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  • "To be strong and to have speed is not the same as having power and quickness. These


  • are easily confused." Hi. James from engVid. I'm reading Miyamoto Musashi on strategy.


  • Hiya! Except Mr. Musashi said something rather interesting, and that's today's lesson. Confusing


  • words. You probably heard me talk about speed and strength being confused with power and


  • quickness. We native speakers regularly confuse it, thinking that they are the same things,


  • and there are other words that I know you probably have problems with, and maybe some


  • native speakers as well, and we're going to learn them today. You ready?

    ネイティブスピーカーも同様に 今日はそれを学びます準備はいいですか?

  • Let's go to the board.


  • So. Confused words. Mr. E, Sensei. What do we have? "Everyday, I ain't learned nothing,


  • but may be I should have studied harder!" Okay, I'm putting on an accent and playing.


  • Mr. E is saying: "Every day..." And "ain't" is bad English. We've got a video on that,

    Eさんが言っています。"毎日...""ain't "は悪い英語だそれについてのビデオがあります。

  • so go check it out, okay? It talks about when people say it, and then you'll understand


  • my strange accent. Okay? And: "Learned nothing, but I should have studied harder." Well, there

    私の変なアクセントいいですか?と。"何も学ばなかったが もっと勉強しておくべきだった"まあ、そこに

  • are... There's a confused word here and here, and this word is wrong. When we finish the

    は...こことここに紛らわしい言葉があります この言葉は間違っていますを終わらせると

  • lesson, you'll understand why I say that, and why these confuse people.


  • The first one we're going to do is "study" versus "learn." What does it mean to study,

    最初にやるのは "勉強 "と "学習 "です勉強するとはどういうことか。

  • and what does it mean to learn? It's often been said: "You can study a lot, and learn


  • nothing." Why? Because learning, when you learn something, you gain knowledge by studying,


  • by practicing. You know, you play the piano again, and again, and again, that's practice.


  • You don't look at the keys, ding dong dong, you actually practice it to get it into your


  • body, so to speak. When you study, that's more like reading or trying to memorize things,


  • right? For a test.


  • So learning, you are going to gain a skill, or you will get knowledge. You will learn


  • something new, something you didn't understand, you will now understand. Okay? There's something


  • you will have. It may not be something you put in your hand, but it's something you put


  • in your head. Okay? And the best thing about it is not only have you put it in your head,


  • you can now take this information and use it to learn new things, or use it to do things.


  • Right? You can study how to make a cake, but when you learn how to make a cake, you have


  • a recipe. Right? And you can use that recipe again and again.


  • Studying is a little different. Why? Because studying is actually a part of learning. If


  • you look carefully up here, it says: "Studying, practicing, being taught." You know, somebody...

    ここをよく見ると "勉強して、練習して、教えてもらう "と書いてある誰かが...

  • Somebody will teach you. You go and you get a teacher. A teacher says: "You're doing this,


  • this, this, and this." You're not reading and memorizing; someone is speaking to you.


  • And even when we talk about learning experience, right? Trust me: if you get hit by a car...


  • I've been hit by a car three times, man. Not fun. Riding a bicycle, boom! You learn: look


  • both ways, and be smart. You didn't have to memorize that. One hit by a car - you will


  • learn, okay? So, that's what learning means.


  • When you study, we talk about studying being reading, right? Memorizing facts, that means


  • trying to put it in your memory so you don't have to keep thinking about it. But another

    記憶の中に入れようとしているので 考え続ける必要はありませんしかし、別の

  • thing about study which is a little confusing is when you attend school. What do I mean?


  • Well, when you attend school, you go for classes, right? So sometimes you hear people say: "What


  • do you study?" And they're talking about what is the subject, right? Or: "What are your

    は勉強していますか?"そして彼らが話しているのは 科目は何かということですよね?または:「あなたの

  • classes? Do you take mathematics?" You say: "I'm studying math, geography, and history


  • this term." Studying, that means memorizing some facts from these and reading about them.


