初級 14871 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
Hi, everybody, and welcome to today s webinar. Even though the university
is on spring break, Jenny and I are still here and we are still going to do a webinar
for today. Today is going to be Universal Design for Learning Principles and we kind
of frame this around universal designs regarding the higher education setting and then we ll
point out aspects and ways it can be implemented in a K-12 setting as well. My name is Jim
Stachowiak. As always, I will be guiding you through this today and hopefully you will
get something out of it. So, here we go. What we will talk about today is what universal
design is first, because I do have to lay that groundwork before we talk about universal
design for learning. We will talk about UDL accommodations and implementing UDL into courses.
So what is universal design? Universal design is the design of products and environments
used by all people to the greatest extent possible without the need for adaptation or
specialized design. This is a concept that came out of architecture in North Carolina
State University in the 70 s. A guy named Ron Mace kind of looked at things and said
instead of building buildings and then having to add on these handicapped accessible ramps
later on that do not really look good in the flow of the building and maybe somewhere around
the corner that s not at the main entrance, why do not we take a look at trying to build
this kind of thing on the front end and making buildings and making environments accessible
to everybody on the front end. When they started doing this, they found that even though you
think and aim towards people with disabilities, you design toward that, you are going to have
something that benefits everybody in the long run, and I think that is probably where it
is used to the greatest extent possible. When we are looking at folks with disabilities,
we are kind of getting folks on that outer end and outer edge of mobility level, so by
doing that, by getting to those edges, we are making things that benefit everybody.
There are some examples on this slide of some classic universal design examples, the go-to
examples, I guess. Whenever anybody talks about universal design, it is probably the
curb cut and you are all familiar with those. Curb cuts are on every street corner and they
basically ramp into the streets so that somebody doesn t have to go over the curb to get into
the street to cross, and that benefits not only people in wheelchairs but also people
pushing strollers, people on roller blades, people riding, bikes, older people that might
struggle with taking a step down to cross the street that befits all those folks. We
are starting to see a new aspect of universal design added in that to be used by the greatest
extent possible. You kind of see it on there; it is that rubber pad with bumps on it. That
is there for folks with visual impairments that might be using a cane that are not quite
sure when they are about to hit the street. That raised bump areas gives them an idea
that they are getting pretty close to the street. Below that, you see a house that s
hard to tell there but there is a ground level entryway so even though there is no step up
to the front porch, it just kind of goes right into the door, and this is just an example
to show you that that can be done without making it look like it s an accessibility
thing. I mean, that is still a pretty nice looking entryway to the house and it is accessible
as well. Next to that, you can see a fire alarm. Fire alarms did not used to be universally
designed. Not that long ago a fire alarm code was just to make sure it made noise so that
people got out of the building when it went off. You would hear a loud beeping noise and
that was about it. If you look at it now, this one has a strobe light on it and anywhere
you look now you are going to see that. s code now to have a strobe light on your fire
alarm, because with just the noise how would somebody that was deaf know what was going
on? How would somebody that was deaf know how to get out of the building or get out
of their dorm room or whatever when a fire alarm went off. That strobe light indicates
the alarm is going off for somebody that might be deaf of hearing impaired. If you listen
to those now, they do not just give a loud beeping noise, either. If you listen to them,
they typically give you instructions on what to do. I know in our building when the fire
alarm goes off it says there is an emergency, get to the nearest exist, and get outside.
