Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Attachment theory

  • is based on the belief that humans and other animals are biologically wired to

  • connect with others

  • and that the attachment patterns established in early childhood tend to

  • persist throughout life.

  • In this way early bonds with a parent or caregiver sets the tone in pattern for

  • how we pursue relationships with others

  • and, more importantly, how we see the world in our place

  • in it. The theory grew out of the initial workup psychiatrist John Bowlby,

  • who worked with orphaned and homeless children after world war two.

  • He observed the profound and persistent effects

  • the absence of a caring maternal figure on these children

  • and the theory grew from here in later years.

  • Psychologist Mary Ainsworth established the idea of a secure base

  • or the concept that

  • effective parenting gives the child a sense of freedom and safety to explore

  • the world around them,

  • knowing that they have the backup of a secure and safe place.

  • This concept is a primary tenet of the first

  • attachment pattern known as secure attachment. Ideally,

  • with consistent and attentive care from one or more parents,

  • the child develops a sense of safety and is able to respond well

  • to their parent. She can also interact well with a stranger

  • but clearly prefers her caregiver.

  • When caregiving is

  • overly protective and discouraging of risk taking or independence the

  • second type of attachment or

  • anxious attachment style, may take hold. In this instance

  • the child may be very clingy or needy

  • and seeks ongoing reassurances. When parents are disengaged, deeply

  • self-absorbed, or consistently distracted a child may develop

  • what is known as an avoidant attachment style,

  • showing indifference to caregivers and others

  • and a general reticence to connect with anyone.

  • If a parent is very inconsistent in response

  • sometimes attentive, sometimes dismissive,

  • sometimes caring, sometimes indifferent or neglectful,

  • an ambivalent attachment style can take root.

  • The caregiver is not seen as a secure base.

  • The care and attention at the parent may be sought fiercely and then rejected.

  • Distress, ambivalence, anger, and neediness become familiar emotions.

  • If a caregiver has episodes of abusiveness or frightening or dangerous behavior,

  • a disorganized attachment style occurs.

  • The child is fearful, uncertain, and disoriented in the presence

  • the caregiver. A general estimate

  • is that approximately 65 percent of people could be considered securely

  • attached,

  • with the remaining 35 percent in one of the above

  • described insecurely attached categories.

  • It's important to understand that this theory should not be used

  • to be overly critical of parenting styles.

  • Life events such as death in the family, divorce,

  • major illness, financial insecurity, threat of crime,

  • as well as the parents own attachment style can clearly play important

  • roles in the development of

  • a child and their relationship to the world.

  • The theory posits that we take our attachment style with us

  • into adulthood. Do we have a generally positive view of ourselves,

  • see the world as a safe place and feel comfortable with intimacy of friends

  • and partners? Do we feel needy, always seeking reassurance is an approval with

  • less positive use ourselves in the world

  • Do we feel no need for connection and think we are better off alone?

  • Seeing others with contempt and believing we can only rely on ourselves,

  • or do we feel very ambivalent about others in relationships,

  • sometimes seeking them intensely in adamantly,

  • and other times rejecting them completely viewing others with mistrust,

  • or idealizing them and seeing ourselves as unworthy?

  • Of course these categories are not rigid nor absolute,

  • they exist on a continuum and we may certainly experience aspects of all of

  • them at various times

  • in life as circumstances change.

  • But having a general awareness of our attachment tendencies

  • as well as those have others in our lives can be very helpful.

  • In attachment informed psychotherapy

  • the therapist works with the patient to identify and explore these tendencies

  • in a completely non-judgmental way.

  • As humans we are wired to connect and to seek healthy social engagement.

  • This is good news. Very often the therapist's job is simply to help the

  • patient clear the debris that is

  • impeding them from their natural and innate

  • pursuit of health and well-being.

  • Finally, it is important to remember that therapist-patient relationship

  • is ideally a strong and meaningful one,

  • although it is obviously not a typical

  • relationship that the patient has out in the real world,

  • it is still a real relationship and the great advantage here

  • is that it is a safe and expected

  • environment in which complicated and painful questions

  • about how and why we are the way we are can be explored

  • with support, and we can also ask the even more important question

  • how might it be different and how might

  • be better?

Attachment theory

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級

愛着理論は人間関係のパターンを説明する (Attachment Theory Explains Relationship Patterns)

  • 260 23
    Precious Annie Liao に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語