  • Okay? Or: -"What are you studying?" -"The law. I'm going to get a law degree", or: "I'm


  • going to get a medical degree." You cannot learn a medical degree, you study for a medical


  • degree. So when we say "study," we talk about attending school. What school do you go to?


  • What subject, what classes?


  • And that is the difference between them, right? You can see: one is getting knowledge and


  • attaining knowledge, and if you study you will learn things. But you study degrees in

    知識を得るためには 勉強すれば物事を学ぶことができますしかし、あなたが勉強する学位は

  • subjects like law and medicine. Not... There is no learning a degree for law or medicine.


  • Cool? But I can understand why students get confused, because they are part of each other,


  • or studying is a part of learning. So therefore, we can say: "Studying is one way of learning."


  • You can study grammar rules to learn grammar. True. Okay, and you will learn grammar. You

    文法のルールを勉強することで、文法を学ぶことができます。本当ですね。わかりました 文法を学ぶことができますあなたは

  • will understand it. However, to learn conversation, you need to practice. You can't study conversation.


  • You won't be good at it unless you practice it, which means to do. Right? Which is a little


  • different than studying some rules or reading in a book, right? Cool.


  • Just to give a, you know, couple little examples we have here: "I was studying until 4am."


  • In this case, we're talking about memorization, right? Reading, and trying to put in my memory,


  • information for a test I might have later on. Okay? I may or may not have learned. 4am

    後でテストのための情報を 得るためにいいですか?学んだかもしれないし 学んでないかもしれない午前4時

  • is a, you know, that's late at night. You might be a little tired and not... Didn't


  • learn anything, but at least you studied, right? "I learned how to make money." That's

    何も学ばなかったけど 勉強だけはしたんでしょ?"お金の稼ぎ方を学んだ"それは

  • a skill, okay? You can't always get that from a book or read about it; you got to go do


  • it. Sure, you can read about it, but until you practice it, it's not yours, and you don't


  • have that money. So once you have the money, you go: "Oh! I learned something from that


  • book. I studied it, now I learned." Cool? All right. We have two other lessons we're


  • going to do on confused words. This one should be clear to you.


  • And problem: if you notice, I put this up in the corner for you. Both are verbs. That's


  • one of the problems, because people use them as verbs: "I am studying, I am learning",

    問題の一つです 人は動詞として使うので"私は勉強している、私は学んでいる "という意味です

  • and they don't differentiate. And they are also related. That's the other thing that


  • makes it a problem. Because they're related. Remember what I told you: you can study to


  • learn. That relationship causes confusion in people's brains, right? "I'm studying,

    を学ぶ。その関係性が人の脳を混乱させるんですね。"勉強している "と

  • I'm learning", they kind of go together, but they're different, okay? In the end, they're

    "I'm learning "は、彼らが一緒に行くようなものだが、彼らは違うんだ、いいか?結局、彼らは

  • different. All right? So, ready? We're going to go and do the next one in a second.


  • Okay. Let's do "maybe", "may be". Wow, I said the same word twice. Am I tired? No, it's

    そうだな"もしかしたら" "もしかしたら "をやろううわー、同じ言葉を2回も言っちゃった疲れたかな?(達也)いや 疲れてないよ

  • the next confusing word, or words. "Maybe" versus "may be". Okay? When we look at "maybe"

    次の紛らわしい言葉や言葉"かもしれない "対 "かもしれない "ですいいですか?"もしかしたら "を見ると

  • when it's one word, it's actually an adverb. It means perhaps or possibly. Right? You can

    一言で言うと実は副詞なんです。おそらくとか 可能性があるという意味ですだろう?あなたは

  • literally take "maybe" out of the sentence and put "perhaps" or "probably" and it will


  • make sense completely. Okay?


