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  • Vygotsky's theory of social development argues that community and language play

  • a central part in learning. While Jean Piaget concluded that children's

  • cognitive development happens in stages, Vygotsky rejected his ideas and believed

  • that children develop independently of specific stages as the result of social

  • interactions. Vygotsky claimed that we are born with

  • four elementary mental functions: attention, sensation, perception and

  • memory. It is our social and cultural environment that allows us to use these

  • elementary skills to develop and finally gain higher mental functions. This

  • development ideally happens in the zone of proximal

  • development. First, there is what we can do on our own. Then there is the zone of

  • proximal development, which represents what we can do with the help of an adult,

  • a friend, technology, or what Vygotsky called the "more knowledgeable other".

  • Last, there is what's beyond our reach. To illustrate this let us think of twins

  • who were raised in a community in which boys are expected to learn and succeed

  • while girls are only expected to be pretty. At the age of 10 months both have

  • the ability to crawl and are in the zone of proximal development for learning how

  • to stand on their feet. The more knowledgeable other, in this case the

  • father, provides the boy with opportunities to practice in a playroom

  • that he is equipped with scaffolding and other objects. The boy is encouraged to

  • explore the equipment and eventually he uses it to pull himself up. A few hours

  • later he's cruising along the structures and a few days later he's standing on

  • his feet. The girl also has the potential to stand but does not receive any

  • support in learning the skill. When we compare the two we see that

  • while the girl is still trying to get up, the boy has moved into a new zone. He

  • knows how to balance while standing and now has the potential to learn how to

  • walk. Both will eventually learn how to walk

  • but according to Vygotsky the boy will be more skilled. The same principles

  • apply to all learning and the development of higher cognitive

  • functions and only those learning with the assistance of a capable mentor can

  • reach the full potential of their ability. Vygotsky, therefore, believed that

  • inside the Zone Of Proximal Development learning can precede development, which

  • means, that a child is able to learn skills that go beyond their natural

  • maturity. He also established an explicit connection between speech and mental

  • concepts, arguing that inner speech develops from external speech via a

  • gradual process of internalization. This means that thought itself develops as a

  • result of conversation. Therefore younger children who don't

  • finish this process can only think out loud. Once the process is complete inner

  • speech and spoken language become independent.

  • Lev Vygotsky died of tuberculosis in 1934 at the age of 37. Despite his young

  • age he became one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th

  • century. He left the following advice for educators: by giving students practice in

  • talking with others we give them frames for thinking on their own. What do you

  • think? Can a child learn anything regardless of any developmental

  • prerequisites? And do we learn only through social and cultural contexts? And

  • if so, do you think it is appropriate for a more knowledgeable other to determine

  • what a child should learn next? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

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Vygotsky's theory of social development argues that community and language play

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ヴィゴツキーの認知発達論。関係性が学習を増やす方法 (Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development: How Relationships Increase Learning)

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    Summer に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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