That might help people that struggle with panicking when they just hear loud noises,
giving them some idea of what to do and to get out of there. So, it has really become
a universally designed tool. If you look next to that, universally designed signage is helpful
as well. That is a sign obviously for a women s bathroom. If you just had the word women
up there somebody who is blind, somebody that has a learning disability, somebody that doesn
t speak English isn t necessary going to know what that word says, and that could lead to
some big issues if somebody happens to go in there. But if we put a symbol on it that
s universally recognized as well as braille underneath the word, all of a sudden we ve
made signs that are accessible to just about anybody. The case of the universal design
it to design environments to make them universal to everybody, so kind of keep that in mind
when we talk about universal design for learning and what universal design through learning
is. Well, this is what it is. It is a goal. It is a processed focus on planning. Really,
the key to universally designing something is just thinking out ahead of time what issues
people might have with accessing the class and then designing workarounds around those
issues, I suppose. It is the idea that not everybody learns the same way and that multiple
approaches might be needed to reach everybody in your class. It is a proactive process that
can be implemented in steps. The key to this is also that it is accessible to use and it
is inclusive, so if you universally design a class that is accessible to everybody, everybody
can use it and everybody is included as well. It is also a way to extend some of the benefits
and accommodations that are pretty common for folks with disabilities to everybody in
the classroom. There might be some people in there that do not have disabilities but
learn a little bit differently from others and can benefit from some of those accommodations,
so we can extend the benefit of accommodations through UDL. Also, it allows for students
to use their strengths to access the class. That s also another key about this is tapping
to the strengths of an individual and giving them the opportunity to use those strengths
to maximize learning and maximize understanding of things as well. One universal design for
learning is not groundbreaking and nothing that we are going to talk about here is groundbreaking
stuff. It is not a single solution. There could be multiple solutions here. In the college
thing, we talk about UDL. The folks think it might be a means to low quality or standards
or a means to life accessible to unqualified students. That is not the case here. There
are standards to get into classes that need to be met. What we are doing with universal
design is once you have qualified for those classes, we are making it easier to use your
strengths to benefit from those classes. So we are not lowering any quality or lowering
standards and we are not making it accessible to unqualified students. Universal design
is not necessarily completely required in every class. There are still some things that
are accommodation based that the student will still have to work with student disability
services or something else to get that taken care of. For example, it is not practical
to have a sign language interpreter in every classroom just in case you run into a student
that has a hearing impairment that might need a sign language interpreter. That is still
something where that is on the student, that is on the university, that is on the school
to get that accommodation when necessary. Finally, universal design for learning is
not a replacement for good teaching. It is really a complement for good teaching. It
is a way to help extend the good things that a teacher is doing in a classroom. Universal
design for learning comes out of some brain research that was done in the Center for Applied
Special Technology out of Harvard, and what this looked at was three primary brain networks
in learning. There is the recognition network, the strategic network, and the effective network.
What they saw with this when they looked at these networks with different individuals
is that with different people, networks work a little differently. The recognition network
is a network in the brain where we take in information and what we saw here is that people
take in information in different ways. What the folks that came up with the concept of
universal design for learning said that was because everybody takes in information differently,
what we need to provide to our students is multiple means of representation of the materials.
Some people might take in information by listening to a lecture, others by reading, and others
by watching a video. If we provide all of those potions, that gives users a choice to
be able to actually see information the way that best benefits them. The middle network
there is the strategic network. With the strategic network, that s the area where we kind of
plan and demonstrate what we ve learn, and everybody does that a little bit differently,
so the universal design for learning calls for providing multiple means of expression
for students. Not everybody is great at writing an essay, but you are going to have to do
all these at one time or another. Not everybody displays what he or she learns best by writing.
Other people might do it better by presenting. Other people might even do better by singing
a song about what they learned. What the strategic network and having multiple means of expression
indicates is that we should provide multiple ways for students to demonstrate what they
learned. The third area is the effective network and that is kind of where we are engaged in
learning, and again, everybody is engaged a little bit differently. So to provide multiple
means of engagement to students, we provide multiple ways for students to get interested
in learning and just really sit down and dig into things. One of the examples that is given
in something like this in maybe a K-12 setting is maybe if you are doing a report on different
states and everybody s got to take a state and do a state, instead of approaching it
in terms of learning about a state and giving a report, approach it as you are going to
be the expert on your state and you are going to teach others about that, and that gives
the student a little bit of a sense of ownership in what they re doing and that might be one
of those ways that engages them a little bit differently. Thinking about things in terms
of that, in terms of engaging students would be the third way to implement universal design
for learning. So those are you three hallmarks for universal design for learning: multiple
means of representation, multiple means of expression, and multiple means of engagement.
This image comes from the Cass website here. Why is it necessary? Well, I want to talk
about why it is necessary at a college level why universal design for learning is necessary
at a college level. When you come to college, the IEP does not come with you. If you are
a student in special education in a K-12 setting, the IEP listed all your accommodations and
teachers had to follow those accommodations and make things accessible to you and your
classroom. When you come to K-12 level, that is no longer the case. The teachers do not
have to follow IEP. At this point, the student becomes responsible for self-identifying that
they have a disability and working with student disability services in getting the accommodations
that they might need. Here at the University of Iowa, we did an accommodations needs assessment
a couple years ago where we basically distributed a survey to everybody on campus and we asked
them if they had a disability, and we had 10 to 12 percent indicating that they had
a disability, which is about what we d expect because that kind of flies with the national
average. Part of the reason we did this is because when we talked to student disability
services and asked how many people they had signed up with them, we were hearing things
like 400, 415, and that is certainly not 10 percent of the population of students at the
University of Iowa. We were wondering what the issue was, and so when we asked about
the disability, the next question was if they were registered with student disability services,
and we found out that almost 60 percent were not registered with student disability services.
