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  • I was born in Den Bosch,

    翻訳: TSUKAWAKI KAZU 塚脇 和 校正: Akira Kan

  • where the painter Hieronymus Bosch named himself after.


  • And so I've always been very fond of this painter


  • who lived and worked in the 15th century.

    そんなわけで 私は

  • And what is interesting about him in relation to morality

    15世紀の この画家が 大好きです

  • is that he lived at a time where religion's influence was waning,

    彼について興味深いのは モラルという点で

  • and he was sort of wondering, I think,


  • what would happen with society


  • if there was no religion or if there was less religion.


  • And so he painted this famous painting, "The Garden of Earthly Delights,"

    どうなるのか と考えていた点です

  • which some have interpreted

    そして 彼は有名な ”快楽の園” を描きました

  • as being humanity before the Fall,

    この絵は 原罪を犯す前の人々の様子

  • or being humanity without any Fall at all.

    あるいは 原罪を犯さなかった人々の様子

  • And so it makes you wonder,

    などと 解釈されるようです

  • what would happen if we hadn't tasted the fruit of knowledge, so to speak,

    ここで もし仮にわれわれが

  • and what kind of morality would we have?


  • Much later, as a student,

    モラル は どうなっていたのか という疑問が生まれます

  • I went to a very different garden,


  • a zoological garden in Arnhem

    快楽の園とはまったく違う "園" に行きました

  • where we keep chimpanzees.


  • This is me at an early age with a baby chimpanzee.


  • (Laughter)


  • And I discovered there


  • that the chimpanzees are very power hungry and wrote a book about it.


  • And at that time the focus in a lot of animal research

    チンパンジーがとても権力欲が強い事を発見し 本に書きました

  • was on aggression and competition.

    当時の 動物研究の多くは

  • I painted a whole picture of the animal kingdom,


  • and humanity included,

    私は 動物界の全貌を

  • was that deep down we are competitors,

    人間も含めて 描きました

  • we are aggressive,

    人間も 心の奥底では みんながライバルで

  • we're all out for our own profit basically.


  • This is the launch of my book.

    みんな 自分が得する事ばかり考えている

  • I'm not sure how well the chimpanzees read it,

    これは 私の本の刊行時の風景です

  • but they surely seemed interested in the book.


  • Now in the process

    この本に 興味を持った事は分かります

  • of doing all this work on power and dominance


  • and aggression and so on,

    権力や支配 攻撃について

  • I discovered that chimpanzees reconcile after fights.


  • And so what you see here is two males who have had a fight.

    チンパンジーが 争いの後に 和解する事を発見しました

  • They ended up in a tree, and one of them holds out a hand to the other.

    これは 争いの後の2匹のオスの様子です

  • And about a second after I took the picture, they came together in the fork of the tree

    樹上で喧嘩した後に 一方が相手に手を伸ばしています

  • and they kissed and embraced each other.

    写真を撮った直後 彼等は互いに歩み寄って

  • Now this is very interesting


  • because at the time everything was about competition and aggression,


  • and so it wouldn't make any sense.

    当時は 競争や攻撃性が全てと 考えていたわけで

  • The only thing that matters is that you win or that you lose.

    和解については 全く不可解だったのです

  • But why would you reconcile after a fight?

    重要なのは 勝負の結果だけでした

  • That doesn't make any sense.

    ではなぜ 争いの後に相手と和解するのでしょうか?

  • This is the way bonobos do it. Bonobos do everything with sex.


  • And so they also reconcile with sex.

    ボノボの場合はどうでしょう ボノボは全てを 性行動に結びつけます

  • But the principle is exactly the same.

    仲直りの時も 性行為をします

  • The principle is that you have


  • a valuable relationship

    誰もが お互いの大切な関係が

  • that is damaged by conflict,


  • so you need to do something about it.


  • So my whole picture of the animal kingdom,


  • and including humans also,

    そんな訳で 私が思い描いていた

  • started to change at that time.

    人間も含めた 全ての動物界の様相は

  • So we have this image


  • in political science, economics, the humanities,

    この問題について 政治学や

  • philosophy for that matter,

    経済学 人文科学 哲学等において

  • that man is a wolf to man.


  • And so deep down our nature's actually nasty.

    “人は お互い オオカミだ”

  • I think it's a very unfair image for the wolf.

    つまり 人間の本性は恐ろしい という事ですが

  • The wolf is, after all,


  • a very cooperative animal.


  • And that's why many of you have a dog at home,


  • which has all these characteristics also.


  • And it's really unfair to humanity,

    犬は 協調性等の特性を 全て備えています

  • because humanity is actually much more cooperative and empathic


  • than given credit for.

    なぜなら人間は 実際は思っている以上に

  • So I started getting interested in those issues

    協力的だし 共感し合うからです

  • and studying that in other animals.


  • So these are the pillars of morality.


  • If you ask anyone, "What is morality based on?"

    これは モラルの柱 です

  • these are the two factors that always come out.

    “モラルの基礎とは何か?” という質問に答えるならば

  • One is reciprocity,


  • and associated with it is a sense of justice and a sense of fairness.

    一つは 「互恵」

  • And the other one is empathy and compassion.


  • And human morality is more than this,

    そしてもう一つは 「共感と思いやり」 です

  • but if you would remove these two pillars,

    人間のモラルとは もっと幅広いものですが

  • there would be not much remaining I think.


