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• If we apply an AC voltage, the frequency of the voltage affects the amount of current that will flow.

AC電圧を印加すると、電圧の周波数が

• Inductors, capacitors, and resistors all react differently to AC voltage.

流れる電流の量に影響します。

• But, in all three cases, the frequency of the AC current will be exactly equal to the frequency of the voltage.

インダクタ、コンデンサ、抵抗は AC電圧に対してすべて 異なる反応をします。

• Let us call the voltage at this point the "Input Voltage".

しかし、3つの場合とも、AC電流の周波数は

• This is the voltage that we control.

電圧の周波数と正確に等しくなります。

• In the case of an ideal resistor,

この点の電圧を「入力電圧」と呼びましょう。

• the current that flows is always proportional to the difference in the voltage values at the two sides of the resistor.

これが私たちが制御する電圧です。

• This means that if the only components in our circuits are ideal resistors,

理想的な抵抗の場合、

• then the amplitude of the current that flows is independent of the voltage's frequency.

流れる電流は常に

• Now, suppose we replace the resistor on the right with a capacitor.

抵抗両端の電圧の差に比例します。

• Once the capacitor is charged, both sides of the resistor will have the same voltage, and no current will flow.

つまり、回路内の唯一の部品が理想的な抵抗なら

• Current flows only if we change the value of the input voltage.

流れる電流の振幅は

• The amount of current that flows depends on the difference in the voltage values of the two sides of the resistor.

電圧の周波数に依存しません。

• If we change the value of the input voltage slowly,

さて、右の抵抗をコンデンサに置き換えます。

• then the voltage values of the two sides of the resistor will tend to stay at about the same voltage.

コンデンサが充電されると、

• This means that only a small amount of current will flow through this circuit at low frequency.

抵抗の両側に同じ電圧がかかり、

• At high frequency, a larger amount of current will flow.

電流は流れません。

• This is because if we vary the input voltage quickly as shown,

入力電圧を変えたときのみ、電流が流れます。

• the capacitor never has enough time to charge, and the voltage across it always stays close to zero.

流れる電流の量は

• Having a voltage across the capacitor that is always close to zero

抵抗の両側の電圧値の差に依存します。

• allows a larger voltage difference between the two ends of the resistor, allowing more current to flow.

入力電圧の値をゆっくりと変えると、

• Since the voltage across the capacitor does not have the ability to change instantaneously,

抵抗の両側の電圧は

• the voltage across the capacitor changes after the current changes.

ほぼ同じ電圧のままになる傾向があります。

• Let's turn off the input voltage.

これは、低周波数では　わずかな電流が

• Now let's replace the capacitor with an inductor.

この回路を流れることを意味します。

• An inductor exerts a force preventing the current flowing through it from changing instantaneously.

高周波では、より多くの電流が流れます。

• If the input voltage is constant, then the inductor will not exert any forces, and it will therefore not impede the flow of current.

原因は、このように入力電圧をすばやく変えると

• If the input voltage changes, the inductor will initially try to keep the current through it at the same value as before.

コンデンサを充電するだけの十分な時間がなく、

• After we change the voltage, we need to wait for the current to change.

両端の電圧が常にゼロに近いままになるためです。

• After the current changes, the inductor then wants to keep the current at this new value.

コンデンサ両端の電圧が常にゼロに近いと

• If we change the input voltage very rapidly as shown, the current will not have enough time to change.

抵抗の両側の電圧差が大きくなり、

• This means that only a small amount of current will flow through the inductor at high frequency.

より多くの電流が流れるようになります。

• At low frequency, more current will flow.

コンデンサ両端の電圧は

• In this sense, an inductor has the opposite behavior of a capacitor.

瞬時に変化する能力がないため、

• Also, whereas the voltage across a capacitor can't change instantaneously,

コンデンサ両端の電圧は電流の変化後に変化します。

• for an inductor it is the current that can't change instantaneously.

入力電圧をオフにしましょう。

• This means that for an inductor, the current changes after the voltage changes.

さて、コンデンサをインダクタに置き換えます。

• The frequency of the input voltage is only one of the factors that determines how much the inductor will impede the flow of current.

インダクタは

• Another factor is the amount of inductance the inductor has.

流れる電流が瞬時に変化するのを防ぎます。

• If the inductor has a higher inductance, then a smaller amount of AC current will flow through it.

入力電圧が一定の場合、

• This is because with a higher inductance,

インダクタは力を発揮せず、

• the inductor will exert a greater force trying to keep the current flowing through it constant.

それゆえ電流の流れを妨げません。

• In this example, even though we have a low frequency,

入力電圧が変化すると、インダクタは最初に

• we still have a small amount of AC current flowing due to the fact that the value of the inductance is high.

入力電圧を以前と同じ値に維持しようとします。

• Increasing the capacitance of a capacitor has the opposite effect of increasing the inductance of an inductor.

電圧を変えた後、

• If a capacitor has a higher capacitance, then a larger amount of AC current will flow through it.

電流が変化するのを待つ必要があります。

• This is due to the fact that with a higher capacitance, the capacitor charges and discharges more slowly.

電流が変わった後、インダクタは

• Therefore, in this case, the voltage across the capacitor stays close to zero,

電流をこの新しい値のまま保とうとします。

• thereby allowing a larger difference in voltage to develop at the two ends of the resistor,

このように入力電圧を急速に変化させると、

• thereby allowing more current to flow.

電流が変わるだけの十分な時間がありません。

If we apply an AC voltage, the frequency of the voltage affects the amount of current that will flow.

AC電圧を印加すると、電圧の周波数が

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# AC電流インピーダンス - インダクタ、コンデンサの交流電圧 (AC current impedance - Alternating Voltage for inductors, capacitors)

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thpss100230 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日