Most of the people that indicated they had a disability indicated that they had an invisible
disability of some type, whether that be a learning disability, emotional disability,
something that a teacher wouldn t be able to look at them in the classroom and understand
why they might be having some issues. We found kind of what we suspected, and that is that
on campus here there are several students with some type of disability running around
on campus that are not getting help from student disability services and we have no idea if
they re struggling, if they re doing well, or ways that we can reach them right now to
make things easier for them. That is why we decided to focus on universal design for learning
here on campus. If we can universally design classes, it should not matter if these students
are going to student disability services. The accommodations for most people with high
incidence learning disabilities ought to be built right into class. What about universal
design for learning? We are focusing a lot on disabilities and obviously it helps students
with disabilities, but it can also help all students. It can be beneficial to students
with language differences. We talk about multiple means of expression, multiple means of representation.
If we had students with language differences and all we are doing is speaking and there
is not some kind of text that they can take a look at, maybe we are speaking too fast.
Maybe they cannot keep up with class that way and maybe they might do better taking
in information in a different medium, so that universal design for learning could help those
students. Students with cultural differences in a college setting, you may find that some
culture students do not want to go ask for help if they need help because they do not
want to sit face to face with an instructor and ask for help. This can provide different
ways for them to access instructor s time through maybe an online chat. That might be
something they can do and that would benefit all the students. Students with learning differences
again, universal design for learning provides multiple ways to learn. Some students might
be visual learners, some students might be auditory learners, and some people might learn
by doing things. We are providing access to all those different types of learners. This
is especially the case in a university setting. Students might need to miss a class for various
excused reasons. Not every religious holiday is taken off by the university. There is Veteran
s Day, there might be a lot of veteran students that need to miss class and if they miss a
class that is a universally designed class, they should be able to not miss too much information
and be able to get things back in order when they re available to do that. At this point,
I would typically show a video that kinds of shows some of the importance of multiple
means of engagement, multiple means of representation, and multiple means of expression, but I m
not going to s in the YouTube archives here, so if you would like to take a look at this,
it is a very good video put out by Kansas State University. It is starting to get maybe
a little bit dated now. I think it came out in 2007. There is a link for you right there
and if you go on and type that whole thing in, you go to YouTube and search for a vision
of students today you will get the video that we typically talk about here and take a look
at what students are looking for. This really kind of hits on the need for engaging students
using the technology that they re familiar with of the day, engaging students a little
bit differently in going beyond what s in a textbook in the class, and just providing
a meaningful experience for students. To some instructors, it comes off as students being
a little bit whiny and wanting the instructor to come all the way and meet their demands.
It may come off a little bit that way, but it really just shows different ways to implement
things in the classroom. It brings up issues in a classroom that instructors need to work
with today, especially when it comes to technology and it comes to basically having students
that have had the computer and access to internet their whole lives and the ability to get information
very easily and it wants instructors to start thinking about ways to incorporate that kind
of technology to the classroom and go behind what a standard lecture might entail. It is
a good video. Check that out and take a look at that before going on any further in this
webinar. Let me talk a little bit about incorporating universal design for learning into college
classes, and we ll also hit a little bit on doing that in K-12 settings as well. In college
settings, we talk about three areas where you can implement UDL, and that s in the classroom
environment, the class presentation, and what we call the class materials, which is kind
of a catchall for everything else including supports, assignments, assessments, and so
on and so forth. In the class environment, there are two big areas that we can hit there.
It is kind of the general feel of the class as well as the physical environment. With
the class presentation, we kind of talk about first of all determining what s essential
to the class so that we can prevent things in different ways and varying methods, and
in class materials we talk about providing supports to our students as well as assignments
and assessments and how we are going to kind of address those in a class. Let me talk first
about the syllabus. Why is this important? Well, typically it is your first contact with
students in your class. What we suggest instructors do with this is provide information in at
least two formats, so we could provide information typically a syllabus is just when you list
the things that need to be done or things that happen throughout the class, but maybe
also providing a visual calendar with the dates things are due so somebody that s more
of a visual student can kind of see that laid out and be able to better organize things.
