-word link  


  • like 'counted my' in slow motion, several  times, repeat the last time, the third time.  


  • Repeat that slow motion linkIt's important not to just  

    そのスローモーションリンクを繰り返して 重要なのは、ただ

  • learn something but to actually train  it, to speak out loud to get used to it.


  • Now you could prepare a lecture  on how to pronounce ED endings.  


  • There are so many details involved, aren't  there? The playlist for all three of these  


  • videos is here for your reference. You  may find that you want to watch them  


  • several times to really get all the  rules and pronunciations into your brain.


  • Thanks so much for sticking with meBe sure to check out this video next.  

    私と一緒にいてくれてありがとう 次は必ずこの動画をチェックしてください。

  • Also, check out my online courses at Rachel's  English academy. You'll become a more confident  


  • English speaker. I make new videos every Tuesdaybe sure to come back next week to watch more,  


  • I love being your English teacher. That's it  and thanks so much for using Rachel's English.


What happens to the T in wanted or  parted? The ED endings in American English  


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