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  • I'm Dr Annie Gray, I'm a food historian but I also worked here at Audley End for many

    わたしはアニー・グレイ 料理の歴史家です オードリィ・エンド邸で 何年も 様々なエイヴィス・クロークンたちと働いています

  • years alongside the various Avis Crocombes. I wore clothing just like that of Mrs Crocombe

    ヴィクトリア朝時代の撮影の

  • in the Victorian Way videos but that clothing was in itself modelled on the very clothing

    エイヴィス・クロークンのように 衣装を着たこともありました

  • that people at the time would have worn and that's what we're going to look at today.

    当時の人々が着ていた衣装をモデルにしました

  • Let's start with the basics: underwear. The first thing that Mrs Crocombe would have put

    基本から始めましょう:下着です クロークン夫人は 朝、

  • on in the morning were her drawers and then her stockings which were held up with garters.

    お部屋で ガーター留めのストッキングをはき

  • Elastic of course hadn't yet been invented. Then Mrs Crocombe would have put her boots

    ゴムはまだ発明されてません クロークン夫人は 堅いブーツに足を通し

  • on because it's very very hard to put your boots on after you've put your corset on,

    コルセットをつけた後に ブーツをはくことは とっても大変でした

  • trust me! So here were have boots, and then this which is called a chemise. It essentially

    任せて! ブーツがあります いわゆる下着と

  • is a sort of night shirt affair, made out of linen which was very very absorbent so

    基本は夜用の下着です 吸水性のある麻で作られ

  • that all the sweats and all of the various bodily fluids that were inevitably being pumped

    汗や 体からでる脂を吸い取ります 台所の熱気もよく通し 風通りがよく

  • out in the heat of the kitchen would be absorbed by the linen. It was washable, it would take

    洗濯可能で 荒い扱いに堪えうる素材です

  • a lot of hard punishment as well. Then on top of the chemise, as you can see, Mrs Crocombe's

    下着のうえに着て ご覧のように クロークン夫人のコルセットは ヴィクトリア時代の女性たちの鉄板でした

  • corset, the fundamental foundation garment of the Victorian woman. The corset's construction

    コルセットの作りは 簡素なものです

  • for Mrs Crocombe is fairly simple. If Mrs Crocombe had been Lady Crocombe, or Lady Braybrooke

    クロークン夫人が 高貴なクロークン もしくはブレイブルーク奥様であったら

  • for example, her corset would have changed much much more throughout the decades of the

    ヴィクトリア朝時代 何年にわたり 改良され 流行したでしょう

  • Victorian era, following fashion. Those people like Mrs Crocombe who were below stairs though

    クロークン夫人のように 階下の使用人たちは

  • tended not to shift their figure in line with prevailing fashion quite so much. Down here

    ファッションの流行に左右されませんでした

  • at the front you have a thing called a busk which tends to be of metal and is very very

    バスクと呼ばれる前身ごろは 金属の留め金があり とても頑丈です

  • tough. This gives you this nice smooth figure at the front, and then you've got whale bone

    これは前身ごろの動きを なめらかにし ぐるっと一周し 鯨の骨で作られてます

  • all the way around the sides. You can buy plastic substitutes for whale bone, and that's

    鯨の骨の代用品である プラスティック製を買えます

  • what this one is constructed with. If we turn it round briefly you can see the way it works.

    これはプラスティック製です ひっくり返すとわかります

  • There is a set of laces up the back, these stay laced all the time. And then at the front

    後ろは紐で組み上げ 固定されます

  • you've got these ties, these fasteners. The big advantage of an arrangement like this

    前身ごろは紐でしめます 紐留めは 着用の利点です

  • is that a woman like Mrs Crocombe could have done up her own corset. Naturally Mrs Crocombe

    クロークン夫人のような女性は 自分でコルセットをつけるのです

  • didn't have anyone to help her dress but she could have got into this very quickly and

    当然、誰も着付けを手伝ってくれません 素早く着用でき 簡単に支度ができます

  • easily by herself. Next up we need to add some bulk. The Victorian figure in the 1880s

    次に バルクをつけます 1880年代のヴィクトリア時代の服装は

  • was one which had quite a wide hemline, again with working class women the basic figure

    裾広がりのあるスカート 働く女性たちの普段着で

  • didn't change that much throughout a lot of the Victorian period. Crinolines for example

    ヴィクトリア時代は変わることがありませんでした

  • which came in for the upper classes in the 1850s which were big wire cages, were often

    1850年代は上流階級のための クリノリンは大きなワイヤで作られ

  • forbidden for use in the kitchens. Mistresses of grand houses didn't want their cooks looking

    台所で着ることは禁じられてました 大邸宅の未亡人は料理人たちに着てほしくはなかったのです

  • like they did. Some women wore many petticoats perhaps starched or with lots of pleats. This

    ある女性たちは何層もペチコートをつけ おそらく糊付けし プリーツを作りました

  • is a very practical alternative. Our Mrs Crocombe does have to operate in the modern world and

    これは実用性のある代用品です クロークン夫人は現代にも通じ

  • get changed very quickly and do it all by herself often under stressful circumstances,

    ストレスのある状況下で すべて自分で 素早く着付けができる服を着ていたのです

  • so this is the kind of permissible cheat which women at the time possibly would have used

    その当時の女性たちには 許容範囲であり 実用性があり 着用しやすく

  • and certainly is very very useful when you're interpreting history and food for the public.