That might be a positive thing as well. You want to clearly explain the goals of the class
so every student knows what is coming up and clearly explain the assignments. We also talked
about providing multiple contact points, and that gets back to the fact that we need to
operate within the technologies that students use today, but we also need to operate in
the manner that students feel comfortable operating, and if we look at some of the ways
our students communicate now, email isn t all that popular anymore. There are not a
whole lot of students that would send an email as their preferred method of commination.
Most students would prefer that we communicated through social media or through text message,
there are ways that we can incorporate some of that into our classroom to provide ways
that everybody can reach the teacher, and one of the things that we suggest is to continue
to have office hours, continuing to provide phone numbers, email addresses and so on and
so forth, but also maybe having online office hours where students can sign into a chat
area, whether that be trough the icon course management system or through something else,
and they can type questions to the instructor and the instructor can answer them that way.
Not only does that help our students that might be more interested in technology that
feel more comfortable texting or typing, but that might benefit some of our students with
disabilities that might not want to come to the professor s office and interact with him.
Maybe you have a student that has a hearing impairment that might struggle with communicating
face to face. Communicating via text might be a little bit easier. Opening that up and
providing that access to everybody provides multiple ways that students can message you
using their preferred means of technology and allow them to use their strengths to reach
you. We thought about providing information on helpful resources as well, and that is
typically a list that we give instructors on free or inexpensive assisted technology
tools that students can download to help students access their class. A lot of students are
not aware that some of these things are available so if the instructor incorporates that in
his syllabus and says if you struggle with reading and would rather listen to text, here
is a tool that can allow you to read or allow you to listen or here is a tool that can allow
you convert things into an MP3. That is the first step in providing awareness to students
that some of these things are available. We also talk about well, at a college level you
have to include a disability accommodation statement on your syllabus. As part of that
survey that we showed you before, one of the questions we asked of the faculty is do you
include a disability statement on your syllabus? That is required by the university, and we
only found about that about 75 percent actually do, so there are some folks that we need to
get this in front of to make sure that they re doing what they need to do in terms of
providing an accommodations statement. When we talk about that, there is university language
that you need to include, but we also say to include personal values into that as well.
You can add to what the university has in their statement, like I appreciate diversity
in learning and am willing to work with a student that has a disability. By doing that
and providing that kind of language, what you are doing is setting up a student to feel
more comfortable to work with you and open up about some of the issue that he might have
in class. Here is an example of what we would include in a disability statement: In an appreciation
for diversity and diversity in learning, I understand that some of you may have difficulty
accessing pieces of this class. Provide an invitation to meet in a timely manner. You
are basically saying that you d like to hear from anyone that has a disability or requires
some accommodation in terms of seating, testing, or other class requirements as soon as possible
so that appropriate arrangements may be made. You certainly do want to make sure it is done
in a timely manner. Give a date and give a time give some kind of timeframe there. You
want to encourage your students to register with student disability services so that they
are definitely getting all the academic accommodations they need. Reiterate an invitation to meet
by maybe saying, Do not hesitate to see me before or after class or contact me using
the information provided on the top of your course syllabus. That really just opens up
and creates a welcoming environment for all of our students in the classroom. Although
having a disability statement isn t necessarily enough, another way to signify that it s important
to you is through discussing that statement, so what this does is it emphasizes that it
s important to you and it speaks to your acceptance of their disability, indicates a willingness
to work with your students, creates a trust with students, and it can also be used as
an open invitation for discussion with your students. It really does make it more likely
that the students are going to approach you and work with you on issues. Another thing
you can do to create a welcoming environment early on in the class, maybe the first day,
is to hand out a card and just say, Let me know anything you think I need to know that
might affect how you access this class or might affect what you do in this class. That
way you might find out that somebody with a disability needs accommodations or you might
found out that student that comes in late every day and you might think is just lazy
or running behind is coming in late because they have to pick up their kids from daycare
and drop them off at home before they can get there. There are a lot of valid reasons
for these things that getting that information card can help you see some of the issues the
student might be having and find a way to work with those. In the physical class environment,
what we talk about, and you kind of can extend this to some of the K-12 settings as well,
is take a look at your class. Here is a checklist that we have that we give out to instructors
to kind of go through their class in a planning process and make sure that different things
can be done to make sure the room is accessible. You can make sure the entrance to the building
is accessible. There are a lot of these things that a teacher cannot necessarily physically
change, but if you didn t have a physical entrance to the building for somebody with
a disability that you are in, then you need to let higher ups be aware of that so they
can go about making changes. That is not really something we should see as an issue anywhere,
but you want to make sure the entrance to the room is accessible to anybody, that there
is not a garbage can that is propping open the door that somebody cannot work their way
around. You want to make sure there is not a desk right in front of the door. You want
to make sure that there are clear paths for everybody to walk around. You want to make
sure there are choices for students about where they are going to sit, including those
who have disabilities. You want to make sure the chalkboard or the whiteboard can be seen
from every seat. You want to know emergency procedures allowing everybody to exit the
room, too. What do you do if you have a student in a wheelchair when there is an emergency?