  • And so they're absolutely essential.


  • So let me give you a few examples here.


  • This is a very old video from the Yerkes Primate Center


  • where they train chimpanzees to cooperate.

    これは ヤーキーズ霊長類センターで撮影された

  • So this is already about a hundred years ago

    チンパンジーが協力する様子をとらえた 大昔のビデオです

  • that we were doing experiments on cooperation.

    つまり 既に 100年近く前に

  • What you have here is two young chimpanzees who have a box,


  • and the box is too heavy for one chimp to pull in.

    2匹の若いチンパンジーが 箱を引っ張ろうとしています

  • And of course, there's food on the box.

    しかし箱は重すぎて 1匹では引き寄せられません

  • Otherwise they wouldn't be pulling so hard.


  • And so they're bringing in the box.


  • And you can see that they're synchronized.

    というわけで このように引っ張ります

  • You can see that they work together, they pull at the same moment.


  • It's already a big advance over many other animals

    協力して 同時に引っ張っています

  • who wouldn't be able to do that.

    これだけでも 他の動物よりも

  • And now you're going to get a more interesting picture,


  • because now one of the two chimps has been fed.


  • So one of the two is not really interested

    先に 2匹のうち1匹に餌をあげた場合です

  • in the task anymore.


  • (Laughter)


  • (Laughter)


  • (Laughter)


  • Now look at what happens at the very end of this.


  • (Laughter)

    さあ 最後に何が起きるでしょうか?

  • He takes basically everything.


  • (Laughter)

    満腹なのに また食べちゃいます

  • So there are two interesting parts about this.


  • One is that the chimp on the right

    ここで 2点 興味深い事が挙げられます

  • has a full understanding he needs the partner --

    まず一つ目は 右側のチンパンジーが

  • so a full understanding of the need for cooperation.


  • The second one is that the partner is willing to work

    つまり 協力が必要だと 理解していることです

  • even though he's not interested in the food.

    二つ目は もう一方のチンパンジーは

  • Why would that be? Well that probably has to do with reciprocity.

    餌に興味が無くても 協力していることです

  • There's actually a lot of evidence in primates and other animals

    これは 互恵 と関係があるようです

  • that they return favors.


  • So he will get a return favor


  • at some point in the future.

    手伝った彼には そのうちに

  • And so that's how this all operates.


  • We do the same task with elephants.

    これが 互恵 です

  • Now with elephants, it's very dangerous to work with elephants.


  • Another problem with elephants

    ゾウの実験は とても危険です

  • is that you cannot make an apparatus


  • that is too heavy for a single elephant.


  • Now you can probably make it,

    1頭では引けない位 重い 実験装置を作る事が出来ません

  • but it's going to be a pretty flimsy apparatus I think.


  • And so what we did in that case --


  • we do these studies in Thailand for Josh Plotnik --

    そこで この場合 我々は

  • is we have an apparatus around which there is a rope, a single rope.


  • And if you pull on this side of the rope,


  • the rope disappears on the other side.


  • So two elephants need to pick it up at exactly the same time and pull.

    ロープが外れて反対側は なくなります

  • Otherwise nothing is going to happen

    そこで 2頭のゾウは足並みを揃える必要があります

  • and the rope disappears.

    そうしなければ 何も起こりませんし

  • And the first tape you're going to see


  • is two elephants who are released together


  • arrive at the apparatus.

    同時に放された 2頭のゾウが

  • The apparatus is on the left with food on it.


  • And so they come together, they arrive together,


  • they pick it up together and they pull together.

    彼らは一緒にやって来て 同時にたどり着きます

  • So it's actually fairly simple for them.

    ロープを持ち上げて 同時に引きます

  • There they are.


  • And so that's how they bring it in.


  • But now we're going to make it more difficult.

    このように たぐり寄せます

  • Because the whole purpose of this experiment

    ここから もっと難しくなります

  • is to see how well they understand cooperation.

    この実験の目的は ゾウがどれ位

  • Do they understand that as well as the chimps, for example?


  • And so what we do in the next step

    ゾウは チンパンジー並みに協力できるでしょうか?

  • is we release one elephant before the other,

    という訳で 次のステップでは

  • and that elephant needs to be smart enough


  • to stay there and wait and not pull at the rope --


  • because if he pulls at the rope, it disappears and the whole test is over.


  • Now this elephant does something illegal

    1頭だけ引くとロープが外れて 実験が終わってしまうのです

  • that we did not teach it.

    このゾウは 我々が教えたことのない

  • But it shows the understanding that he has,


  • because he puts his big foot on the rope,

    これでゾウが仕組みを 理解している事がわかります

  • stands on the rope and waits there for the other,


  • and then the other is going to do all the work for him.


  • So it's what we call freeloading.


  • (Laughter)

    この行為を “ただ乗り” と呼んでいます

  • But it shows the intelligence that the elephants have.


  • They develop several of these alternative techniques


  • that we did not approve of necessarily.


  • So the other elephant is now coming


  • and is going to pull it in.

    さて もう一方のゾウがやって来て

  • Now look at the other. The other doesn't forget to eat, of course.


  • (Laughter)

    もちろん 引っ張らなかったゾウも 餌を取り忘れはしませんよ

  • This was the cooperation, reciprocity part.


  • Now something on empathy.

    ここまでが 互恵 の協力行動です

  • Empathy is my main topic at the moment of research.

    次は 共感 について見てみましょう