字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Attachment theory is based on the belief that humans and other animals are biologically wired to connect with others and that the attachment patterns established in early childhood tend to persist throughout life. In this way early bonds with a parent or caregiver sets the tone in pattern for how we pursue relationships with others and, more importantly, how we see the world in our place in it. The theory grew out of the initial workup psychiatrist John Bowlby, who worked with orphaned and homeless children after world war two. He observed the profound and persistent effects the absence of a caring maternal figure on these children and the theory grew from here in later years. Psychologist Mary Ainsworth established the idea of a secure base or the concept that effective parenting gives the child a sense of freedom and safety to explore the world around them, knowing that they have the backup of a secure and safe place. This concept is a primary tenet of the first attachment pattern known as secure attachment. Ideally, with consistent and attentive care from one or more parents, the child develops a sense of safety and is able to respond well to their parent. She can also interact well with a stranger but clearly prefers her caregiver. When caregiving is overly protective and discouraging of risk taking or independence the second type of attachment or anxious attachment style, may take hold. In this instance the child may be very clingy or needy and seeks ongoing reassurances. When parents are disengaged, deeply self-absorbed, or consistently distracted a child may develop what is known as an avoidant attachment style, showing indifference to caregivers and others and a general reticence to connect with anyone. If a parent is very inconsistent in response sometimes attentive, sometimes dismissive, sometimes caring, sometimes indifferent or neglectful, an ambivalent attachment style can take root. The caregiver is not seen as a secure base. The care and attention at the parent may be sought fiercely and then rejected. Distress, ambivalence, anger, and neediness become familiar emotions. If a caregiver has episodes of abusiveness or frightening or dangerous behavior, a disorganized attachment style occurs. The child is fearful, uncertain, and disoriented in the presence the caregiver. A general estimate is that approximately 65 percent of people could be considered securely attached, with the remaining 35 percent in one of the above described insecurely attached categories. It's important to understand that this theory should not be used to be overly critical of parenting styles. Life events such as death in the family, divorce, major illness, financial insecurity, threat of crime, as well as the parents own attachment style can clearly play important roles in the development of a child and their relationship to the world. The theory posits that we take our attachment style with us into adulthood. Do we have a generally positive view of ourselves, see the world as a safe place and feel comfortable with intimacy of friends and partners? Do we feel needy, always seeking reassurance is an approval with less positive use ourselves in the world Do we feel no need for connection and think we are better off alone? Seeing others with contempt and believing we can only rely on ourselves, or do we feel very ambivalent about others in relationships, sometimes seeking them intensely in adamantly, and other times rejecting them completely viewing others with mistrust, or idealizing them and seeing ourselves as unworthy? Of course these categories are not rigid nor absolute, they exist on a continuum and we may certainly experience aspects of all of them at various times in life as circumstances change. But having a general awareness of our attachment tendencies as well as those have others in our lives can be very helpful. In attachment informed psychotherapy the therapist works with the patient to identify and explore these tendencies in a completely non-judgmental way. As humans we are wired to connect and to seek healthy social engagement. This is good news. Very often the therapist's job is simply to help the patient clear the debris that is impeding them from their natural and innate pursuit of health and well-being. Finally, it is important to remember that therapist-patient relationship is ideally a strong and meaningful one, although it is obviously not a typical relationship that the patient has out in the real world, it is still a real relationship and the great advantage here is that it is a safe and expected environment in which complicated and painful questions about how and why we are the way we are can be explored with support, and we can also ask the even more important question how might it be different and how might be better?