How do you help that individual? There is a video out of Cal State Northridge where
they were talking to a student in a wheelchair and there was a fire drill and everybody just
ran out of the room and didn t even think about her and in their panic to get out they
knocked over some desks and moved something in front of the door and she couldn t get
out. So if that had been a real emergency, she would have been in trouble. You want to
know what the process is to make sure the student gets out of the classroom. You want
to make sure that markers or chalk are thick enough, you want to write in a color that
everybody can see, make sure mechanical noise is not an issue, and you want to make sure
the temperature is comfortable. I have been a victim of this myself. I have summer institutes
every year and I used to do them over at the Union, and the first year that I did it I
did not bother going ahead of time and checking what the temperature was. It was in the middle
of summer and I thought everything would be okay, but one of the rooms we were in had
the temperature set at 55 degrees, so half of my class is standing out in the hallway
shivering and not getting anything I had to say because they were more focused on how
cold they were. The next year I sent out an email saying bring a sweatshirt because last
year we had this issue. Well, everybody shows up in long sleeve shirts and it is 76 degrees
in the room and everybody is sweating. There can be a big problem if you do not have temperature
set the right way. And this is the kind of thing that we want you to look at and just
think about. It just helps you think about and make sure that the classroom is physically
accessible before all your students get there. I will tell you this as well. We do have a
website, education.ui.edu/universalaccess, which has a lot of this information including
this checklist that you can take and take a look at and actually download right from
there and use it in the class. What are we talking about with universal design in the
class presentation? Well, when we talk about this there are a couple things that we hit
on, one of them being in the preparation format you want to determine essentials of the class,
you want to reflect on the message that you are going to use, and you are going to vary
these messages so that you are providing that multiple means of presentation. You want to
incorporate supports wherever possible, and try to incorporate familiar technologies for
your students as well. When we determine the essentials, what we talk about here and when
we are goal writing is we want to talk about what the student has to know and has to be
able to do by the end of the class and then how can the student demonstrate that knowledge.
For example, if you are in a history class and you were learning about the civil war
and you wanted a product to show that the student understood the issues around the civil
war, your goal probably would not have to be by the end of the class the student is
going to write a report on the civil war. When you do something like that, when you
say write a report in the goal, it is not a very universally designed goal because you
are locking the student into one mode of demonstrating what they learn. If you are really looking
at universal design for learning, a more appropriate goal might be something like by the end of
the class, students will demonstrate an understanding of the issues leading to the Civil War. By
leaving it vague enough like that, by saying demonstrate an understanding, you are allowing
for multiple pathways in doing that. It could be via writing a report. It could be some
other type of project. It could be giving a presentation. Really, that is where we need
to look at what are the essentials of this class, and in that first goal, is it essential
that the student knows how to write a report? In some cases, that is the case and that is
fine. But it is essential that the student understands and has knowledge of the civil
war. In this case, the essential is an understanding of the civil war, so we want to make sure
they can demonstrate that in multiple ways, multiple means expression at working the goals
there. We also want to look at varying methods. Again, we talked about multiple means of representation
and not everybody benefits well by sitting and listening to lectures. You can lecture
and incorporate videos and incorporate multimedia presentation, giving students choices in how
they re going to access things, having discussion sections, having discussions about things,
doing group work, doing simulations, if possible all of those things provide multiple means
of representation of material and you are more likely to cast a wide net and get the
information that you want out to your students if you are doing things like this. Although
this is kind of a game for the higher education setting, the same thing falls into place in
a K-12 setting as well. The more different ways you provide information, the more students
are going to benefit there. We talk about class materials, and this whole thing is just
introduction to UDL, just giving you some ideas and some idea of what it is. When we
talk about materials, we are talking about providing supports in the class, and that
kind of start by having digital text. The reason we want to have a digital text is because
it really is accessible to everybody, because there is so much that we can do with it. If
you think about a physical textbook, that is inaccessible to people with visual impairments.