  • When we look at "may be", right? With that little pause, it actually means "could be",

    "かもしれない "を見ると、「かもしれない」ですよね。そのちょっとした間をおいて、実は「かもしれない」という意味です。

  • "might be", or "would be". It's considered an auxiliary verb. Why? Because what we're

    "かもしれない "とか "かもしれない "とか助動詞と考えられていますなぜかというと、「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもしれない」「かもし

  • really looking at is a modal. We're looking at the modal "may" just as "could", "would",

    本当に見ているのはモーダルです私たちが見ているのは "can" "would "と同じように "may "というモーダルです

  • and "might" are modals. Okay, understand? And we're joining the "be" verb. It's a helper

    と "かもしれない" はモーダルですわかりましたか?そして "be "という動詞を結合していますこれは助動詞の

  • verb. Okay? So because of that, that's the difference between them. You cannot put "perhaps"

    動詞だいいですか?だからこそ、そこが両者の違いなんです。"たぶん "は使えません

  • where you would put this; it wouldn't' make any sense. All right?


  • Now, we're going to go down and explain another thing where it has to do with you can't really


  • put verbs together, right? We have an auxiliary verb that helps, but you can't have two solid


  • verbs, or two main verbs together. So let's go here first: "Mr. E may be sleeping in his


  • room." So when we're saying that, what we're saying is: "Mr. E could be sleeping in his


  • room", or: "Mr. E might be sleeping in his room." If you noticed, I did a direct substitution,

    "部屋 "か"E氏は自分の部屋で寝ているかもしれない"お気づきのように 私は直接代用しました

  • and this sentence means exactly the same. Right? Now, when we say this... And that's...


  • When I should say that it's a possibility. Right?


  • When we look down here and we do the next one: "There are many people with stupid ideas,


  • and maybe they shouldn't express them", what we could put in instead here is "perhaps".

    and maybe they shouldn't express them」、ここで代わりに入れられるのは「たぶん」です。

  • Right? "There are many people with stupid ideas, and perhaps they shouldn't express

    だろ?"バカな考えを持っている人はたくさんいるし" "表現すべきではないのかもしれない

  • them." It's the same meaning. Okay?


  • Now, if we try to do this... Right? "There are many people with stupid ideas and could


  • be they shouldn't express them." It makes no sense whatsoever. Okay? Because we're trying


  • to put in a modal verb with another modal verb, and it just doesn't work. You can't


  • do that in English. Okay?


  • Which leads me down here: "may be" is an auxiliary verb and shouldn't be used-noticed how I used

    ということで、ここにたどり着きました。"may be」は助動詞であり、使うべきではありません。

  • the modal over there?-with other modals. And then "maybe" like this is an adverb. It's

    というように、他のモーダルと一緒に「あそこのモーダルは?そしてこのような "maybe "は副詞ですこれは

  • in red because I want you to remember that. Okay?


  • What's the problem here? Well, the problem here is both words look the same. I mean,

    何が問題なんだ?ここでの問題は 両方の言葉が同じに見えることですつまり

  • really, except for this small space, if I... If I did this, just even a small piece, you'd


  • think it's the same word. So what's the problem? And that's the problem that most of us native


  • speakers have, because sometimes you don't look carefully, and it's like: "It's the same.

    スピーカーが持っているものです 時々よく見ないとダメなことがあるからです"それは同じです。

  • Who cares? No one will notice.


  • " Yeah, well, some people who grammar will notice is the problem.


  • And the other problem we have is they sound the same. Remember I started off with: "We're


  • going to work on 'maybe' and 'may be'", and I scratched my head? I did that because, really,

    "もしかしたら "と "もしかしたら "に取り組むつもりです」と言って頭を掻いたのですが?私がそうしたのは、本当に

  • how would you know the difference, unless you look at the paper? Cool? We got one more


  • to do, because you know, I like to give you a bargain for your money. Let's go.

    私はあなたにお得な情報を 提供するのが好きなのですから行くぞ。

  • Okay, so let's get back to our everyday lesson. What? Well, we're going to find out what that


  • means in about two seconds. Remember I said other confused words? "Every day" versus "everyday".