    公式に歴史と料理を伝えるときに 着用します

  • You'll note that nearly everything ties up. It's a very practical solution. Buttons burst,

    すべてがきっちりとしています 実用的なのです ボタンのはち切れ

  • hooks come undone, but a tie like that is very very secure, will stay done up and is

    ホックの外れ 結び目がしっかりしてるため たやすくもどすことができます

  • very easy to do up as well. And more importantly perhaps, at the end of a 14 hour work day

    より重要なことは 一日14時間労働の終わりに

  • it's very easy to just let it all drop to the floor, spring open your corset and breathe

    すべて脱ぎ捨て コルセットから自由になり

  • a sigh of relief as you crawl into bed. Once this very simple petticoat is on it's time

    ひと息つき 這うようにベットにもぐりこむ

  • to put the outer layer on: the gown. In houses like this there were not in the 1880s necessarily

    とてもシンプルなペチコートは 簡単に上着を重ねられます

  • uniforms for staff apart from those that appeared in front of guests: housemaids, butlers and

    1880年代の大邸宅は 賓客の面前のための 制服はありませんでした: 家政婦たち 執事たち 馬丁たち

  • livery for the footmen. Below stairs in areas like this though where servants were not seen

    階下の使用人たちは 人目にふれることなく

  • it was much more common to have something like a print that perhaps the lady of the

    女性でしたら プリント柄がその家の 使用人であることがわかり

  • house would give to her servants at Christmas as their Christmas gift to make into their

    クリスマスには 上着のしたに クリスマスプレゼントを入れました

  • gowns. We know that sometimes zones were colour-coded as well. The reason for this was not just

    ときどき 色別で認識できます きれいに見えるだけでなく

  • because it looked pretty, but also so that the senior servants, the butler, the housekeeper

    年配の使用人たち 執事たち 家政婦 クロークン夫人のような料理人が

  • or Mrs Crocombe the cook, could look out of their window and immediately identify any

    窓から 使用人の誰がどこで何をし、

  • member of staff who was where they shouldn't be. This gown does up with a mixture of the

    していなのかを判別するためです

  • Victorian favourite, the hook and eye, and buttons. Because Mrs Crocombe was the cook,

    この上着は ヴィクトリア時代の好み 留め金と ボタンを反映しています

  • and therefore of rather higher status than her maids, it also has a level of detail that

    クロークン夫人は料理人であり ほかのメイドたちと 格が違います

  • you might not find if you were to look at the maids' gowns. For example, she has this

    メイドのガウンを見ると 細かい作りが違うことがわかります

  • rather sweet lace collar which could be removed and washed separately. Very very important

    レースで取り外し可能な 首まわりの襟があります 本体から分けて 襟のみ洗濯できます

  • to always think about the practicality of washing. One of the biggest bugbears in women's

    洗濯を考えると とても重要なことです 大きな悩みの種は ポケットがないのです

  • fashion today is that things don't have pockets. Well, Mrs Crocombe being a woman of some means

    そう、クロークン夫人のドレスには ポケットがありました

  • has put a pocket in her dress. She might use it for example to keep her spectacles in.

    眼鏡を入れていたかもしれません

  • Finally of course Mrs Crocombe always wears a cap, as indeed did many other women. Certainly

    最後にクロークン夫人は キャップをかぶります 他のメイドたちもです

  • lower status women would always tie their hair up. Her hair which would have been relatively

    下層の女性たちは髪を結んでいました

  • long would have been centre-parted, taken back behind her ears and then tied in a bun

    真ん中分けの 長い髪を耳の後ろに流し 頭の後ろでお団子にしました

  • at the back of her head. That bun was very important as it meant that the cap would stay

    おだんごは とても大切で帽子の中に収まり ヘアピンできっちと留められました

  • on with judicious use of a hairpin. Once more, the number of pleats on the cap reflects Mrs

    帽子のプリーツは クロークン夫人の 地位を表します

  • Crocombe's status as the cook. If you were to look at one of the lower maids, they probably

    部下のメイドたちのキャップは たくさんのプリーツはありません

  • wouldn't have quite as many pleats, certainly not as carefully sewn and not as well starched.

    縫い目もギャザーもみられません

  • The final thing Mrs Crocombe needs is something all cooks keep in their belts at all times

    最終的に クロークン夫人は 台所でいつも 調理に必要な小道具をもつ必要があります:

  • in the kitchen: a handy cloth, again made of absorbent linen and again very washable.

    何度も洗濯可能な 麻の布巾

  • It's absolutely vital in a 19th century kitchen like this because these cloths not only act

    19世紀の調理場では 必要不可欠であり 上流階級のハンカチだけではないのです

  • as general wiper-uppers and hand towels, but also as oven gloves. It's doubly vital when

    かまど用の手袋として使われました

  • working as our Mrs Crocombe does in an environment which is conserved like this. Spills of red

    クロークン夫人がしたように

  • wine on the floor or things that are inappropriate on surfaces need to be wiped up as quickly

    赤いワインがこぼれたときは さっと拭ける吸水性は重要です

  • as possible, so from a practical point of view a cloth like this is vital because it

    実用性のある布は不可欠です

  • means that smears of choc-ices on furniture and cherries up the wall can be removed as

    家具についた 氷菓の色  壁についた さくらんぼの色をできるだけ取ることは

  • soon as possible so that we can continue to preserve this Victorian kitchen for future

    ビクトリア時代の台所を 次世代のために保存します

  • generations. Excellent. Mrs Crocombe is dressed and ready to go!

    素晴らしいです クロークン夫人は着付けをし 準備できてます!

I'm Dr Annie Gray, I'm a food historian but I also worked here at Audley End for many

わたしはアニー・グレイ 料理の歴史家です オードリィ・エンド邸で 何年も 様々なエイヴィス・クロークンたちと働いています

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B1 中級 日本語 クロークン 夫人 ヴィクトリア メイド 下着 女性

本物のミセス・クロッコム|第四弾。ヴィクトリア朝の料理人の服装 (The Real Mrs Crocombe | Part Four: A Victorian Cook's Outfit)

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    Summer に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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