People with physical disabilities cannot turn the page. Sometimes it is inaccessible to
people that speak other languages. Sometimes it is inaccessible to people that prefer to
listen as opposed to reading. If we have digital text, we can take that and we can do just
about anything we want with it. We can print braille from it. We can turn it into audios
and we can listen to it. We can make it large print. We can have it read out loud on the
computer. We can change the colors, we can change the background colors, and we can manipulate
it in any way to make it accessible to just about anyone else. Also, it is sustainable.
It is something that we do not have to kill all kinds of trees to print out huge textbooks
if we are using digital text. Also, if we have digital text, students that prefer to
print something out and read it can still do that. It is very, very versatile. We are
talking about choosing textbooks. If you choose textbooks that are in a digital form, that
gives students a choice and that is a way of means of multiple means of representation.
If the student wants to buy a textbook, they can. If they want to download it and access
it on a computer, they can. In college you want to choose your text and readings early
so that students who need to get it converted can do that. I guess it is the same in a K-12
setting because in Iowa, if you are using the Braille School or the Iowa Department
for the Blind to create braille or to create alternative text formats, they do need it
six months in advance. You can provide the learning supports in digital text forms as
well, so if you are providing class notes or a syllabus or handouts having that in a
digital form that people can access on a computer or print out if they would like to. Along
those same lines, when you are choosing text, another concept in universal design here with
the multiple means of representation and multiple means of engagement is to give students a
choice of the textbook they want to use. Find multiple books that provide the same information.
You do not necessarily have to assign a chapter then, but find the concept that the student
needs to have access to. That can go a long way to kind of provide multiple means of engagement
as well. We talked about providing supports. Some of the things we talked about were providing
outlines, class notes, PowerPoint, and these are all common accommodations for students
with learning disabilities and those who struggle with not taking in class. But if you are providing
class outlines, then the students, every student, is going to understand the organizational
structure of the class, and then you will have a framework for taking notes if you are
doing that. All of these things, including class notes, will free up students and they
will pay more attention and participate a lit bit better in class while still getting
the main information down. So this is a big help and this is something that is real important
to your students with learning disabilities that might struggle with sitting here and
taking notes in class. But it is also just going to help free up everybody for better
discussions, better participation, and a better understanding of what is going on in class.
When you do this, you provide class notes, it s also going to challenge you as a teacher
a little bit to give the students a little bit more than what you might be providing
directly in notes to generate a little bit better discussion and to generate a different
types of class that then leads to your multiple means of representation as well. We talked
about implementing technologies that students might want to look at in class or using some
of the everyday technology in your class as well. One of the ways to do this that we are
starting to play around with a little bit is through the use of QR codes, and a QR code
is what you see on your screen there. You see these all over the place now. Basically
what it allows you to do is if you have a smart phone or tablet and you have a picture
of that thing, it is going to take you to whatever you have linked to it. Students are
using iPads in the class, maybe you can provide a QR code that links directly to your notes
or your slides or your syllabus. They are very easy to make. They are free to make.
You go to qrcode.kaywa.com, all it asks is for a link, so if you have your notes you
put them online and you can link it on there and then you can save that QR code and put
it on a PowerPoint slide in the beginning of class and students can snap a picture or
you can pass around a piece of paper with it on there, and then students can get their
notes directly on their mobile device. It is certainly a way to engage students a little
bit differently using technology. Another way to engage students is through a tool called
polleverywhere.com. Polleverywhere.com allows us to create response polls and embed them
directly into our PowerPoint and what this will have on it is the texting codes, so a
student would text the number and the answer that they would choose on the screen to whatever
number is up there as well, this is all provided through this PowerPoint, and what you are
going to see that s cool is if you have internet access, you are going to see the students'
responses starting to appear on the screen. It is a way to tap into using the technology
with which they are already familiar using the technology that they have in classroom
for a good purpose, to be able to take in information about what they understand. There
are multiple ways to use this. You can have a multiple-choice poll where you can ask a
question about something you just lectured about and you can see the understanding that
the students have there. You can have a free response poll and that is a nice way to say
does anybody have questions, and some of the students that might be embarrassed to raise
their hand and ask a question can type that question out and then it can appear on the
screen at the front of the class. It s really neat tool and I have used it in several lectures
I have given here on campus. It is free up to 30 responses. That does not mean you start
paying beyond 30 responses, it just shuts off at that point. So again, there is the
free version of word find and you just go to polleverywhere.com or pollanywhere.com,
they will both take you to the same spot, and you set up your own account and you have
got these polls that you can run. There is a paid version where you can get more responses
out of it or you can cut some nice key words which might be a little bit easier, but the
30 free response things works pretty well for just about everybody. Again, it is a nice
way to have that multiple means of engagement for students and also to incorporate common
technology to the classroom. I do want to take a second to show you a website. This
is aimed more at K-12 learners. It is called the Cass UDL lesson builder. What this is
going to do is provide educators with models and tools to create adept lessons to increase
access for all. Lessonbuilder.cass.org I am going to take you there really quick and I
am just going to show you what this is all about. Again, it is lessonbuilder.cass.org.