    は約2秒で意味がわかります。他にも混乱した言葉を言ったのを覚えていますか?"毎日 "対 "毎日"

  • This has a similar problem to the last one we did. Okay? And the reason why I say that


  • is this: the only difference, really, between them is here's a space right here. See that

    彼らの間にある唯一の違いは ここにスペースがあることです見てください

  • space? No space, and space. And they're both adjectives, as you can see on the board. So,

    スペース?スペースではなく、スペース。そしてどちらも形容詞です ボードを見ればわかりますがだから...

  • what's the real difference and what is the problem? Okay.


  • First of all, when we say: "Every day", there is a huge difference. We're talking about

    まず、私たちが「毎日」と言うと"毎日 "と言っても大きな違いがあります私たちが話しているのは

  • here is "every" is an adjective. I'm not actually talking about "day", I'm adding that on. And

    ここでは "every "は形容詞です。実際には「日」のことではなく それを付け加えたものですまた、ここでは

  • you can see later on after we do this, it's sort of "every" is an adjective that can be

    これをやった後でわかると思いますが、"every "は形容詞のようなものです。

  • added to anything, right? Every, everyone, every person. So it's an adjective that modifies


  • this "day". Right? "Day" is the noun. Okay? And when we say this, what we're actually

    この "日 "はですよね?"日 "は名詞ですいいですか?これを言うとき、私たちが実際にしていることは

  • saying is something... Rather it's something is interesting, we're saying it's one of a


  • group. Because "days" are general, and we're talking about one of those days. And to simplify

    のグループの話をしています。なぜなら「日」は一般的なものであり そのうちの一つの日の話をしているからですまた、単純化するために

  • it, think of these markers. Okay? Monday, Tuesday, Happy Days, Wednesday, Thur... Bad


  • TV program from the 80's. Don't worry. But look, every one of these markers... And I


  • said "every one", right? Using the adjective "every", one. Each marker is a single thing,

    "every one "って言ったよね?形容詞の "every "を使って、1つ。それぞれの目印は一つのものです。

  • right? And "every" is the group, so we're talking about one marker out of the group.


  • Okay? And that's the one we're talking about here. All right? Cool?


  • Here's where the confusion comes in, because when we want to talk about not one of a group,


  • but normal or common, we can also say: "everyday" and that's a problem because... I'll give

    しかし、普通のことや一般的なことも言えます。"日常的な "と言うのは問題です なぜなら...私があげるのは

  • you an example. These are my everyday clothes. I wear them... Not... It's not every day I


  • wear them. They're just common for me. They're normal. Okay? But when we talk about "every


  • day", we're trying to talk about each and every day. A little confusing? Not really.


  • Think of it again, once again, markers, we're talking about a group, but each individual


  • group. Right? And when we talk about "everyday", the single word without the space, is what


  • is normal or what is common. Cool? Good. Now, we've got...


  • Oh, before I forget: problem. What's the problem here? Well, they sound the same. Okay? I did


  • tell you there's a space, and that's the big thing that makes a difference, and also there's


  • a little different usage in each one. This one we're saying "every", we're talking really

    それぞれで少し違う使い方をしていますこれは "every "と言っていますが、本当に

  • about the adjective modifying the day. In this case, it is an adjective, but it's one


  • word to say normal or common for some other noun. All right? So space is a problem. Sound:


  • they sound the same. Look: except for the space, they look the same. And third problem:


  • they're both adjectives. Right? At least with the other one, we had something, it was a


  • little bit different. Right? So all three taken in toll. We're going to come back to


  • them. Right? We're going to come back to "maybe", we're going to come back to "every day", and

    ≪(渡真利)それにしても...だろう?"もしかしたら "に戻ってきて、"毎日 "に戻ってきて

  • we're going to hit with "studied" and "learn" in a second, and do sort of a little quiz.

    "勉強する "と "学ぶ "と言ったところで、ちょっとしたクイズをしてみましょう。

  • You ready? I know you are.


  • Okay. I've got a little exercise for us, but before we go there, let's take our quick notes.