We go here, you would have to set up the username and password, log in, and there are three
things you can do here. You can learn about universal design for learning. We click on
that to learn about UDL and it is going to talk about a lot of what we talked about today.
This is kind of cool because they incorporate UDL right into this. If you want to learn
more about UDL, you can watch a video on it, you can read about it, or you can try a fun
activity to learn more about it, so there it is built in by multiple means of representation.
If we head back to the main screen, you can explore what a model UDL lesson plan would
look like. If we look at this, here are lesson plans for students in science from pre-K to
grade 8, and we ll just choose one of these about the life cycle of a butterfly, so this
is going to walk us through and provide us with a unit description, provide us with a
description for the day, and then along the side over here are UDL connections and where
those connections might be made. If you are looking at the description of a unit and you
want to see where this UDL connection is made, we can tap on that and it s going to highlight
that up in the unit description right there where it says students will engage in several
activities to support their learning and they ll have several different opportunities throughout
the next two days to share their newfound knowledge. What this does is shows that the
connection is being made in the recognition network, s here it says represents information
in multiple formats, and students will have multiple ways of engaging in these activities,
and the effective network which offers students a choice of content and tools and a choice
of books to study from and it gives you a UDL reflection. It also has a means to listen
to this, so they build UDL right into this as well. If you do not want to read it and
would rather listen, you can click on listen and you can listen to what that UDL connection
is. Let us take a look we talked about goal writing before. There are goals here, the
unit goals, students will identify and describe the lifecycle of a butterfly, students will
demonstrate the life cycle of a butterfly, and students will demonstrate their understanding
that at the beginning of an animal's life cycle, some young animals represent adults
while others do not. We click UDL connections here, it is going to show just what we talked
about before: these goals provide flexible opportunities for demonstrating skills. It
does not lock you into how they are going to demonstrate understanding. It just shows
you that they are going to demonstrate understanding. We go down a little bit more and here is the
method the UDL connection within their methods. It is to provide multiple means of representing
what they know again. A student will ask another student for a different thought and so on
until the student thoughts are represented. That s kind of student led discussions that
could be a multiple means of engagement as well. So this is kind of what a lesson plan
would look like that had UDL components to it. Again, you can just click on all these
little UDL connections that highlight what is universally designed and how it is universally
designed. It goes through the whole process all the way to wrapping up an assessment down
here and it provides materials that you might need. Here are the books and articles of UDL
connections. It shows that it shows multiple types of books and articles to look at, multiple
price range, and multiple challenge range as well for different students. I take you
back here two levels here. I want to show you the last thing, which is create and save
my own UDL lesson plans. So we go into create our own UDL lesson plans, we can set up how
we want to run this. I have not put anything into this, but we can edit our lesson, the
title, the subject, the grade level, the duration. We go to edit a unit description, and we can
start typing in here and there is a little bit called the more information button and
it is going to provide us with what this is. If there is more than one lesson for which
you need to write a unit description, you might want to include the number of lessons.
It gives us an idea of what we are doing here. We go to lesson for the day, and we can type
in our thing and we have more information here and it should help us connect some UDL
options to this as well. Again, we can go down here as we take a look at maybe unit
goals. There is more information here that provides us information on how you want to
write these goals. It gives you a lot of information about that. Here it talks about UDL piece,
a goal, or objective that is confused by adding the means of achieving the goal, such as all
students will write about a location. It may limit how the student is going to demonstrate
understanding. So it gives you some of these UDL concepts and what to look for right as
you are building this. So this kind of guides you through writing a UDL lesson plan then
you can save this here, you can access it here, and it really provides a nice tool to
watch this step by step through the universal design for learning process in writing a lesson
plan. It is a really valuable tool. It is a free website. You create a free username
to get into that. It really can be a valuable tool for helping you to create lessons that
will be beneficial to everybody. That showed us a little bit about assignments and how
to make assignments universally designed by allowing multiple means of expression. Again,
not all students learn in the same light. This provides choice and provides multiple
opportunities for students that throughout the semester could be beneficial in an essay,
presentation, group project, and other projects. So again, there are two ways to do that, providing
a choice for students so they can choose how they want to do it, what type of assignment
they want to do, and providing different types of assignments for the class can be helpful
there. And then there are assessments. The idea of assessment in UDL is that you want
them to be more frequent and shorter. You do not necessarily just want to have two big
exams. By providing more frequent shorter exams and shorter in length of the test itself,
giving them the same amount of time to do those shorter exams could be important. Some
of the reason for that is one of the most common accommodations is the need for extra
time in taking exams, and what is shown with some of these studies have shown that if you
provide extra time on the exam and not a timed test, so not when you are trying to figure
out if everybody knows their multiple tables quickly, but in a non-timing test, as you
provide extra time, it s going to benefit your students with disabilities but it s not
going to benefit your students without. Typically your students with disabilities are just going
to need more time to get your answers down. For a student without a disability, you either
know the material or you do not. That extra time is not really going to benefit you all
that much. So when you are providing these universally designed assessments, instead
of maybe two tests throughout the course of a semester, maybe four tests throughout the
course of a semester, and if the student takes half the time to do each one of those or they
focus on less material, it s going to allow the student to show you a little bit more
of what they ve learned, and it also allows her to focus on less material, and thus probably
retain more information as well. At a K-12 level, evaluation needs to be consistent.
You need to be constantly following up with students, asking questions as assessments
throughout the project and throughout the day, and just a constant assessment to see
how you are doing can be helpful. That talks about how constantly monitoring is important,
but also soliciting student feedback and finding out how you are doing universally designing
the class. Monitoring student engagement is important as well. At campus here, we work
with our group that does aides forms the end of semester evaluations for teachers and we
have questions on UDL incorporated into the pool, so teachers can go in there and choose
to ask their students how they did with incorporating universal design for learning. So that is
something that a teacher can do to assess their own success also. There is a lot of
technology that can be helpful as well. The smart pen is really cool. We will do our next
webinar on that. I will just tell you what it is and a little bit about how we use it.
The smart pen is a pen and a recording device, so you could go into class, use a special
notebook, tap on record, and it records what you are saying and when you write a note,
it links the note to what was recorded. A teacher or student could then limit what they
are writing and listen more in class, because when they go back and tap it, it plays back
from there. We did a neat project here where we gave professors those pens, had them have
a different student in class take notes with that each period, and then put those notes
online so that everybody had access, and that was the way it was a universally designed
class note and it was provided in multiple formats, written and auditory, and it provided
that class support. I ll talk about that a little bit more next month in our webinar
as well. Text readers can be important in the UDL by providing that access and that
multiple means of representations. Nook study is a good free one out there that student
can download text into. They can download books from Barnes and Noble. They can download
PDF s into that listen to it. There are a couple of good PDF creation sites out there
or MP3 creation sites out there. The best on is probably yakitome.com. Students can
have texts, PDF s, word documents, internet sites saved on their computer and they can
go into that yakitome.com and they can direct the website to those works and then have them
turned into an auditory format, an MP3 that they can download and listen to while they
re on the bus or while they re working out. This is good for kids with a learning disability
that might help them listen to their text a little bit better than they can read it.
That has a pretty good voice, too. That is a nice free website for creating MP3 s out
of text. Another tool that is out there is the PDF tool foxit reader. That allows you
to annotate, allows you to highlight, and allows you to extract notes that you take
from a PDF. That is also free and also another nice technology that might be helpful in a
universal design setting. That will just about do it for me today. Here is my contact information.
Again, my name is Jim Stachowiak. M email is james-stachowiak@uiowa.edu. My phone number
is 319-335-5280. I can be reached there if you have questions on universal design for
learning. We also did a universal design for learning project on campus. It is called the
universal access project and there is our website where you can find out a lot more
about what we talked about in our introduction here today and where we talk about universal
design for learning principles. That is at education.uiowa.edu/universal access. So again,
this was meant to get you a little bit interested in universal design for learning and show
you some of the principles involved in this and maybe in the future we can go a little
bit deeper into some of these things. Hopefully you got a good overview and you got some good
tools that can help. If you ever have questions, feel free to contact me. Thank you.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

Universal Design for Learning Principles

14871 タグ追加 保存
Why Why 2013 年 4 月 3 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